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I  N     T  \V  ()     P  A  R  T  S 

PART  2 



•r  -*F,-^« 




.  «v 




A.  B.  L.  Dr  Albert  Buell  Lewis  of  the  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

A.  C.  F.  Miss  Alice  C.  Fletcher  of  Washington. 

A.  F.  C.  Dr  Alexander  F.  Chamberlain  of  Clark  University. 

A.  H.  Dr  Ales  Hrdlicka  of  the  United  States  National  Museum. 

A.  L.  K.  Dr  A.  L.  Kroeber  of  the  University  of  California. 

A.  S.  G.  The  late  Dr  Albert  S.  Gatschet  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

A.  S.  Q.  Mrs  Amelia  Stone  Quinton  of  New  York. 

C.  B.  M.  Mr  Clarence  B.  Moore  of  Philadelphia. 

C.  C.  W.  Mr  C.  C.  Willoughby  of  the  Peabody  Museum,  Harvard  University. 

C.  F.  L.  Dr  Charles  F.  Lummis  of  Los  Angeles,  California. 

C.  T.  The  late  Dr  Cyrus  Thomas  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

C.  W.  Dr  Clark  Wissler  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

D.  I.  B.  Mr  D.  I.  Bushnell,  jr.,  of  University,  Virginia. 

D.  R.  Mr  Doane  Robinson  of  the  South  Dakota  Historical  Society. 

E.  L.  H.        Dr  Edgar  L.  Hewett  of  the  School  of  American  Archaeology. 

E.  S.  Dr  Edward  Sapir  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  Canada. 

F.  B.  Dr  Franz  Boas  of  Columbia  University. 

F.  G.  S.  Dr  Frank  G.  Speck  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania. 

F.  H.  Mr  Frank  Huntington,  formerly  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

F.  H.  C.  The  late  Frank  Hamilton  Gushing  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology 

F.  L.  Mr  Francis  LaFlesche  of  the  Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs. 

F.  S.  N.  Mrs  Frances  S.  Nichols  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

F.  AV.  H.  Mr  F.  W.  Hodge  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

•G.  A.  D.        Dr  George  A.  Dorsey  of  the  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

G.  F.  Mr  Gerard  Fowke  of  Saint  Louis. 

G.  P.  D.         The  Rev.  Dr  George  P.  Donehoo  of  Connellsville,  Pa. 
G.  T.  E.         Lieut.  G.  T.  Ernmons,  United  States  Navy,  retired. 
G.  W.  G.       Judge  George  W.  Grayson  of  Eufaula,  Okla. 
.  E.  B.         Dr  Herbert  E.  Bolton  of  Leland  Stanford  Junior  University. 
.  W.  H.      Mr  Henry  W.  Henshaw,  formerly  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 
A.  G.         The  Rev.  J.  A.  Gilfillan  of  Washington. 
D.  M.         Mr  Joseph  D.  McGuire  of  Washington. 
M.  Mr  James  Mooney  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

N.  B.  H.   Mr  J.  N.  B.  Hewitt  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 
O.  D.          The  late  Rev.  J.  Owen  Dorsey  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 
P.  D.          Mr  Jacob  P.  Dunn  of  Indianapolis. 

R.  S.  Dr  John  R.  Swanton  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

W.  F.        Dr  J.  Walter  Fewkes  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 
F.  Dr  Livingston  Farrand  of  Columbia  University. 

Dr  Merrill  E.  Gates  of  the  United  States  Board  of  Indian  Commissioners. 

Miss  M.  S.  Cook  of  the  Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs. 

The  late  Prof.  Otis  T.  Mason  of  the  United  States  National  Museum. 

Dr  Pliny  E.  Goddard  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Dr  Paul  Radin  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

Dr  Roland  B.  Dixon  of  Harvard  University. 

Dr  S,  A.  Barrett  of  the  Milwaukee  Public  Museum. 


IV  (  ONTRIW'TORS    TO     PART    2 

\V.  I  .  Mr  \Vil l.crt'nnv  Kami's  of  the  New  York  Public  Library. 

\V.   II.  I>r  Walter  HoiiLrli  of  the  Tnited  States  National  Museum. 

W.  II  l>.        I>r  William  II.  Dall  of  the  Cnited  States  Geological  Survey. 

\\  .  II.  II.       .Mr  William  II.  Holmes  of  tin-  United  Stales  National  Museum. 

\\    .1.  Th.-  late  I>r  U'illiam  Jones  of  the  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History 

\\     M.  The  late  Dr  Washington  .Matthews,  United  States  Army. 

W.  M.  I!.       The  Kev.  William  M.  Be:mcham|»  of  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

W.  K.  (..        Mr  W.  K.  (ierard  of  New  York. 

OF    THE 




NA.     For  all  names  beginning  with  this 
abbreviation  and   followed  by  Sa., 
Sra.,  or  Sefiora,  see  Nuestra  Senora. 

Naagarnep.     See  Nagonub. 

Naagetl.  A  Yurok  village  on  lower 
Klauiath  r.,  just  below  Ayootl  and  above 
the  mouth  of  Blue  cr.,  N.  w.  Cal. 
Naagetl.— A.  L.  Kroeber,  inf'n,  1905.  Nai-a-gutl.— 
Gibbs  (1851)  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,. in,  138, 

Naahmao  (Na-ah-ma'-o,  'turkey').  A 
clan  of  the  Mahican. — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc., 
174,  1877. 

Naai  ('monocline').  A  Navaho  clan. 
BTaa'i.— Matthews  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in, 
104,  1890.  Naa'i^ine.— Ibid,  (fine  =  'people'). 
Naa'idine'.— Matthews,  Navaho  Legends,  30, 1897. 

Naaik  (X'a'isk,  or  X'PtEk,  'the  bear- 
berry').  A  village  of  the  Nicola  band  of 
Ntlakyapamuk  near  Nicola  r.,  39  m. 
above  Spences  Bridge,  Brit.  Col. ;  pop. 
141  in  1901,  the  last  time  the  name 

Na-ai-ik.—  Dawson  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec. 
n,  44, 1891.  N'a'iEk.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat. 
Hist.,  II,  174, 1900.  N'e'iEk.—  Ibid.  Ni-ack.— Can. 
Ind.  Aff.  1884,  189,  1885. 

Naaish.  (Na-aic/).  A  Yaquina  village 
on  the  s.  side  of  the  mouth  of  Yaquina  r., 
Oreg. — Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
in,  229,  1890. 

Naalgus-hadai  (NcPa'lgAs  xa'da-i, '  dark- 
house  people').  A  subdivision  of  the 
Yadus,  a  family  of  the  Eagle  clan  of  the 
Haida.—S  wanton,  Cont.  Haida,  276, 1905. 

Naalye  (Na-al-ye).  A  division  of  the 
Skoton,  living,  according  to  the  treaty  of 
Nov.  18,  1854,  on  Rogue  r.,  Oreg.— Com- 
pend.  Ind.  Treaties,  23,  1873. 

Naansi.  An extincttribe,  probably Cad- 
doan,  said  by  Douay  to  be  numerous  in 
1687.  They  were  allied  with  the  Haqui 
and  Nabiri  in  a  war  against  the  Kadoha- 
dacho  and  the  Hainai  at  the  time  La 
Salle's  party  were  traveling  toward  the 
Mississippi  after  their  leader's  death. 
Naansi.— Douay  in  Shea,  Discov.  Miss.  Val.,  217, 
1852.  Nansi.—  Hennepin,  New  Discov.,  n,  41, 

Naapope.     See  Nahpope. 

Naas-Glee.  Given  as  a  Chimmesyan 
village  at  the  headwaters  of  Skeena  r.,  w. 
Brit.  Col. — Downie  in  Jour.  Roy.  Geog. 
Soc.,  xxxi,  253,  1861. 

3456— Bull.  30,  pt  2—07 1 

Naasumetunne  ('people  dwelling  on  or 
near  the  Naasu' ).  A  clan  or  band',  prob 
ably  Yakonan,  on  a  small  stream  called 
Naasu  by  the  Naltunnetunne,  s.  of  Sal 
mon  r.  and  x.  of  the  mouth  of  Siletz  r., 

Naaskaak. — Scouler  (1846)  in  Jour.  Ethnol.  Soc. 
Lond.,  i,  233, 1848  (probably  identical).  Na'-a-su 
me'  :umne. — Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  m,  231, 
1890  (Naltunnetunne  name).  Naausi. — McKen- 
ney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  81,  1854. 

Nabatutuei.       (Nabat'hu'-tu'ei,     'white 
village').     A  traditional   puel)lo  oJ 
Tigua  of  Isleta,  N.  Mex. 

Nabat'hii'-tu'ei. — Gatschet,  Mythic  Talc  of  Isleta, 
210, 1891.  Nah-bah-too-too-ee.  —  Lummis,  Man  who 
Married  the  Moon.  12,  1S(J4.  White  Pueblo.— Gat 
schet,  op.  cit.,  214. 

Nabedache  (Na'-bai-da'-che,  said  to  be  a 
fruit  resembling  the  blackberry.  Gat 
schet  says  the  archaic  name  of  the  tribe 
was Nawadishe,  from  witish,  'salt';  Joutel 
(Margry,  Dec.,  m,  390,1878)  corrobo 
rates  this  by  saying  that  Naoudiche  means 
'salt*  and"  that  the  village  bearing  this 
name  was  so  called  because  of  the  salt 
supply  near  by).  One  of  the  12  or  more 
tribes  of  the  Hasinai,  or  southern  Cad- 
do,  confederacy.  They  spoke  the  com 
mon  language  of  the  group.  Their  main 
village  stood  for  a  century  or  more  :i 
or  4  leagues  w.  of  Neches  r.  and  near 
Arroyo  San  Pedro,  at  a  site  close  to 
the  old  San  Antonio  road,  which  became 
known  as  San  Pedro.  This  name  clung 
to  the  place  throughout  the  18th  century, 
and  seems  still  to  cling  to  it,  since  San 
Pedro  cr.  and  the  village  of  San  Pedro,  in 
Houston  co.,  Tex.,  are  in  the  same  gcn_- 
eral  vicinity  as  old  San  Pedro.  In  168, 
a  well-beaten  path  led  post  this  village  t< 
the  Hasinai  hunting  grounds  beyond  UH 
Braxos  (Joutel  in  Margry,  Dec.,  in, 
326,  332, 1878).  It  perhaps  becaim 
of  the  later  San  Antonio  road. 

The  Nouadiche  mentioned  by 
ville  in  1700  (Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  441, Ih 
and  the  Amediche  mentioned  by  La  Hai  pe 
fn  1719  (ibid.,  vr,  262,  1886)  are  c  early 
he   Nabedache  of  San  Pedro.     Joutel 
(ibid.,   in,   388,   1878)  tells  us  that  the 
Naodiche    village,     which     he     ]>JN    ; 
through  some  15   leagues    N.    • 



[B.  A.  B. 

Pedro  was  allied  to  tin-  latter,  and  it 
-i-ems  probable  that  it  l>elonged  to  the 
-ame  tribe.  Tin-  Naouydiehe  mentioned 
i!\  Uillarpeiu  1719,  however^are  not  so 
easily  identified  with  the  Nabedache, 
-'nee  he  associate  them  with  the  Ton 
ka  \v  a,  calls  them  a  wandering  tribe  which 
tiutil  !-•»  Salle's  coming  had  been  at  war 
with  the-  Kadohadaeho,  and  on  the  same 
puire  mentions  the  Amediche  apparently 
as  a  di-tinct  tribe  t  Margry,  IVr.,  vi,  202, 
'77.  issiii.  Yet  the  facts  that  the  "great 
thief"  "i  the  Naotiydiches,  of  whom 
\M  Harpe  writes,  spoke  the  language  of 
the  Na>sonites,  i.  e.,  Caddoan,  and  that 
'lie  Notiadirhe  of  r.ienville's  account 
were  the  Nahedache.  make  it  probable 
that  those  of  La  Harpe's  account  were  the 
same  people.  Concerning  the  Nabe- 
dache  of  San  IVdro,  al\\ays  in  historic 
times  the  chief  ihe  trii»e.  the 

infor  ivel  v  tul  I  and  satisfac- 

.  are  the  lir.-t  Texas  tribe  of 
,  there  i-  a  definite  account,  and  be- 
can-e  nf  their  location  mi  the  western 
frontier  of  the  Hasinai  group  and  on  the 
hL'hway  from  Mexico  to  Louisiana  they 
are  frequently  mentioned  during  the  ISth 
ivntury.  La  Salle  passed  through  this 

illairein  lO.sOi.n  his  way  to  the  southern 
and  by  "the  great  Coenis  village" 
•  '  'imt  of  this  expedition  is 
meant  specifically  the  Nabedache  village 
w.  of  Neches  r.  and  the  Neehe  village  just 
on  the  other-side  (  1  >ouav  iii  French,  Hist. 
C..11.  La.,  iv.  204-20.V  lsf>2).  .Joutel's 
desrription  of  the  (Vnis  i  1  la-mai)  ,  as  dis 
tinguished  fr«nn  the  .-out  hern  Na-oni  an<l 
the  Kadohadacho,  is  based  on  his  sojourn 
:it  the  Nabcdache  and  Neche  villages 

Margry,  Dec.,  in,  :i:!«»-;ir><i,  1S7S|;  like- 
\\i-e.Iesus  Maria's  invaluable  account  of 
the  Hasinai  was  written  at  his  mission 
near  the  Nabedache  village  (Francisco  de 
•Jesus  Maria.  MS.  Uelacion,  Aug.  lf>.  1001  ). 
The  political,  social,  and  economic  or- 
U'ani/.ation,  as  well  asth.-  g.-neral  exterior 
relation^  ,,f  this  tribe,  were  much  the 
KIIIII-  a-  tin-,-  ,,f  the  c..nfedrrate  tribes, 
l'-crihed  under  \,;-l,,-  (,,.  v.). 

-7.  informs  us  that  from  the 
western  ed-r  ,,,  ,|M.  \;l|,,.,la(-lM.  \illaire  to 
the  chiefs  hoiisr  it  was  a  "large  league" 
(Marjrry.Di'r.,  iu,:;n,  ls7si.    The  houses 
the   way   w,-re  grouped    into    "ham- 
"t  fniin  7  to  |f>.  :m,|  surrounded  by 
Similar  "hamlets"  were  scattered 
the  way  to  the  \erhes.      In  the  mid- 
1""'  the  settlement  was  a   large  assem- 
'   house,    or   town    house   (ibid.     :t4:5) 
l-atherhamianMassanet  (Tex.  \l\<{    \mi\[ 

"fs   ll("'^-  HH  he  saw  it   in 
'  \Neran,e  to,  he  governor's  bonne, 
^  here  we  f,llln,|  a  number  of  Indians- 
women,    and   children.    .    .      The 

house  is  built  of  stakes  thatched  over  with 
grass;  it  is  about  20  varas  high,  is  round, 
and  has  no  windows,  daylight  entering 
through  the  door  only;  this  door  is  like 
a  room  door  such  as 'we  have  here  [in 
Mexico].  In  the  middle  of  the  house  is 
the  tire,  which  is  never  extinguished  by 
day  or  by  night,  and  over  the  door  on  the 
inner  side  there  is  a  little  mound  of  peb 
bles  very  prettily  arranged.  Ranged 
around  one-half  of  the  house,  inside,  are 
10  beds,  which  consist  of  a  rug  made  of 
reeds,  laid  on  4  forked  sticks.  Over  the 
rug  they  spread  buffalo  skins,  on  which 
they  sleep.  At  the  head  and  foot  of  the 
bed  is  attached  another  carpet,  forming 
a  sort  of  arch,  which,  lined  with  a  very 
brilliantly  colored  piece  of  reed  matting, 
makes  what  bears  some  resemblance  to 
a  very  pretty  alcove.  In  the  other  half 
of  the  house,  where  there  are  no  beds, 
there  are  some  shelves  about  2  varas 
high,  and  on  them  are  ranged  large  round 
baskets  made  of  reeds  (in  which  they 
keep  their  corn,  nuts,  acorns,  beans,  etc.), 
a  row  of  very  large  earthen  pots  like  our 
earthen  jars,  .  .  .  and  (>  wooden  mortars 
for  pounding  corn  in  rainy  weather  (for 
when  it  is  fair  they  grind  it  in  the  court 
yard  )."  Besides  what  is  learned  of  Ilas- 
inai  foods  in  general  we  are  told  by  Soli's, 
who  visited  San  Pedro  in  1708,  that  the 
Nabedache  used  a  root  called  //"////,  which 
was  somewhat  like  the  Cuban  cassava. 
They  ground  it  in  mortars  and  ate  it  with 
bear's  fat,  of  which  they  were  partic 
ularly  fond.  Soli's  also  tells  us  that  res 
ident  there'  at  this  time  was  an  Indian 
woman  of  great  authority,  named  Smiate 
Adlra,  moaning  'great  woman',  or  'chief 
woman';  that  she  lived  in  a  house  of 
many  rooms;  that  the  other  tribes  brought 
her  presents,  and  that  she  had  5  hus 
bands  and  many  servants  (Diario,  Mem. 
de  Nueva  Espaiia,  x.xvii,  280,  281,  MS.). 
Though  the  Nabedache  were  a  peace 
able  people,  they  had  many  enemies,  and 
in  war  they  were  high-spirited  and  cruel. 
In  1087  they  and  the  Xeche,  aided  by 
some  of  JouteFs  party,  made  a  success 
ful  campaign  against  the  "Canohatinno." 
<>n  the  return  one  female  captive  was 
scalped  alive  and  sent  back  to  her  people 
with ji  challenge  (Joutel  in  Margry,  Dec., 
in,  :i<7,  1878), 'while  another  was  tortured 
to  death  by  the  women  (ibid.,  378).  La 
Harpt  reported  that  in  1714  the  Nabe- 

iche  (Amediches)  and  other  Hasinai 
tribes  were  at  war  with  the  lower  Xatehi- 
toch  (ibid.,  vi,  1!);;,  1880).  ln  1715  a 

ii'ty  ot   Hasinai,   including  Nabedache, 

joined    St.    Denis   in   an   expedition    to 

'xieo.     On  the  way  a  fierce  battle  was 

ought  near  San  Marcos  r.  (apparently  the 

olorado)  with  200  coast  Indians,  "always 
their  chief  enemies  "  (Sun  Denis,  Declara- 

BULL.  30] 


cion,  1715,  Mem.  de  Nueva  Espafia,  xxvn, 
124,  MS.).  Wars  with  the  Apache  were 
frequent.  In  1719  Du  Rivage  met  on  lied 
r.  a  party  of  Naouydiches  and  other  tribes 
who  had  just  won  a  victory  over  thin 
enemy  (Margry,  Dec.,  vi,  *277,  1886). 
Shortly  after  this,  La  Harpe  was  joined 
near  the  Arkansas  by  the  Naouydiche 
"great  chief"  and  40  warriors  (ibid., 
286).  We  are  told  that  the  Nabedache, 
with  other  Hasinai,  aided  the  French  in 
1730  in  their  war  with  the  Natchez  (Me 
zieres  in  Mem.  de  Nueva  Espana,  xxvin, 
229).  Early  in  the  18th  century  the  Na 
bedache  seem  generally  to  have  been  hos 
tile  to  the  Tonka  wan  tribes;  but  later, 
hatred  for  the  Apache  made  them  fre 
quently  allies,  and  we  now  hear  of  the 
Tonkawans  selling  Apache  captives  to  the 
Nabedache.  The  possession  at  San  Pedro 
in  1735  of  some  captive  Apache  women 
secured  in  this  way  threatened  to  cause 
war  between  the  Spaniards  and  the 
Apache.  The  Spaniards,  to  avoid  trouble, 
ransomed  the  women  and  sent  them  home 
(Gov.  Barrios  y  Juaregui  to  the  Viceroy, 
Apr.  17,  1753,  MS.  Archivo  General,  His- 
toria,  299).  In  1791,  after  fierce  warfare 
between  the  Lipan  and  the  combined 
northern  Indians — the  Wichita,  Hasinai, 
and  Tonkawa — the  Apache  endeavored  to 
secure  the  aid  of  the  Hasinai  against  the 
Tonkawa,  but  Gil  Ybarbo,  Spanish  com 
mander  at  Nacogdoches,  prevented  it 
(Ybarbo  to  the  Governor,  Apr.  26,  1791, 
Bexar  Archives,  Nacogdoches,  1758-93, 
MS.).  Common  hostility  toward  the 
Apache  frequently  made  the  Nabedache 
and  the  Coinanche  friends,  but  this  friend 
ship  was  unstable.  The-  military  rela 
tions  of  the  Nabedache  in  the  19th  century 
have  not  yet  been  investigated,  but  it  is 
known  that  hostility  to  the  Apache  con 
tinued  well  into  that  period. 

In  May,  1690,  Massanet  and  Capt.  Do 
mingo  Ramon  founded  the  first  Texas 
mission  (San  Francisco  de  los  Texas) 
at  the  Nabedache  village,  and  a  few 
months  later  the  second  (Santi'sima 
Nombre  de  Maria)  was  planted  near  by 
(Jesus  Maria,  Relacion,  1691).  On  May 
25,  De  Leon  delivered  to  the  Nabedache 
caddi  a  baston  and  a  cross,  and  conferred 
on  him  the  title  of  "governor  of  all  his 
pueblos"  (De  Leon,  Derrotero,  1690). 
This  was  done,  as  Jesus  Maria  clearly 
shows,  under  the  mistaken  notion  that 
the  Nabedache  was  the  head  tribe  of  the 
confederacy,  and  its  caddi  the  head  chief. 
These  distinctions  belonged,  however,  to 
the  Hainai  tribe  and  the  great  chenesi 
resident  there  (ibid.,  18).  This  mistake, 
it  is  believed,  caused  some  political  dis 
turbance  in  the  confederacy.  In  1690-91 
an  epidemic  visited  the  tribe  in  common 
with  its  neighbors  (Jesus  Maria,  Relacion, 

1691).  Trouble,  fomented  by  medicine 
men  and  soldiers,  soon  arose  between  the 
missionaries  and  the  Indians.  In  1692 
the  chief,  with  most  of  his  people,  with 
drew  from  the  mission  to  the  distant 
"fields, "and  refused  to  return  (Massenet 
MS.,  1692).  In  1693  the  mission  wasaban- 
doned  (Clark  in  Tex.  Hist.  Assn.  Ouar 
v,  200-201,  1902),  and  when  restored  in 
1716  it  was  placed  at  the  Neche  village 
on  the  other  side  of  the  river.  In  1727 
Rivera  (Diario,  leg.  2093,  1736)  reported 
that  San  Pedro  was  then  occupied  by  the 
Neche,  though  formerly  by  the  S'abe- 
dache.  That  the  Xeche  had  moved  t<- 
San  Pedro  is  perhaps  true;  but  it  seems 
improbable  that  the  Xabedache  had  left 
the  place,  for  long  afterward  the  inhab 
itants  of  it  continued  to  be  called  Xabe 
dache  (De  Soto  Bermude/  docs.,  1753. 
MS.  Archivo  General,  Historia,  299; 
Mezieres,  Cartas,  1779).  When  Soli's 
visited  the  Nabedache  in  1768  their  cus 
toms  were  still  about  as  first  described, 
except  that  they  had  nearly  discarded 
the  bow  for  the  firelock,  and  were  very 
inebriate,  due,  Soli's  claimed,  to  1  ,,•[, 
liquor.  In  the  middle  of  the  18th 
century  French  influence  over  the  Has 
inai  greatly  increased,  and  Spanish 
influence  declined.  In  1753  the  Nabe 
dache  took  part  in  a  gathering  of  the 
tribes  at  the  Nadote  (Nadaco?)  village, 
in  which,  it  was  reported,  the  Indians 
proposed  killing  all  the  Spaniards  in 
eastern  Texas;  but  St.  Denis,  of  Natch i- 
toches,  prevented  the  attempt  ( Fr. 
Calahorra  y  Sanz,  Feb.  2:5,  1753,  MS. 
Archivo  General,  Historia,  299).  This 
situation  led  to  a  plan,  which  failed,  to 
have  a  garrison  posted  at  San  Pedro 
(Barrios  y  Juaregui  to  the  Viceroy,  ibid. ). 
In  1778  or  1779  an  epidemic  reduced  the 
population,  and  Mezieres,  writing  from 
"San  Pedro  Nevadachos,"  situated 
apparently  just  where  Joutel  had  found 
it,  reported  the  number  of  warriors  at 
somewhat  more  than  160  (Carta,  Aug. 
26,  1779,  Mem.  de  Nueva  Espana,  xxvm, 
241).  In  1805  Sibley  gave  the  number 
at  80  men;  but  about  1809  Davenport, 
who  was  at  Nacogdoches,  gave  it  as  1 
(Report  to  Manuel  Salcedo,  copy  dated 
\pr  24,  1809,  in  Archivo  General, 
Provincial  Interims,  201 ).  Sibley' 
Davenport's  reports  and  Austin's  map  o 
1829  all  indicate  that  the  tribe  had  moved 
up  Neches  r.  after  1779  (original  Austin 
map,  inSecretarfa  de  Fomento,  Mexico). 
From  a  letter  in  the  Bcxar  Archives  it 
appears  that  this  mi-ration  may  have 
occurred  before  1784  ( Xeve  to  Cabello, 
Bexar  Archives,  Province  of  Texas, 
1781-84)  In  the  19th  century  the 
Nabedache  shared  the  fate  of  the  othei 
tribes  of  the  Caddo  and  Hasinai  confed- 


[  15.  A.  E. 

•aries  -i"'l  tht>  "'"-vivors  are  now  on  the 
™,  'n;,l,  NYtdutares.  in  Oklahoma,  but 
•.re  not  -eparatelv  enumerated,    (ii.  E.  B.; 

!ivISr^  A- 



NKbadache..^..y>.      '>:    'V-vnc-l!,    Hist. 
U-M*f  'n'TY  "'    1&!    Nabadatsu.-Gatschet 
'':jt    n     Nabaducho.-I,.thaniin     rans  Ilnlol 
i  fcnd,  101.  1*W.     Nabaduchoe  -I  nnu.M  ^  ) 


•  MS      i,;<ii      Nabedachw.—  Sibley.    Hist. 
,;.„.;   71'    isV,.'    Nabedoches.—  Brackenridge, 

•i  .  v  '  <Vl  i  .'  S7  JSlft.    Nabeidacho.  -Hidalgo,  let- 

•  ^^  M-  -t 

.,-rainst  the  Kadohadaeho  and  tho  Hamai. 
According  to  Del'Isle's  map  of  1707  the 
:K,0,,U;  then  lived  N.  of  Washitar.  in  ^Ar 
kansas.  See  1  )ouay  in  Shea,  Discov.  Miss. 
V.jl  ->d  od  921  1U08. 

Nabari.-McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind    Tribes    in, 

?1    1S54.    Nabiri.-Hennepin  New  Discov    n  41 

098     Nabites.-Baudrv  des  Lozieres ,  \o>.  a  la 

,,  -i-nie    ->IS    ISO1'   (probably    identical).    Na- 

Ji  ti  -Si'  We,  map  ,  1701 )  inWinsor,  Hist.  Am 

n   -H)4  iss(5.    Nahari.-Coxe.  Carolina,  map,  1/41. 

Nahod.''  -I'M    in    French,    Hist. 

;'  iv,l.    Nahordikhe.— -loutel  (lt'>S7), 
sit;      Nahouehkhe.— Shea,    note  in 
,-h.;  '.evoix.  New   France,  iv.   lus   ls70     Nahud  : 
ques  — Uarcia  Kiisnyo.27.M723.    Naodiche.—  loiiti 
llfWUi  in  French.  HM.  Coll.  La.,  i,  71,  IMti.     »a- 
onediche.— De   la  Tour,    map   Amenqiie   Septeii 
i, ale      177'»         Naouadiche.—  Tonti     (K.'.'Oi^m 
'•Yench  'Hist.  Coll.  La.,  i,  71.  islii.    Naoudiche.— 
]bid..7.~>.    Naoudishes.— Martin.  Hist.   La.,  i,  '£20. 
;VT  '    Naouediches.  — Anville,    map    N.    A..    17->2. 
Hao-.iidirhe.  -.loutel  i  lf.87)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  in.394, 
-     N-iouydirhes.  — LM  Harpe ( 1719) , ibid.,  VI. 262, 
<v.r,      >  -Tonti  (1690)  in  French,  Hist. 

(•4,11'  La  i.  7:;,  IMti.  Navadacho,—  Bull.  Soc. 
<iv«>>:r.  Me\  .  2i'.7.  \^~".  Navedachos.— Morti 
iiiju't'i-d  by  Shea  in  »'har!evtii\,  Ne\v  France,  IV, 
S)  1M70.  "Navenacho.  — Li  na  !•''•<  171(1)  in  Margry, 
!»,•<•.,  vi.  217.  1^6.  Navidacho.  -Hull.  Soc.  Geogr. 
M.  x..  :*H.  ]*>'.*.  Nawadishe.—  i  latschet.  Caddo 
and  YatM-si  MS.,  H.  A.  K..  M  (archaic  name.  fr. 
n'iti.*li.  'silt' i.  Nebadache.—  Brown.  Wr-t.  Ga/., 
•Jl  I  I'M  7.  Nebedache.—  Ihiil.,  2L">.  Nevachos.— 
-an  lieiiN  (171.^1  in  Mem.  de  Nueva  rNpafia, 
\\\:: .  12::.  MS.  Nevadizoes.  — Me/.iens  il77*-i  in 
Haiicr-iM.  N'  '.  Mex. States,  i,  (•,(•,].  ISM;.  Noadiches. — 
Barcia.  Kn>a>  o.  2s:i.  17_':'..  Nouadiche.— Hienville 
( J7'Ki i  in  MuruT'i .  1  >>'•<'..  i  v.  lll.lss<i.  Nouidiches. — 
I»e  n-lf,  map  Anier..  17"<i.  Novadiches.  — Hareia, 
Kn-ayn.  2xs.  17'j:>.  Ouadiches.  —  McKeiiney  and 
Hall  Ind  Tribe-,  in  sl  l>-">t.  Ouidiches.  — Donay 
il-.H7,  in  Shea.  IMM-..V.  Miss  Val..  2!s.  is.VJ. 
Ouidichei.— Hennepin.  New  Discov..  n.  |:;,  If.'.is. 
Yneci  -.1. -us  Maria,  lielacioii.  lil'.U,  MS. 

Nabesnatana.  A  division  of  the  Tenan- 
kntclun  dwelling  on  the  Nabesna  branch 
of  Tanana  r.,  Alaska,  and  having  the  vil- 
laireof  Khiii;it  at  its  mouth. — Allen,  Kep. 
Alaska,  7!>,  l.s.sT. 

Nabeyxa.  A  former  tribe  of  Texas, 
mentioned  as  beinir  N.  K.  <>f  the  Nabe- 
dache  by  Francisco  de  Jesus  Maria,  amis- 
-ioiiary  among  the  latter  tribe,  in  his  MS. 
relation  of  Aniru-t,  l'»«M.  lie  included  it 
'n  his  list  of  Tcxias  ('allies').  Inas 
much  as  in  the  same  list  he  mentions  the 
Naviti  ( apparent  Iv  the  Nabiri),  the  Na- 
lM-y\a  must  have  been  snppo.-ed  by  him 
to  be  a  different  tribe.  It  was  probably 
«':uld«ian.  (  u.  ic.  it.  ) 

Nabiri.  An  extinct  village- or  tribe  of 
Tex:i>,  jM».-sihly  Caddoan,  mentioned  by 
houay  in  HJSTas  populous  and  as  allied 

with     the    Haolli     and     N:i;ui<i     in    :i    u.-ir 

Kelacion,  io»i,  JA^.  ^'Fi"11    ">-^.>  -••-  .- 

Nabisippi.  A  former  Montagnais  sta 
tion  on  the  N.  shore  of  the  Gulf  of  St 
Lawrence,  opposite  Anticosti  id.,  Quebec. 
Nabisippi  -Stearns,  Labrador.  2(19,  1884.  Napis- 
sipi.— Hind,  Lab.  Penin.,  n,  ISO.  I*<i3. 

Nabobish.  (X&bobish,  '  poor  soup.  )_  A 
Chippewa  village,  named  from  a  chief, 
that  formerly  stood  at  the  mouth  of 
Saginaw  r.,  Mich.  The  reservation  was 

^<  )1*  1    111    1  *^*"*  ' 

Nababish,-  -Detroit  treaty  (1SS7)  in  U.  S.  Ind. 
Tre-ities  "i:>  1>T:',.  Nabobask.—  Saginaw  treaty 
(1S'>0)  ibid.,  i  fl.  1X57.  Na-bo-bish.— Detroit  treaty 
(1S37)',  ibid'.'.  249,  1S7;',. 

Nabogame  (from  Xavoyeri,  where  no 
pals  [/<««(>]  grow.'— Lumlioltz).  ATepe- 
huane  pueblo  in  the  district  of  Mina,  17 
in.  x.  ot'Uusidalupe  y  (."alvo,  in  the  s.  w. 
corner  of  Chihuahua,  Mexico,  about  1  at. 

Nabogame.— oro/co  y  Berra,  Geotf.,  324  1S64. 
Navogame.— Ibid. .322.  Navogeri.— Lumholtz,  Un 
known  Mex..  i,  42)',.  v.102  (Tepehuane  name). 

Nabowu  (named  from  an  unknown 
plant ).  A  clan  of  the  Chua  (  Rattlesnake) 
phratry  of  tlu1  Ilopi. 

Nabovu'wiSwu.— Fewkes  in  Wh  Kep.  B.  A.  E., 
")S2,  l'.H»0  (iriTiirt'i—'  clan'  i.  Na'-bowii  wuii-wu. — 
Fewkes  in  Am.  Anthrop..  vn,  -102,  1894. 

Nabukak.  A  Yuit  Kskimo  village  of  48 
houses  and  about  275  people  on  East  cape, 
x.  K.  Siberia. 

Nabu'qak.— Bo^oras,  Chukchee,  30,  1904.  Ne'- 
oaklit.— Ibid.,  20  i  Chukehee  name  of  people). 
Ne'ekan.— Ibid.  (Chukehee  name  of  the  village). 
Pe'ekit.— Ibid,  irhnkchec  derisive  name  of  peo 

Nacachau.  One  of  the  9  tribes  men 
tioned  in  a  manuscript  relation  by  Fran 
cisco  de  Jesus  Man'a,  in  1691,  as  consti 
tuting  the  Hasinai  confederacy  in  Texas. 
They  lived  just  x.  of  the  Neche  tribe  and 
on  the  K.  side  of  Neches  r.  In  171(5  San 
Francisco  de  los  Texas  mission  was  estab 
lished,  according  to  Ramon,  in  their  vil 
lage;  and,  according  to  one  of  Ramon's 
companions,  for  them,  the  Neche, the  Na- 
bedache,  and  the  Nacoiio.  The  mission 
soon  became  known  as  San  Francisco  de 
los  Neches  and  the  name  Nacachau  dis 
appears,  the  tribe  being  absorbed,  prob 
ably,  by  the  Neche.  (ir.  E.  B. ) 
Nacachad.— Hidalgo,  letter,  Oct.  ('>,  1716,  Archiyo 
General.  Nacachas. — Kepresentacion  of  the  mis 
sionaries  171C,.  Mem.  de  Nueva  Kspaiia,  xxvil, 
It'.H,  MS.  Nacoches. — Ramon,  Derrotero,  171<>, 
Mem.  de  Nueva  Kspafia,  xxvir,  157,  MS. 

Nacameri  ('bat  dwelling.' — Och).  A 
former  pueblo  of  the  1'ima  and  the  seat 
of  a  Spanish  mission  founded  in  1638; 

BULL.  30] 


situated  on  the  E.'  bank  of  Rio  Horcasitas, 
Sonora,  Mexico.  Pop.  362  in  1678,  62  in 

Nacamere. — Kino,  map  (1702)  in  Stocklein,  Xeue 
Welt-Bott,  74,  1726.  Rosario  Nacameri.— Rivera 
(1730)  quoted  by  Bancroft,  No.  Mex.  States,  f>13, 
1884.  Santa  Maria  Nacameri.— Zapata  (1678),  ibid., 

Nacaniche.  Possibly  ti  division  of  the 
Nabedache,  a  Caddo  tribe  with  whom 
they  were  closely  affiliated,  although  they 
were  not  always  at  peace  with  the  tribes 
composing  the  confederacy.  They  first 
became  known  to  the  French  about  1690, 
and  according  to  La  Harpe  their  villages 
in  1719  were  N.  of  the  Hainai.  During 
the  disturbances  between  the  Spaniards 
and  French  in  the  18th  century  the  Na 
caniche  seem  to  have  abandoned  their 
more  northerly  villages  and,  about  1760, 
to  have  concentrated  on  Trinity  r.,  near 
the  road  leading  to  New  Mexico.  The 
tribe  was  included  in  the  Texas  census  of 
1790  as  among  those  which  were  under 
the  jurisdiction  of  Nacogdoehes.  The  Na 
caniche  were  exposed  to  the  same  adverse 
influences  that  destroyed  so  large  a  part 
of  their  kindred.  They  clung  to  the  Na- 
bedache  during  the  trying  experiences  of 
the  first  half  of  the  19th  century,  and  if 
any  survive  they  are  with  the  Caddo  (q.  v. ) 
on' the  Wichita"  res.,  Okla.  A  stream  in 
E.  Nacogdoches  co.,  Texas,  preserves 
their  name.  (A.  c.  F.  ) 

Nacaniche.— Census  of  1790  in  Tex.  State  Archives. 
Nicondiche.— Tonti  (1690)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll. 
La.,  i,  71,  1846. 

Nacau.  A  former  tribe  of  Texas,  closely 
associated  with  the  Nacogdoche.  They 
are  mentioned  in  1691  by  Francisco  de 
Jesus  Maria  in  his  manuscript  list  of 
Texias  ('allies'-)  as  x.  E.  of  his  mission 
among  the  Nabedache.  San  Denis,  in 
1715,  gave  the  Nacao,  apparently  the  same, 
as  one  of  the  Hasinai  or  Texas  tribes 
(Declaracion,  MS.,  1715,  in  Mem.  deNueva 
Espana,  xxvii,  123).  In  1716  Nuestra 
Senorade  Guadalupe  mission  was  founded 
for  this  tribe  and  the  Nacogdoche  (Fran 
cisco  Hidalgo  and  Manuel  Castellano, 
letter  to  Pedro  Mesquia,  Oct.  6, 1716,  MS. 
Archive  General).  This  fact,  taken  with 
the  statement  of  Jesus  Maria,  makes  it 
seem  probable  that  the  tribe  lived  N.  of 
the  Nacogdoche.  After  1716  the  Nacau 
seem  to  disappear  from  history  as  an  in- 
dependentgroup ;  it  was  perhaps  al  >sorbed 
by  the  Nacogdoche.  (n.  E.  B.) 

Nacao. — San  Denis,  1715,  op.  cit.  Nacau.— Fran 
cisco  de  Jesus  Maria,  1691.  MS.,  op.  Cit.  Nacaxes.— 
Barrios  y  Jauregui,  1753,  op.  cit.  (identical?). 
Nacoho.— Joutel  (1687)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  m,  409, 
1878.  Nijaos.— Bui.  Soc.  Geog.  'Mex.,  504,  1869 
(identical?).  Nocao,—  Linares  (1716)  in  Margry, 
Dec.,  VI,  217, 1886. 

Nacaugna.  A  Gabrieleno  rancheria  for 
merly  in  Los  Angeles  co.,  Cal.,  at  a  place 
later  called  Carpenter's  ranch. 
Nacaugna.— Ried  quoted  by  Taylor  in  Cal.  Far 
mer,  Jan.  11,  1861  (cf.  Hoffman  in  Bull.  Essex 
lest.,  xvn,  1,1885).  Nicaugna. —Ibid.,  June8, 1860. 

Nacbuc.     A  Chumashan  village  w.  of 
Pueblo  de  los  Canoas  ( San  Buenaventura*) 
Ventura  co.,  Cal.,  in  1542. 
Nacbuc.— Cabrillo,  Narr.  (1542)  in  Smith    Colec 
Doc.  Fla.,  181,  1857.    Nacbue. -Taylor  in  Cal.  Far 
mer,  Apr.  17,  1863  (misprint). 

Nachaquatuck  •  (  from  Wa'nashque-tuck, 
'the  ending  creek,'  because  it  was  tin- 
end  or  boundary  of  the  Katon's  Neck 
tract. — Tooker).  A  former  Matineeoe 
village  near  the  present  Cold  Spring. 
Suffolk  co.,  Long  id.,  N.  Y.  The  name 
occurs  as  early  as  1666. 

Nachaquatuck. — Thompson,  Long  Id.,  i,  501,  1843. 
Nackaquatok. — Ruttenber,  Ind.  Geog  Names  97 

Nacheninga  ('  Xo-heart-of-fear ').  The 
name  of  at  least  two  prominent  Iowa 
chiefs,  commonly  called  Xo  Heart,  both 
noted  for  their  sterling  qualities  and 
highly  regarded  by  both  their  tribesmen 
and  the  whites.  Nacheninga  the  elder 

died  a  short  time  before  Catlin's  visit  to 
the  tribe  in  1832,  when  he  was  succeeded 
by  his  son,  who,  however,  was  regarded 
as  subordinate  to  Mahaskah  the  yonngrr. 
The  junior  Naeheninga  has  been  desrril  >• 
as  a  fine  specimen  of  his  race  physical!} 
and  as    "the  faithful   husband   of    oil- 
wife."     His  portrait  was  painted  by  Cai 
lin  in    1832.     In  behalf  of  the   I"\\a   h 
signed  the  treaty  of  St  Louis, 
1S37,  and  in  the  same  vear  v 
ington,   where  his  portrait        s  pai 
for  the  War  Department  l>y  Charles  I 
King,  and  is  n,,w  preserved  in  the  1 
National      Museum     (see     i  lustration) 
Nacheninga   was   a    signer  also    of    the 
treat  v  of  Great  Nemaha   agencv,   JNeb 
Oct   10   1838;  the  treaty  of  Washington, 
Miv  17'  1854,  and  that 'of  Great  Nemaha 
agency,  Mar.  6,  1861.     The  name  i> 


A.  S. 

(,  Celled  Nachewinga,  Nan-chee- 
,  "n,;.;l  '  \au-che-nm-:a,  Non-ehe-ning- 
"  \o,^ee  m,u:a.  and  Noteh-ee  nhi^a. 
ronMlt  Fulton.  Ked  Men  of  Iowa  124, 
lss->-  ratlin,  North  American  Indiana, 
„,  ,'s.M:  DoiKiMscn  in  National  Museum 


Clieu-l.ita,  the  1-ido  *-n>  <>t  < 
i';-t,:!',y  i,,  1M,  K.T.  It.  A.K.,Z!8,1«>7. 

.AV/r-M'rW,™,    'yellow 
\   traditional    pueblo   ot   the 

( Jat^'lH't.  ..p.  cit.     Yellow  Village.  — Lummis  in  St. 
Nifln  >lu.s  xvin.  >:'••'>.  l'v-'l- 

Nachvak.  An  Fskimo  missionary  sta 
tion  of  the  Moravians  in  Labrador,  (-lose 
to  ( '  Chid  lev.  —  Puck  worth  in  Proc.  Cam- 
l.rid-e  1'hilos.  Soc.,  \.  288,  1900. 

Nacisi.  A  small  tribe,  possibly  ot  (  ad- 
doan  r-ttirk.  formerly  dwelling  in  the  re 
gion  of  Red  r..  Fa.  'They  were  first  men- 
Tioned  by  .J..utel  in  1»>S7,  at  which  time 
lliev  were  at  enmity  with  theCenis  (  Cad- 
do  Confederacy1.  When  lUenville  and 
St  I>enis  were  exploring  Red  r.  of  Fa.,  in 
17»io,  they  found  on  that  stream  a  village 
of  the  Nacisi  consist  ing  of  8  houses.  They 
were  still  r.  this  neighborhood  in  1741, 
but  duriii'_r  the  vicissitudes  of  the  ISth 
century  -ecin  to  have  drifted  southward 
beyond  the  border  of  the  French  prov 
ince,  for  in  17'.  Othey  a  re  mentioned  among 
the  tribes  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Xacog- 
doches.  in  Texas.  (  A.  c.  F.  )!T.Ty<.  Am.  Atlas,  map  f>,  177(1.  Na- 
cassa.  -  .I.iui.-l  (  li'.^l  <  in  Marirry.  DiV..  in.  in'.),  l^TS. 

Naiasse.  -l.a  Hur| v(.  1 71 1 )  in  French.  Hist.  Coll. 

l.n.,  m.  I1.'.  1-~>1.  Nacatches.— Alcedo,  Die.  (it-og., 
m.  'JT'.'.  17--.  Nacibi.  Census  of  IT'.M)  in  Texas 
Mate  An-liivi-.  Nagusi.— Coxe,  Carolana,  map. 
1711.  Nahacassi.  .loiiu  1.  «>]>.  eit.  Nakasas. — 
I'.ii-nvilli-  il7mii  in  M;ir_'Ty.  Drc..  iv.  -1  ;'>'.».  I.SSK. 

Nacogdoche  (  X<t-ko-h<nfn-l)(i).  A  tribe 
•  f  'In-  lla-inai  confederacy  of  Texas.  It 
ha-  hi-en  said  that  their  language  dif 
fered  from  that  of  the  Hasinai  -/roup  in 
general,  but  there  is  much  evidence  to 
indicate  thai  thi  is  not  true.  Forexam- 
ple.  Kam  .11.  \\  h'  i'.  i.i.l.-d  missions  at  the 
Neehe.  Hainai.  Na^oiii.  and  Naeoudoche 
\illa_-es  iii  171'i.  states  in  hi-  report  that 
"  thc-e  four  mi  — ions  will  comprise  from 
four  to  iiv«-  tliousand  persons  of  both 
-exes,  all  '. f  one  idiom"  i  Represent acion, 
.Inly  2L'.  I71'i.  in  Mem.  de  Nueva  Kspafia, 
\  \vii.  Itio.  MS.  ..  On  the  same  day  the 
•ni— ionarie-  wrote  that  the  Naeogdoehe 
'iii--i'.!i  "V  >.  de  'iiiadalupe  ...  is 
iwaititi'.:  people  of  the  same  lanirua^e 
ind  cn-toiiis"  a-  those  of  the  Indians 
ol  mi  —  ion  <  otieepeioii,  i.  e.,  the  Hainai 

'bid.,  jr,:1,,  I,,  IT;,!',  when  the  gov 
ernor  of  Texas  \\as  arranging  to  inspect 
tin-  \illages  of  the  Hainai,  Nabedaehe, 

Xacogdoche,  Xasoni,  and  Nadote,  An- 
tonio  Barrera  was  appointed  interpreter, 
because  be  was  a  person  ''understanding 
with  all  perfection  the  idiom  of  these 
Indians,"  the  implication  being  that 
thev  all  spoke  a  single  language  (Jacinto 
de  Barrios  y  Juaregui,  Oct.  30  1752  in 
\rchivoGeneral,  Hist.,  299,  MS.)-  Mez- 
ieres  said  that  the  Nabedache,  Nadaco 
(  \nadarko),  Hainai,  and  Nacogdoche 
spoke  the  same  language  (letter  toCroix, 
Feb  20,  1778,  Mem.  de  Nueva  Espana, 
x.\  vii  i,  229,  MS.) .  Other  similar  evidence 
might  be  cited. 

Their  main  village  at  the  opening  ot 
the  18th    century  and   for   a   long   time 
thereafter  was  approximately  on  the  site 
of  the  modern  city  of  Nacogdoches,  where 
four  Indian  mounds  existed  until  recently. 
This   place  seems   to  have   been    called 
Nevantin.     The  Nacogdoche  were  men 
tioned  apparently  by  the  Gentleman  of 
Elvas  in  his  account  of  the   De  Soto  ex 
pedition;    but  they  were  first  made  def 
initely  known  by  Jesus  Maria  in  1691, 
who  called  them  the  Nazadachotzi,  indi 
cated  correctly  their  location,  and  classi 
fied  them   as'  one   of   the   nine   Aseney 
(Hasinai)    tribes    (Relacion,    108,    MS.}. 
It  seems  probable  that  the  Nacogdoche 
are  distinct    from    the  Aquodocez,   with 
Avhom  Fvnicaut  in  1714  said  the  Assina'fs 
were  at  war  (Margry,  Dec.,  v,  o04,  1883). 
At  this  time  San  Denis  found  the  Nacog 
doche,  Ilainai,  Nadaco  (Anadarko),  and 
others  at  war  with  the  lower  Natchitoch, 
but  he  restored  peace  among  them  (La 
Harpe  in  Margry,  Dec.,  vi,  193,  188(>;  see 
also  letter   of   Macartij,    Nov.    17,    17(53, 
Xacogdoches  Archives,  MS. ).     Espinosa 
tells  us  that  the  Nasoni,  whose  main  vil 
lage  was  some  25  m.  to  the  N.,  were  es 
pecially  closely  allied   with    the    Nacog 
doche, 'and  came  to  their  village  for  some 
of  their  principal   religious  observances 
(Chronica  Apostolica,  i,  425,  174(>). 

In  July,  17K>,  the  Franciscans  of  the 
college  at  /acatecas  established  their  first 
Texas  mission  at  the  main  Nacogdoche 
village  for  this  tribe  and  the  Xacao._ 
This  mission  became  the  headquarters  of 
the  president,  Fray  Antonio  Margil  de 
Jesus  (Fspinosa,  Diario,  entries  for  July 
5-8,  MS.,  Archivo  General).  In  1719 
the  mission,  like  all  the  others  of  K.  Texas, 
was  abandoned  through  fear  of  a  French 
attack,  but  was  reestablished  in  1721  on 
the  same  site  (IVfia,  Diario,  Mem.  de 
Nueva  Fspafia,  \\vin,  44,  MS.).  The 
mission  continued  to  exist  long  after  three 
of  its  neighbors  had  been  removed;  but 
it  had  verv  little  success,  and  in  1773  it 
was  abandoned.  The  Spanish  settlers, 
who  were  removed  at  this  time  from 
Adaes,  and  at  whose  bead  was  Antonio 
*<il  Ybarbo,  were  allowed  to  settle  on  the 
Trinity,  founding  in  1774  a  place  which 

fetLL.  30] 


they  called  Pilar  de  Bucareli.  Early  in 
1779  they  migrated,  without  authority,  to 
the  site  of  the  Nacogdoches  mission.  The 
modern  city  of  Nacogdoches  dates  from 
this  time. 

The  Nacogdoche  were  nominally  within 
the  Spanish  jurisdiction,  but  the  French 
early  gained  their  affection  through  the 
unlicensed  trade  which  they  conducted 
with  the  Indians.  The  French  supplied 
guns,  ammunition,  knives,  cloth,  vermil 
ion,  and  knickknacks,  in  return  for  horses, 
skins,  bear's  fat  in  great  quantities, 
corn,  beans,  and  Apache  captives.  This 
trade,  particularly  that  in  nrearrns,  was 
opposed  by  the  Spanish  officials,  and  as 
a  result  there  were  frequent  disputes 
on  the  frontier,  the  Indians  sometimes 
taking  one  side  and  sometimes  the  other. 
In  1733,  for  example,  two  Nacogdoche 
chiefs  reported  at  Adaes  that  the  French 
had  offered  them  a  large  reward  if  they 
would  destroy  the  Spanish  presidio  of 
Adaes  (Expediente  sobre  la  Campana, 
etc.,  1739,  Archive  General,  Provincial 
Internas,  xxxn,  MS.).  The  charge  was 
denied,  of  course,  by  the  French.  Again, 
in  August,  1750,  it  was  said  that  the  Na 
cogdoche  chief,  Chacaiauchia,  or  San 
chez,  instigated  as  he  claimed  by  San  Denis 
of,  went  to  the  Nacogdoches 
mission,  threatened  the  life  of  the  mis 
sionary,  Father  Calahorra  y  Sanz,  and 
ordered  him  to  depart  with  all  the  Span 
iards  (Testimonio  de  Autos  de  Pesquiza 
sobre  Comercio  Ylicito,  1751,  Bexar  Ar 
chives,  Adaes,  1739-55,  MS.).  On  the 
other  hand,  when  in  1752  a  gathering  of 
tribes  was  held  at  the  Nadote  village  to 
discuss  a  plan  for  attacking  all  the  Span 
ish  establishments,  the  Nacogdoche  chief, 
apparently  Chacaiauchia,  and  San  Denis 
both  appear  in  the  light  of  defenders  of 
the  Spaniards  (Testimony  of  Calahorra  y 
Sanz  in  De  Soto  Bermudez,  Report  of  In 
vestigation,  Archive  General,  Hist.,  299, 
MS.).  Chacaiauchia,  or  Sanchez,  seems 
to  have  retained  the  chieftaincy  a  long 
time,  for  in  1768  Soli's  tells  of  being  vis 
ited  at  the  mission  by  Chief  Sanchez,  a 
man  of  large  following  (Diario  in  Mem. 
de  Nueva  Espana,  xxvn,  282,  MS.). 

Some  data  as  to  the  numerical  strength 
of  the  tribe  are  extant,  In  1721,  when 
Aguayo  refounded  the  mission,  he  pro 
vided  clothing  for  "the  chief  and  all  the, 
rest,"  a  total  of  390  (Pefia,  Diario,  in  Mem. 
de  Nueva  Espana,  xxvu,  44,  MS. ).  This 
may  have  included  some  Nacao,  and,  on 
the  other  hand,  it  may  not  have  included 
all  of  the  Nacogdoche  tribe.  It  was  re 
ported  that  in  1733  the  two  Nacogdoche 
chiefs  mentioned  above  went  to  Adaes 
with  60  warriors  (Expediente  sobre  la 
Campana,  1739,  op.  cit. ) .  It  is  not  known 
whether  the  warriors  were  all  Nacogdoche 
or  not,  but  that  is  the  implication.  In 

1752  D.e  Soto  Bermudez  inspected  the 
Nacogdoche  pueblo  and  reported  that  it 
consisted  of  11  ^  rancherias  grandes,"  con 
taining  52  warriors,  besides  many  youths 
nearly  able  to  bear  arms  (Rep.  of  Inves 
tigation,  1752,  Archive  General,  Hist., 
299).  Croix's  list  of  1778  does  not  in 
clude  the  Nacogdoche,  unless  they  are  his 
Nacogdochitos,  a  group  of  30  families  liv 
ing  on  the  Attoyac  (Relation  Particular, 
Archive  General,  Prov.  Intern.,  182). 
According  to  a  census  of  1790,  on  the  au 
thority  of  Gatschet,  the  Nacogdoche  were 
reduced  to  34  men,  31  women,  27  boys, 
and  23  girls.  Davenport,  in  1809,  report 
ed  the  Nacogdochitos  as  comprising  50 
men  (Noticia,  Archive  General,  Prov. 
Intern.,  201,  MS.). 

By  1752  the  Nacogdoche  pueblo  had 
been  removed  some  3  leagues  northward 
( De  Soto  Bermudez,  op.  cit. ) .  When  this 
transfer  took  place  is  not  clear,  but 
Mezieres  says  that  they  deserted  the  mis 
sion  at  once'  (Carta,  Aug.  23, 1779,  in  Mem. 
de  Nueva  Espana,  xxvin,  225,  MS.) .  In 
1771  Gov.  Barrios  reported  them  as  still 
near  the  Hainai  (Informe,  2,  MS.).  It 
seems  probable  that  a  considerable  part 
of  the  Nacogdoche  tribe  was  absorbed  in 
the  general  population  at  Nacogdoches 
after  the  settlement  of  the  Spaniards  in 
1779,  for  census  reports  thereafter  show  a 
large  number  of  Indians  and  mixed-bloods 
at  that  place.  After  this  time  the  rem 
nant  of  the  tribe  seems  sometimes  to  ap 
pear  as  Nacogdochitos.  Morn,  about  1 781 , 
located  this  tribe  on  the  Attoyac.  In 
1809  Davenport,  Avriting  from  Nacog 
doches,  did  not  name  the  Xacogdoches  in 
the  list  of  surrounding  tribes,  but  placed 
the  Nacogdochitos  on  the  Angelina,  5 
leagues  N.  of  Nacogdoches  (Noticia,  Ar 
chive  General,  Prov.  Intern.,  201^,  MS.). 
A  Spanish  map  made  between  17!»r>  and 
1819  shows  the  "  Nacodoches"  above 
where  Davenport  put  the  "  Nocogdochi- 
tos  "  i.  e.,  on  the  E.  side  of  the  Angelina 
about  halfway  between  Nacogdoches  and 
Sabine  r.  (MS.  Mapa  Geognifica  de  las 
Provincias  Septentrionales  de  esta  Nueva 

In  habit,  ceremony,  and  social  < 
zatien    the    Nacogdoche    resembled    the 
other  tribes  of  the  Hasinai  confederacy. 
(H.  K.  B.  ) 

Nacado-cheets.— Schoolcraft,   1ml.  Tribe.- 
1851 .     Nachodoches.- Krenrli .  1 1 ist.  (  «>! I     U. , i : ii, 
Nacocodochy.— LaHarpe( 
193. 1886.    Nacocqdosez.—  i  /iiwn 


La    i  l''l   lst>-'-    Nacogdocnet.— uraKe.^BK.  U1"  •• 

Nagogdoches. — Sibley, 

Hist.   Sketc 


[B.  A.  E. 

.  One  "f  the  tribes  ot  the 
Kasinai,  or  southern  Caddo,  confederacy. 
in  l»»«M  Francisco  de.  Jesus  Maria  (Rela- 

,.  ,',„  JIN  MS.  )  located  it  s.  E.  ot  the 
\rrheand  Nal  .edache  t  rihes.  In  1721  the 
Indians  ..f  "el  Macono,"  evidently  the 
.v.ime,  lived  5  leagues  from  the  Neche 
t-ibe.  In  17H>  San  Francisco  de  los 
Texas  mission  was  founded  near  the 
Neche  and  Naeachau  villages  to  minister 
t-»  these  two  tribes  and  to  the  Xahedaehe 
and  i  Hidalgo.  letter,  Oct.  6,  1716, 
MS.,  Archivo  (ieiieral).  Kspinosa,  who 
was  present  at  the  founding  of  San  .!<>- 
>.'ph  de  los  Nasoiu's  misson,  said  that  it 
,,-as  romposed  of  Nasoniand  Nacono,  but 
the  latter  were  more  likely  the  Xadaco 
(  Anadarko).  In  1721  Aguayowas  visited 
>,n  the  Neches  r.  l»y  100  'Indians  from 
•  1  Macono,  who  were  still  regarded  as 
belonging  to  San  Francisco  mission. 
IVna.  in  his  diary  of  this  expedition, 
make-  the  interesting  statement  that 
"their  chief.  \vho  is  also  chief  priest  to 
their  idols,  is  blind.  It  is  presumed  that 
after  having  been  chief  many  years,  lie 
put  out  his  eyes,  according  to  a  custom 
of  the  Indians,  in  order  to  become  chief 
priest  among  them"  (  Diario,  Mem.  de 
Nueva  Kspafia,  \\viii,  155,  MS.  ).  Astheir 
name  disappears  thereafter,  unless  they 
were  the  Nacomones  of  Rivera's  list 
17-7!,  they  were,  apparently,  like  nu 
merous  other  Texan  tribes,  absorbed  by 
their  stronger  neighbors.  (H.  K.  H.  ) 
Macono.  ---IN  -fin.  i>p.  <•  it..  1721.  Nacomones.  —  Rivera 
1  1727>.  I)iuri«.,  kir.  W2,  I7;;c,  (identical?).  Na- 
cono.  —  Kniuriscn  dc  .IrMis  Maria,  Itl'.H,  op.  cit. 

Nacori.      A    former  Opata   pueblo  and 
seat  of  a  Spanish  mission  founded  in  1(145; 

•d  on  Rio  Yiejo,  an  K.  tributary  of 
the  upper  Yaqui.  lat.  29°  3<V,  Ion.  109°, 
K.  Sonora.  Mfvieo.  p,,),.  |5()  in  1I17S;  2<S1 
in  17.'!0.  The  tov  s  suffered  greatly 

from  Apache  depredations,  the  last  attack 
ln-ing  made  in  iss:;.  The  pueblo  num- 
Ix-red  .''.39  persons  in  190(1,  of  \\hom  a  few 
were  Ya<|iii  or  I'ima.  the  remainder  be 
ing  classed  as  Spaniards. 

Guadalupe  Nacori.  — Kivcra  il7:',(l,  nimtcd   bv  Han- 

•TDft.N,,.  Mex.StatrM,r,]|.  lss|.   Nacori.— Oro/.co 

V  M.-rra.  <;.-..>:.,  :!i:i.  ls«;i.     Nacori  Grande.  — Davila 

•ii'-ni   Misl.'.ricD,  HIT,  IS'.M.     Sta  Maria  Nacori  — 

i  HiTMi  .juotiMl  l.y  Hinicruft,  o|..  cit..  'Jlf,. 
Hacori.  A  former  Kudeve  pueblo  and 
«<-at  of  a  Spanish  mission  founded  in  HiL'!); 
Hifuatedc.n  the  head  waters  of  Rio  Matap<>,' 
lat.  2«>0,  Ic.n.  lur,  Sonor.'i.  Mexico.  ]',,p' 
''.^»t  in  KITS,  and  but  25  in  17:;o.  It  js 
now  a  eivili/.e.l  settlement,  known  as 

\iicori  C'hico,  and  contained  337  inhab- 

Narar^— Kino     map    (1702)   in    Stocklem,    Neue 

•It  Bolt  71  17'2(i  Nacori.— Rivera  (1730)  quoted 
by  Bancroft.  No.  Mex.  States,  i,  513, 1884.  Sta  Cruz 
( Nacori V— Zapatu  (1078),  ibid.,  24(5. 

Nacosari.  A  former  Opata  pueblo,  sit 
uated  in  N.  E.  Sonora,  Mexico,  on  Ilio 
Mocte/uma,  one  of  the  x.  tributaries  of 
Yaqui  r.,  lat.  30°  20',  Ion.  109°  25'.  It 
is  now  a  civili/ed  settlement  and  con 
tained  978  inhabitants  in  1900. 
Nacosuras.— Kilms  (Kil.^)  (|uotcd  by  Bandelier  in 
\rcli  lust.  Papers,  in,  f>S,  1MH)  (name  applied  to 
the  inliabitants).  Real  de  Nacosari.— Oro/co  y 
Berra.  Geog.,  343, 1864. 

Nacotchtank.  A  tribe  or  band,  probably 
of  tho  C'ono}-,  formerly  living  on  the  Ana- 
costiabranch  of  the  Potomac,  about  Wash 
ington,  I).  C.  Their  principal  village-,  of 
the  same  name,  was  near  the  present 
Anacostia  (a  corruption  of  the  name  of 
the  tribe),  in  1608.  Smith  seems  to  make 
them  of  Algonquian  stock,  but  Shea  says 
they  were  probably  Lroquoian.  TheCon- 
estoga  were  their  enemies. 
Anacostan. — White,  Hclatio  Itineris  (1(142), 85,  1874 
(t'onnused  by  the.Iesuits).  Nacochtant.— Bozman, 
Md  I  119  '  1837.  Nacostines.— Ibid.  Nacotch- 
tanks.— Smith  (lii'29),  Va..  n,  78.  vepr.  1819. 
Naotchtant. — Simons  in  Smith,  ibid.,  I,  177. 
Necosts.— Smith,  ibid.,  ir.  87.  Nocotchtanke.— 
Ibid.,  i,  118. 

Nadamin.  A  tribe  or  settlement  men 
tioned  by  Joutel  in  1687  (Margry,-  Dec., 
in,  410,  1878)  as  an  ally  of  the  Hasinai 
(Caddo).  They  probably  lived  at  that 
time  in  x.  E.  Texas,  near  Red  r. 

Naden-hadai  (X^dAn  .ru'dd-i,  'Naden 
river  ]>eople').  A  subdivision  of  the 
Koetas,  a  family  of  the  Raven  clan  of  the 
Haida.  Unlike  the  rest  of  the  family  this 
subdivision  remained  on  Queen  Charlotte 
ids.  and  settled  on  Naden  r. — Swanton, 
Cont.  Haida,  272,  1905. 

Nadohotzosn  ( ' ])oint  of  the  mountain' ). 
A  band  of  the Chiricahua  Apache  (Bourke 
in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in,  115,  1890), 
essentially  the  same  as  the  Natootzuznof 
the  White  Mountain  Apache  and  the  Na- 
gosugn  of  the  Final  Coyoteros. 

Nadowa.  A  name,  expressing  utter  de 
testation,  applied  by  various  Algonquian 
tribes  to  a  number  of  their  neighboring 
and  most  inveterate  enemies.  Its  use 
was  not  limited  to  the  tribes  of  a  single 
linguistic  stock,  the  historical  references 
showing  that  it  was  applied  in  some  in 
stances,  in  a  modified  form,  to  Eskimo, 
Siouan,  and  Iroquoian  peoples.  For  syn 
onyms  see  Kxkinio,  Dakota,  Iroquois,  Iowa, 
THon,  and  Xoftoira//. 

The  etymology  of  the  term  is  in  doubt. 
The  analysis  proposed  bv  (lerard  (Am. 
An  thro  p.',  vi,  319,  326,  1904),  namely, 
'he  goes  to  seek  flesh  to  eat,'  while 
grammatically  permissible,  is  historically 
improbable,  being  too  general.  Jn  N. 
1  nited  states  the  original  application 
of  the  word  appears  to  have  been  to  vari- 



ous  small,  dark-colored  poisonous  rattle 
snakes,  inhabiting  the  lake  and  prairie 
regions,  such  as  the  Crotalophoms  ter- 
gem'mus  (Sistrurus  catenatus),  and  pos 
sibly  to  C.kirtlaudi,  the  black  massasauga. 
Cuoq  gives  as  the  meaning  of  the  term 
natowe,  a  "kind  of  large  serpent  formerly 
quite  common  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Michillimakina,  i.  e.,Mackinac,  the  flesh 
of  which  the  Indians  ate;  the  Algonkin 
and  all  nations  of  the  Algonquian  tongue 
give  this  name  to  thelroquois  and  to  tribes 
of  the  Iroquoian  stock. ' '  The  Menominee 
(Hoffman)  apply  the  term  to  the  mas- 
sasauga  rattlesnake,  and  the  Chippewa 
(Tanner)  to  a  "thick,  short  rattlesnake." 
In  Tanner's  list  of  Ottawa  tribal  names 
are  found  Naittowaig,  Naudoways,  'rattle 
snakes,'  and  Matchcuawtoways,  'bad  Nau- 
doways,'  and  in  a  footnote  to  the  word 
Anego,  'ant,'  it  is  stated  that  these  same 
Naudoway  Indians  relate  a  fable  of  an 
old  man  and  an  old  woman  to  the  effect 
that  these  two  watched  an  ant-hill  until 
the  ants  therein  became  transformed  into 
white  men,  and  the  eggs  which  these  ants 
were  carrying  in  their  mouths  were  trans 
formed  into  bales  of  merchandise.  But 
in  none  of  these  references  are  the  people 
so  named  thereby  defined  in  such  manner 
that  without  other  information  they  may 
be  recognized  by  other  nomenclature. 

The  word  "Sioux"  is  itself  an  abbrevi 
ation  of  the  diminutive  of  this  term, 
namely,  Nadowe-is-iw,  literally  'he  is  a 
small  massasauga  rattlesnake,'  the  sense- 
giving  part  of  the  word  being  dropped, 
but  signifying 'enemy,'  'enemies.'  This 
diminutive  form,  with  the  qualifying 
epithet  Mascoutens,  was  a  name  of  the 
Iowa  and  the  Teton.  In  Virginia  the 
term,  which  became  Anglicized  into 
"Nottoway,"  was  applied  to  an  Iroquoian 
tribe  resident  there.  In  this  locality  it 
is  probable  that  the  name  was  applied 
originally  to  the  rattlesnake  common  to 
this  eastern  region.  (.T.  x.  E.  H.) 

Naenshya  (NaPnsx'a,  'dirty  teeth'). 
The  name  of  two  Kwakiutl  gentes,  one 
belonging  to  the  Koskimo,  the  other  to 
the  Nakomgilisala, — Boas  in  Nat.  Mus. 
Rep.  1895,  329,  1897. 

Na-gan-nab.     See  Nagonub. 

Nageuktormiut  ('horn  people').  A 
tribe  of  Eskimo  who  summer  at  the 
mouth  of  Coppermine  r.  and  winter  on 
Richardson  r.,  Mackenzie  Ter.,  Canada. 

Deer-Horn  Esquimaux. — Franklin,. lourn.  to  Polar 
Sea,  II,  178,  1824.  Na-ge-uk-tor-me-ut.— Richard 
son,  Arct.  Exped.,  1,3(52, 1851.  Naggiuktop-meut. — 
Petitotin  Bib.  Ling,  et  Ethnog.  Am.,  in,  xi,  1H7(5. 
Naggoe-ook-tor-moe-oot. — Richardson  in  Franklin, 
Second  Exped.,  174, 1828.  Nappa-arktok-towock.— 
Franklin,  Journ.  to  Polar  Sea,  n,  178,  1.824. 

Nagokaydn  ('pass  in  the  mountains'). 
A  band  of  the  Final  Coyoteros  at  San  Car 
los  agency,  Ariz.,  in  "1881. — Bourke  in 
Jour /Am.  Folk-lore,  in,  112,  1890. 

Nagonabe(A%rmafca).  A  former  Chip 
pewa  village  in  lower  Michigan  (Smith  in 
Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  53,  1851).  A  chief  of  this 
name  represented  a  band  on  "South 
Monistic"  r.  in  1835  (Mich.  Pion.  Coll.,xn, 
622,  1  888  )  .  See  also  Nagonub,  Naguonabe. 

Nagonub  (Niganubl,  or  Niganub,  'the 
foremost  sitter').  A  Chippewa  Indian, 
born  about  1815,  and  first  mentioned  as 
attracting  the  attention  of  Gen.  Lewis 
Cass  by  his  sprightliness  while  but  a 
mere  lad.  So  well  pleased  was  Cass  that 
he  gave  Nagonub  a  medal  and  a  written 
token  of  his  precocity.  He  attained  no 
toriety  through  his  spirited  and  often 
fiery  oratory,  and  his  unusually  cour 
teous  manners  won  for  him  the  decla 
ration  that  he  was  the  "beau  ideal  of 
an  Indian  chief"  (Morse  in  Wis.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  in,  349,  1857).  Nagonub  is 
said  also  to  have  been  an  especial  favorite 
with  the  white  ladies,  whom  he  greeted 
with  the  ease  and  grace  of  a  courtier.  He 
signed  as  first  chief  of  the  Fond  du  Lac 
Chippewa  the  treaties  of  La  Pointe,  Wis., 
Oct.  4,  1842,  and  Sept.  30,  1854.  His 
portrait,  painted  by  J.  O.  Lewis  ;>n<] 
copied  by  King  in  1827,  hung  in  the  in- 
diaii  Gallery  of  the  Smithsonian  build 
ing  at  Washington,  but  was  destroyed  by 
fire  in  1865.  His  name  is  also  written 
Naa-gar-nep,  Na-gan-nab,  and  Naw-gaw- 
nub.  (c.  T.  ) 

Nagosugn.  A  band  of  the  Pinal  Coyo 
teros  found  in  1881  by  Bourke  (Jour.  Am. 
Folk-lore,  in,  112,  1890)  at  San  Carlos 
agency,  Ariz.;  correlated  with  the 
Natootzuzn  of  the  White  Mountain 
Apache,  and  with  the  Nadohotzosn  of 

Naguatex.  A  town  and  province  w.  of 
the  Mississippi,  visited  by  Moscoso,  of 
De  Soto's  army,  in  1542.  Located  by 
Lewis  (Narr.  De  Soto,  238,  1907)  on  the 
w.  side  of  Washita  r.,  in  the  present 
Clark  co.,  Ark.  The  tribe  was  evidently 

Nagateux  —Harris,  Voy.  and  Trav.,  I,  810,  1705. 
Naguatex.—  Gentl.  of  Elvas(  1557)  iu  French,  Hist. 
Coll  La.,  n,  19(5,1850.  Naguatez.—  Barton,  New 
Views,  app.,  9,  1798. 

Naguchee  (NagutsV).      A  former   im 
portant  Cherokee  settlement  about  the 
junction  of  Soquee  and  Sautee  rs.,  in  Na- 
coochee  valley,  at  the  head  of  Chatta- 
hoochee  r.,  in"  Habersham  co.,  Ga. 
meaning  of  the  word  is  lost,  and 
doubtful  if  it  be  of  Cherokee  <>n;j 
may  have  some  connection  with  1.  1 
of  the  Yuchi   lndians. 

.-p-d(cl:  tedby  M«mcj.  op. 

cit  28  (probably  identical).  Nacoochee.-(  n  - 
mon  map  form.  Nae  oche.-Bartram,  Travels,3,2, 
1792.  Noccocsee.-Royce  in  nth  Rep-  «•  A.  L.. 

m  Naguonabe  ('feather  end/  according  to 
Warren,  evidently  referring  to  a  feat 
at  the  end  of  a  row  of  others)  .     The  civil 



A.  fl. 

chict  of  th»'  Mille  i-ir  Chippewa  of  Mm- 
n»-..tu  in  the  first  half  of  the  19th  ceii- 
turv.  and  the  principal  man  of  the  Wolf 
rlaii.  He  was  descended  from  a  Chip- 
iH>wu  woman  and  a  Dakota  chief.  In 
In-half  of  his  tribe  he  signed  the  general 
treaty  of  Prairie  du  Chien,  Wis.,  Aug. 
lii,  isL'.">,  and  the  treaty  between  the 
Cliippewa  an.l  the  I'nited  States  made 
at  F-.nd  du  Lac.  Wis.,  Aug.  »J,  ISL'G.  His 
name  is  also  written  Nauqnanabee  and 

Nagus  i  AVfVi.s  '  town  inhabited  ').  A 
town  of  the'  Hagi-lanas  family  of  the 
Haida  on  an  inlet  on  the  ,s.  w.  coast  of 
Moresby  id..  Queen  Charlotte  ids.,  Brit. 
Col.—  Swan  ton,  ('out.  Maida,  277,  190f,. 

Nagwunabee.     See  \iiytiuna1n'. 

Nahaego.  A  Shoshoiu-an  division  for 
merly  living  in  lieese  r.  valley  and  about 
Austin  in  central  Nevada.  There  were1 
several  bands,  numbering  580  in  1873. 
Nahaego.  -P.  .\\cll  in  ln«l.  All'.  Rep.  1*73..  ~>2.  1*7  1. 
Indians.—  Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer, 
Juiu-  -'':.  IN.:;.  Tutoi  band.  —  Ibid.  (named  from 
Tutoi  <>r  Totoiiu.  tlirir  chii-fi. 

Nahane  ('  people  »>f  the  west.'—  A.  F. 
C.i.  An  Athapascan  division  occupy 
ing  the  region  of  British  Columbia  and 
Yukon  Ter.  between  the  Coast  range 
and  the  Rocky  mts.,  from  the  x.  border 
of  the  Sekani,  about  f>7°  N*.,  to  that  of  the 
Kutchin  tribes.  about  (>.">°  x.  It  com 
prises  the  Tahltan  and  Takutiue  tribes 
forming  the  Tahltan  division,  the  Titsho- 
tina  and  F.tagottine  tribes  forming  the 
Ka-ka  division,  and  the  Ksbataottine  and 
Abbatotine  (considered  by  IVtitot  to  be 
the  same  tribe  ),  Sa/eutina,  Kttchaottine, 
Ktagottine,  Kraylongottine,  Klokegot- 
tine.  and  perhaps  Lakuyip  and  Tsetsaut. 
They  correspond  with  '  I'etitot's  Montn- 
irnard  group,  except  that  he  included  also 
the  Sekani.  The  laniruagcof  the  Nahane 
however  constitutes  a  dialect  by  itself,  en 
tirely  distinct  from  Sekani,  Carrier,  or  Ku- 
tchin.  The  western  divisions  have  been 
powerfully  influenced  by  their  Tlingit 
neighbors  of  \Vrangell.  and  have  adopted 
thesr  dan  orirani/ation  with  maternal 
'l«;;«''-nt.  'he  potlatch  customs  of  the  coast 
triU-H.a.,.1  ,,-ds  and  expressions 

their  langua-e.     The  t  \\  o  principal  ,<o- 

••ialdiyisionsorphratriesaiv  called  Kaven 

and  \\olt.and  tin-fart  that  Sa/eutina  and 

Tit.-hotina  sen,,  to  si-niiy  'Bear  people' 

and    '<  irons.-  people'    respectively,  leads 

.Monce   to  suspe<-t  that   these  "To'ups  are 

really   phratries  or   clans.     The   eastern 

chavc  a  l'»ose  paternal  organization 

like   the  Sekani    and   other   Athapascan 

;.  farther  K.      According    to  Morice 

the   Nahane   have  suffered   very  heavilv 

•i  white  contact.    He'estimates 

•'repoj,ulati..natalM)ut  1,000     Con- 

Moruv  in  Trans.  Can.  Inst.,  vn   r>17 

-•'.54.   K'O-I.      See  TnMtnn.  (]    „  's   > 


,        . 

nana.-M«-K»v  in  loth 

Kcp  X.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  88,  1895  (Tlingit  name). 
Montagnais.— IVtitot.  Autour  du  lac  des  Esclaves, 
S(i°  IS'U  Naa'-anee.— Petitot  quoted  by  Dall  in 
Cont  N.A.  Ethnol.,  I,  32,  1877.  Na-ai'.— Dawson 
in  Geol  Surv.  Can.  1887-8,  201B,  1889.  Na-ane.— 
Morice  Notes  on  W.  Denes,  19,  1893.  Na-ane- 
ottine,— Petitot.  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1865.  Na' 
an_n£._pt>titot  in  Bull.  Soe.  de  Geog.  Paris,  chart, 
1875.  Na"  annes.— Petitot,  Diet,  Dene-Dindjie, 
xx,  1876.  Nah'ane. — Morice  in  Trans.  Can. 
Inst.,  vn,  517,  1901.  Nahanes.— Morice  in  Proe. 
Can.  Inst.,  112,  1889.  Nah'-anestene.— Morice, let 
ter,  1890.  Nahanies.— Dunn,  Hist.  Oregon,  79, 1844. 
Nahanis.— Duflot  de  Mofras,  Explor.  del'Oregon, 
n  183,1844.  Nahan-'ne.— Petitot,  Autour  du  lae 
lac  des  Esclaves,  362, 1891 .  Nahannie.— Hind,  Lab 
rador  Penin.,n,  261, 1863.  Nahaunies. — Hardistyin 
Smithson.  Kep.  1866, 311, 1872.  Nah-aw'-ny.— Ross, 
MS.  notes  on  Thine,  B.  A.  E.  Napi-an-ottine. — 
Petitot,  MS.  yocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1865.  Nathannas.— 
Mackenzie  cited  by  Morice  in  Trans.  Can.  Inst., 
vn,  517,  1901.  Nehanes.— Bancroft,  Nat.  Races, 
r,  map,  1882.  Nehanies. — Anderson  (1858)  in  Hind,  • 
Labrador  Penin.,  n,  260,  1863.  Nehannee.— 
Bancroft,  Nat,  Races,  I,  149,  1882.  Nehannes.— 
Ibid.,  125,  1874.  Nehanni.— Latham  in  Trans. 
Philol.  Soc.  Loud.,  69,  1856.  Nehaunajr.— Ross, 
Nehaunay  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.  Nehaunees. — 
Dall,  Alaska,  429, 1870.  Nohannaies.— Balbi,  Atlas 
Ethnog.,  821 , 1826.  Nohannies. — Gallatiri  in  Trans. 
Am.  Antiq.  Soc.,  II,  19, 1836.  Nohannis. — Prichard, 
Phys.  Hist.,  V.  377,  1S47.  Nbhhane.— Richard 
son',  Arct.  Exped.,  I,  179,  1851.  Nohhannies,— 
Franklin,  Jonrn.  Polar  Sea,  II,  87,  1824.  Rocky 
Mountain  Indian. — Mackenzie,  Voy.,  163,  1801. 

Nahankhuotane.  A  part  of  the  Umpqua 
living  on  Cow  cr.,  Oreg.,  and  commonly 
known  as  Cow  Creeks.  By  treaty  of  Sept. 
19,  1853,  they  ceded  their  lands  in  s.  w. 
Oregon.  They  were  associated  with  the 
Tututni  and  were  among  those  who  op 
posed  the  uprising  in  1856.  They  were 
settled  on  Grande  Eonde  res.,  where  23 
were  still  living  in  1906. 

Ci'-sta-qwut  ni'-li  t'pat'  ^unne. — Dorsey  in  Jour. 
Am.  Folk-lore,  in,  234.  1890  ('people  far  from 
Rogue  r.':  Naltunnetunne  name).  Cow  Creek 
band  of  Indians.  —  V.  S.  Ind.  Treaties,  974, 1873.  Cow 
Creeks,— Palmer  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1856,  214,  1857. 
Cow  Creek  Umpquahs.— Ibid. .219.  Nahanxuotane.— 
Gatschet,  rmpqua  MS.  vocab.  B.  A.  E.,  1877  (Ump- 
qna  name).  Se'-qwut  ^unne,— Dorsey,  Coquille 
MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1884  (Mishikhwutmeturine 

Nahapassumkeck.  A  Massachuset  vil 
lage,  in  ]()](),  in  the  x.  part  of  Plymouth 
co.,  Mass.,  probably  on  the  coast.— Smith 
( 1  ()!(>)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  vi. 
108,  1837. 

Nahawas-hadai  (Na  xawu'n  xa'da-i, 
'watery-house  people').  A  subdivision 
of  the  Salendas,  a  family  of  the  Eagle  clan 
of  tlu^  llaida.  They  used  to  give  away 
so  much  grease  at  their  feasts  that  the 
floor  of  their  house  was  said  to  be  "mud 
dy"  with  it,  hence  the  name. — Swanton, 
Cont,  Haida,  27«,  1905. 

Nahche  (No-ai-cJie,  'mischievous,' 
'meddlesome.' — George  Wrattan).  An 
Apache  warrior,  a  member  of  the  Chi- 
ricahua  band.  He  is  the  second  son  of 
the  celebrated  Cochise,  and  as  hereditary 
chief  succeeded  his  elder  brother,  Tazi, 
on  the  death  of  the  latter.  His  mother 
was  a  daughter  of  the  notorious  Mangas 
Coloradas.  As  a  child  Nahche  was  med- 
dlosonieand  mischievous,  hence  his  name. 
Me  was  the  leading  spirit  in  the  many 
raids  that  almost  desolated  the  smaller 




settlements  of  Arizona  and  New  Mexico 
and  of  northern  Chihuahua  and  Sonora  be 
tween  1 881  and  1886,  for  which  Geronimo, 
i  medicine-man  and  malcontent  rather 
;han  a  warrior,  received  the  chief  credit, 
[n  the  latter  ^vear  Geronimo' s  band,  so 
called,  of  whicji  Nahche  was  actually  the 
•hief,  was  captured  by  General  Mites  and 
aken  as  prisoners  of  war  successively  to 
Florida,  Alabama,  and  finally  to  Ft  Sill, 
)kla.,  where  Nahche  still  resides,  re 
spected  by  his  own  people  as  well  as  by 
he  whites.  He  is  now  (1907)  about  49 
-ears  of  age.  In  his  prime  as  a  warrior 
le  was  described  as  supple  and  graceful, 
vith  long,  flexible  hands,  and  a  rather 
mndsome  face.  His  present  height  is 
•  ft.  lOiin.  Col.  H.L.Scott  (inf'n,  1907), 

r  four  years  in  charge  of  the  Chiricahua 

'isoners  in  Oklahoma,  speaks  of  Nahche 
a  most  forcefiitand  reliable  man,  faith- 
tty  performing  \he  duties  assigned  to 
m  as  a  prisoner,  whether  watched  or 
)t.  He  was  proud  and  self-respecting, 
id  was  regarded  by  the  Chiricahua  at 
:  Sill  as  their  leader.  In  recent  years, 
)wever,  he  has  lost  his  old-time  influ- 
iceaswell  as  some  of  his  trustworthi- 
iss  (inf'n  from  Geo.  Wrattan,  official 
terpreter,  1907). 

Nahelta  (Na-hd-ta}.  A  subdivision  of 
e  Chasta  (q.  v.)  tribe  of  Oregon.— Sen. 
s.  Doc.  48,  84th  Cong.,  3d  sess.,  10, 1873. 
Nahltushkan  ('town  on  outside  of 
>int').  A  former  Tlingit  town  on 
hitewater  bay,  w.  coast  of  Admiralty 
.,  Alaska,  belonging  to  the'Hutsnuwu 

people.  Pop.  246  in  1880,  butsubsequently 

abandoned  for  Killisnoo. 

Naitu'ck-an.— Swan  ton,  Held  notes,  B.  A.  E.,  19U4. 

Neltu'schk'-an.— Krause,   Tlinkit  Ind.,  118,' 188."), 

Scutskon.— Petroil  in  Tenth  Census,  Alaska,  32, 


Nahpooitle.  The  chief  village  of  the 
Cathlapotle  tribe  of  tiie  Chinookan  fam 
ily  at  the  mouth  of  Lewis  r.,  Clarke  co., 
Wash. — Lyinan  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soc.  Quar., 
i,  322,  1900. 

Nahpope  ( Nepop",  'soup' ) .  A  prominent 
warrior  of  Black  Hawk's  band  of  Sauk 
and  Foxes  in  the  Black  Hawk  war  of  1 832. 
According  to  Whittlesey  ( Wis.  Hist.  Coll., 
i,  71-2,  84,  repr.  1903)  Black  Hawk  was 
opposed  to  the  war,  but  was  overruled  by 
the  young  men,  who  were  sustained  by 
Nahpope,  who  manifested  intense  hatred 
of  the  Americans.  He  was,  however, 
largely  influenced  by  Waupesliek,  the  so- 
called  Prophet.  Little  has  been  recorded 
regarding  his  life.  It  is  known  that  he 
took  an  active  part  in  the  Black  Hawk 
war.  and  special  mention  is  made  of  his 
command  in  the  battle  of  Wisconsin 
heights,  on  Wisconsin  r.,  near  the  pres 
ent  Sauk  City,  Wis.  Here  Nah pope's 
band,  reenforced  by  a  score  of  Black 
Hawk's  warriors,  made  a  valiant  stand 
to  cover  the  flight  of  *he  main  body  of 
his  people  down  the  bluffs  and  across  the 
river,  which  was  accomplished  with  slight 
loss.  During  the  night  following  the  bat 
tle  the  Americans  were  for  a  time  in  a 
panic,  caused  by  the1  noise  in  the  Indian 
camp,  which  proved  to  have  been  only 
the  applause,  of  a  speech  by  Nahpope  in 
which  he  endeavored  to  arouse  the  Win- 
nebago  to  remain  with  them  in  the  con 
test.  Nahpope  continued  in  the  war  to 
its  close,  was  captured  and  imprisoned 
with  Black  Hawk  and  his  son,  and  finally 
released  with  them.  While  Nahpope  was 
confined  at  Jefferson  Barracks,  Call  in 
painted  his  portrait,  As  his  name  is  not 
appended  to  any  treaty  made  by  the  Sauk 
and  Foxes  with  the 'United  States,  the 
omission  may  be  attributed  to  his  con 
tempt  for  the  Americans.  In  the  summer 
preceding  the  Black  Hawk  war  he  visited 
the  English  authorities  at  Ft  Maiden,  On 
tario,  to  consult  them  in  regard  to  the 
rights  of  the  Indians  to  their  lands.  After 
his  release  from  prison  nothing  more  is 
heard  of  him.  His  name  is  also  written 
Xaapope  and  Xeapope. 

Nairn  (Na'-Jni}.     The  Medicine  clan  ot 
the     Honani    (Badger)    phratry    ol 
Hopi.— Stephen  in  Sth  Rep.  I 


Nahuey.      A  former  Chumashan  v 
near    Punsima    mission,   Santa   Barbara 

Nah'ajuey'.— Taylor  in  Oil.  Fanner,  Oct.  IS,  1801. 
Nahuey.— Ibid. 

Naich,  Naichi.     See  Nafohf. 
Naideni.     A    former   Opata   pueblo  . 
the  vicinity  of  Fronteras,  x.  K.          >ra, 

N  A I G N  A  K  A  N  KG  YO 

Mexico.     It  is  probable  that  the  natives  of 
ere  identical  with  theNeideniba 

mentioned  bv  Mota-Padilla  in  1742. 

Naideni.-Hand'elier  in  Arch.  lust.  Papers.  IV, 
5!J  1.S-!  Neideniba.-Mota-I'adilla.  Hist  de  la 
C,.n.  |ni-ta.;V>l.  17  IJ(  referring  to  the  inhabitants). 
Neideniva*.—  H'id. 

Naig.  A  former  village,  presumably 
Co^tunoan.  connected  with  Dolores  mis 
sion.  San  Francisco.  Oil.—  Taylor  in  Cal. 
Fanner,  Oct.  18,  IStJl. 

Naikun  (  X<~i-iki'm,  'house-point).  A 
semi-legendary  Ilaida  town  that  stood 
near  the  famous  sand-spit  at  Graham 
id.,  Brit.  ('ol..  which  'bears  its  name. 
Anciently  it  was  occupied  by  several 
families,  "including  the  fluados,  Kuna- 
lanas,  and  Stlenga-lanas,  lint  owing  to  in 
ternal  troubles  they  separated,  abandon 
ing  the  town.  Later  on  the  Naikun- 
stustai  settled  there,  and-  still  later  the 
Kuna-lanas  returned.  John  Work,  in 
is:{»i--41.  assigned  to  Naikun  5  houses  and 
H'2  inhabitants.  This  must  have  been 
the  Knna-lanas  town.  It  has  been  long 
abandoned.  (.r.  R.  s.) 

Naeku'n.-Bna-  in  1'Jlh  Krp.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can., 
•_>3.  Nai-koon.—  nuwson,  Q.  Charlotte  Ms., 
1MB.  lv<0.  Na-ikun.—  Swanton,  Cont.  Haida,  'jso, 
!'»(>">  Ne  coon.—  Sehoolcrat't.  Iiul.  Tribes,  v,  4S<», 
ls.V).  Nc-konhade.—  Krause.Tlinkit  Indianer,304, 

Naikun-kegawai  (Xd-ikn'n  (ji^gmm-i, 
'tho>e  l).irn  at  Xaiknn').  An  'impor 
tant  familyof  the  Raven  clanof  the  Haida. 
It  seems  to  have  been  a  sort  of  aristocratic 
branch  of  the  lluados,  receiving  its  name 
from  the  old  town  at  Xaikuw,  or  Rose 
spit,  (^ueen  Charlotte  ids.,  whence  the 
family  originally  came.  They  are  still 
fairly  numerous.  After  abandoning  Xai 
knn  they  lived  a  long  time  at  C.  Ball 
with  the  lluados,  and  moved  with  them 
to  the  t«'wn  of  Skidegate.  (.r.  K.  s.  ) 

Ellzu  cathlans  coon-hidery,  —  Deans,  Tales  from  the 
Hidi-ry.  i:>.  Is.t'j  i  .'noble-  Guhlins-kun  peopk-'  i. 
Nae  kun  k'eraua'i.—  Hoas  in  f>th  Rep.  N.  W.  Cull.,  •;  12th  Rep.,  2.">,  1XDS.  Na-iku'n 
qe'gaw-i.—  Swanton,  Cont.  Haida,  270,  1905. 
NekwunKiiwe.  —  Harrison  in  Pror.  Kov.Soc  Can 
M-C.  ii.  !•_>">,  ]v.i.'). 

Naila.  A  former  Chnmashan  village 
near  I'urisiina  mission,  Santa  Barbara 
co..  Cal.—  Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Oct.  IS 

Nain.  A  f.  .rmer  Moravian  mission, 
built  in  17.r)7  near  the  present  Bethlehem, 
Pa.,  and  named  from  theancient  town  in 
(  ialilee.  It  was  established  for  the  con- 
verte<l  Indians,  chiefly  Delawares,  who 
wished  to  live  separately  from  their  tribe, 
and  for  this  purpose  land  was  obtained 
from  the  state  government.  In  May,  17(i.'i, 
a  new  and  enlarged  chapel  was  dedicated' 
the  congregation  having  increased  innuin- 
lx-rs  and  prosperity.  This  condition 
however,  was  of  short  duration,  for  be 
fore  the  ye;ir  had  closed  the  unfriendly 
Indians  commenced  their  attacks,  and 
noon  the  congregation  was  blockaded  on 
all  sides.  In  November  of  the  same  year 
>ain  wjw  abandoned,  tin;  Indians  remov 

f  B.  A.  E.| 

ing  to  Philadelphia  in  accordance  wit 
the  order  of  the  governor  of  Pennsylvania 
Consult  Loskiel,  Hist.  Miss.  United  Breth 
ren,  1794.  See  Missions. 

Nain.  A  Moravian  Eskimo  mission  o 
the  E.  coast  of  Labrador,  hit  5(5°  40',  be 
gun  in  1771  (Mind,  Lab.  Penin.,  n,  19S 
18(5,');  Thompson,  Moravian  Missions,  228 

Naique.  A  former  village,  presumabl 
Costanoan,  connected  with  Dolores  mi: 
sion,  San  Francisco,  Cal. — Taylor  in  Ca 
Farmer,  Oct.  18,  1801. 

Nak.  A  Knskwogmiut  Eskimo  villag 
on  the  x.  bank  of  Kuskokwim  r.,  Alaska 
Nag-miout. — Zagoskin  in  Nouv.  Ann.  Voy.,  5t 
i.,  xxi,  map,  18-")0. 

Nakai ( 'white stranger,'  i.e.,  Spaniard] 
A  Xavaho  clan,  the  members  of  whic" 
are  descended  from  a  white  woriian  wh 
had  been  captured  by  the  I'te  from  a  set 
tlement  in  the  vicinity  of  Socorro,  X.  Mex 
Cf.  Xiikaydi. 

Nakai. — Matthews  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  nr,l(X 
is'.K).     Nakai, — Matthews,    Navaho    Legends,   3( 
Ls'JT.     Nakai0ine. — Matthews  in  Jour.  Am.  FoH 
lore.  o|>.  eit.  (fnu    -•'  people').    Nakai' /me '.-—M 
thews.  Navaho  Legends.  op.  eit..  HO.  146. 

Nakaidoklini   (?' freckled   Mexican. '- 
Matthews).     An  Apache  medicine-man 
called     Babbyduclone,     Bardudeclenny 
Bobby-dok-linny,  Nakaydoklunni,  Xock 
ay-Delklinne,  etc.,  by  tlie  whites,  influen 
tial  among  the  White  Mountain  Indian 
in  1881,  near  Camp  Apache,  Ariz.     II 
taught   them  a  new   dance,   claiming  i 
would  bring  dead  warriors  to  life.     In  as 
attempt   to   arrest   him,   August   30,  thf 
Apache  scouts    with   the1  troops  turned! 
upon  the  soldiers,  resulting  in  a  fight  ii 
which  several  were  killed  on  each  sidef 
including  the  medicine-man  himself.     Se|| 
Bonrke  in  9th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  505,  1895 
Mooney  in  14th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  704,  189C 

Nakalas-hadai  (  X«  <i!u'l<is  .m'd( 
'clay-house  people').  A  subdivision 
the  Koetas,  a  family  of  the  Raven  clan  c 
the  Haida,  living  principally  in  Alaska.  - 
Swanton,  Cont.  Haida,  272,"  1905. 

Nakalnas-hadai  (  Xu-k'Ti/  r/ff.s  xa/da- 
'empty-house  people').  (Jiven  by  Boa 
(  Fifth  Re]>.  X.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  27, 1889 
as  a  subdivision  of  the  Yakn-lanas, 
familyof  the  Kaven  clan  of  the  Haidt 
but  in  reality  it  is  only  a  house-nam 
belonging  to  that  family. 
Na  k''alnas  :had'a'i.— Boas,  op.  eit. 

Nakanawan  (Xa'kana'imn).  A  div 
sion  of  the  Caddo.—  Mooney  in  14th  Rej 
B.  A.  Iv,  1092,  189(5. 

Nakankoyo  (Xi'ikan  kt'rfo).  A  form^ 
village  of  the  Maidu  at'  Big  Spring,  i 
Big  meadows,  on  the  x.  fork  of  Feath 
r.,  I'lnmasco.,  Cal.  The  name  is  som 
times  used  for  the  people  of  the  who 
valley.  (R.B.D.)  A 

Nakankoyo.— Dixon  in  I5ull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  II  iff  i 
xvn,  pt.  3,  mup,  1905.  Naku.— Curtin.MS.vocaW 
B.  A.  ]•;.,  i«sr>  (recorded  us  a  division). 

JULL.  30] 



Nakarori  ('many  holes  in  the  rocks'). 
^  small  ranch eria  of  the  Tarahumare  near 
Norogachic,  Chihuahua,  Mexico. — Lum- 
loltz,  inf'n,  1894. 

Nakasinena  ('sagebrush  people').  An 
mportant  division  of  the  Arapaho,  rang- 
ng  about  the  headwaters  of  the  South 
}latte  in  the  region  of  Pike's  Peak  and 
lorthward  along  the  foot  of  Bighorn 
ats.  and  on  Powder  r. ,  in  Colorado  and 
Vyoming.  Although  not  the  largest 
livision,  they  claimed  to  be  the  mother 
>eople  of  the  Arapaho.  They  were  com- 
ooiily  known  to  the  whites  as  Northern 
Arapaho  and  to  the  rest  of  the  tribe  as 
Saachinena.  See  Arapaho.  (j.  M.  ) 

ta'achinena. — Mooney  in  14th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  954, 
896.  BEakuune'na".— Kroeber  in  Bull.  Am.  Mus. 
,'at.  Hist.,  xvm,  7,  1902  ('blood-soup  men':  S. 
irapaho  name).  Baantctiine'na. — Ibid,  ('red- 
/illow  men').  Na'kasine'na.— Mooney,  op.  cit. 
Ta-ka-si'-nin. — Hayden,  Ethnog.  and  Philol.  Mo. 
ral.,  321,  1862.  Nanabine_'na».— Kroeber,  op.  cit. 
'  northern,  men ' ) .  Na"k'haa"seine'na". — Ibid, 
'sagebrush  men ' ).  Northern  Arapaho.— Mooney, 
p.  cit. 

Nakatkhaitunne  ('people  of  the  village 
bove').  A  former  Tututni  village  on 
he  N.  side  of  Rogue  r. ,  Oreg. 

fa'-kat-qai'-  :runne. — Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk- 
jre,  in,  233,  1890  (own  name).  Na'-kut-qe' 
inne'. — Ibid.  (Xaltunnetunne  name.) 

Nakaydi  (the  name  refers  to  the  Mexi- 
an  mode  of  walking  with  toes  turned 
ut;  cf.  Nakai).  A  clan  among  the  White 
lountain  Apache,  composed  of  descend- 
nts  of  Mexican  captives  and  their  Apache 
aptors  (Bourke  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
[i,  114,  1890).  They  correspond  to  the 
Jakai  of  the  Navaho  and  the  Tidendaye 
f  the  Chiricahua. 

Nakeduts-hadai  (Na  q.'e'dAts  j-a'da-i, 
'people  of  the  house  that  went  away 
iscouraged').  A  subdivision  of  the 
raku-lanas,  a  great  family  of  the  Raven 
Ian  of  the  Haida;  probably  the  name 
;as  taken  from  that  of  a  house. — Swan- 
Dn,  Cont.  Haida,  272,  1905. 

Nakeduxo  (NakZ'duxo}.  A  summer  vil- 
ige  of  the  Utkiavinmiut  Eskimo  in 
Jaska.— Murdoch  in  9th  Rep.  B.  A.  E., 
3,  1892. 

Nakhituntunne  (Xa-qi'-tuniun'nc,  'peo- 
le  at  the  two  roads' ).  A  former  village 
f  the  Mishikhwutmetunne  on  Coquille 
.,  Oreg. — Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
:i,  232,  1890. 

Nakhochatunne  (Na'-qo-tcd  lunne].  A 
>rmer  village  of  the  Mishikhwutmetunne 
n  Coquille  r.,  Oreg. — Dorsey  in  Jour. 
,m.  Folk-lore,  m,  232,  1890. 

Nakhopani  ( '  brown  streak,  horizontal 
n  the  ground').  A  Navaho  clan  which 
ad  its  origin  s.  of  Zuni  pueblo,  N.  Mex., 
ear  the  salt  lake  called  Naqopa  by  the 
lavaho,  whence  the  name, 
a/iopani.— Matthews,  Navaho  Legends,  30,  1897. 
aqopani. — Matthews  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in, 
)3,  1890. 

Nakhotodhanyadi  (Naqotod/;aa"yadi,  'al- 
gator  people' ).  A  Biloxi  clan. — Dorsey 
1 15th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  243, 1897. 

Nakhpakhpa  (  '  take  down  leggings  '  )  .    A 
band  of  the  Brule  Teton  Sioux. 
Natipatipa.—  Dorsey  in  15th  Rep.  B    A    E     218 
1897.     Naqpaqpa.—  Ibid. 

Nakhtskum.  A  Yurok  village  on  lower 
Klamath  r.  ,  between  Meta  and  Shregegon, 
x.  w.  Cal.—  A.  L.  Kroeber,  infn,  1905. 

Nakila  (  Na-qi'-la  )  .     Given  as  a  former 
Takelma  village  on  the  s.  side  of  Rogue 
r.,  Oreg.,  about  10  m.  above  Yaasitun.  — 
Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in   235 

Nakkawmininiwak  ('men  of  divers 
races  '  )  .  A  mixed  tribe  of  Cree  and  Chip- 
pewa  on  Saskatchewan  r.,  N.  W.  Ter., 

Nakkawmininiwak.—  Belcourt  (m.  1850)  in  Minn 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  I,  227,  1872.  Nakoukouhirinous.— 
Bacqueville  de  la  Potherie,  Hist.  Am.,  i,  170,  1753. 

Naknahula  (  Naxua/xnla,  ?  'rising  above 
other  tribes').  A  gens  of  the  Koekso- 
tenok,  a  Kwakiutl  tribe.  —  Boas  in  Rep. 
Nat.  Mus.  1895,  330,  1897. 

Nakoaik.  A  former  Chinook  town  on 
the  s.  side  of  Columbia  r.,  Oreg. 

Naqoa'ix.  —  Boas,  infn,  1905.  Navuaiv.  —  Gatschet, 
MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1877. 

Nakoaktok  (Nd'q'oaqttiq,  or  Xd'k.'waj'- 
da?-x'f,  'ten-gens  tribe').  A  Kwakiutl 
tribe  on  Seymour  inlet,  Brit.  Col.,  with  the 
Gyeksem,  *  Kwakokutl,  Sisintlae,  Tsitsi- 
melekala,  and  AValas  gentes,  according 
to  Boas.  According  to  Dawson  the  win 
ter  town  of  these  people  in  1885  was  in 
Blunderi  harbor,  to  which  they  had 
moved  from  an  older  town,  Kikwistok. 
Their  summer  village  was  named  Mapa- 
kum,  and  they  had  a  fishing  station  called 
A  wuts.  Pop.  104  in  1901,  90  in  190(5. 

Nahcoktaws.—  Brit.  Col.  map,  1872.  Nah-keoock- 
to.—  Boas  in  Bull.  Am.  Geog.  Soc.,  22(5,  1887. 
Nah-keuch-to.—  Sproat  in  Can  Ind.  Aft'.,  118,  1879. 
Nah-knock-to.—  Can.  Ind.  Aff.  1883,  pt,  I,  190,  1884. 
Nahkwoch-to.—  Sproat,  op.  cit,,  145.  Nahwahta.— 
Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  pt,  II,  166,  1901.  Na'  k-oartok1.—  Boas 
in  6th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  53,  1890.  Nakok- 
taws.—  Brit.  Col.  map,  1872.  Nakwahtoh.—  Tolmie 
and  Pawson,  Vocabs.  Brit.  Col.,  118B,  1881.  Nak- 
wartoq.—  Boas  in  Bull.  Am.  Geog.  Soc.,  226,  1S87. 
Na'k!wax'da!:x".—  Boas  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat. 
Hist  v  pt.  n,  322,  1902.  Na'-kwok-to.—  Davvson 
in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec.  u,  65,  1887.  Na'q'- 
oaqtoq.—  Boas  in  Rep.  Nat.  Mus.  1895,  329,  1897. 
Naqoartoq.—  Boasin  IVtermanns  Mitt.,  pt.  5,  130, 
1887.  Nar-kock-tau.—  Kane,  Wand,  in  N.  A.,  app., 
1859.  Nuk  wul  tub.  —Tolmie  and  Dawson,  op.  cit., 


Nakolkavik.     A  Kuskwogmiut  Eskimo 

village  on  the  left  bank  of  Kuskokwim  r., 
near  the  mouth,  Alaska.  Pop.  193  in 

Nacholchavigamut.—  Spurr  and    Post  quoi 
Baker  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  1902.    Naghaikhlaviga- 
mute.-PetrolV,  Rep.  on  Alaska    m.-ip,  1 
ghikhlavigamute.—  Ibid.,  17.    Nakolkavik. 

°PNakomgilisala     (Xa<i6'mg'Uisal<t,   J  al 
ways  staying  in  their  country  '  )  .     A  Kwa 
kiutl  tribe  which  formerly  lived  at  < 
Scott,  at  the  N.  end  of  Vancouver  id.,  but 
has  since  moved  to  Hope  id.,  farthers. 
This  and  the  Tlatlasi  koala  together  re 
ceive  the  name  of  Nawiti  from  the  whiten. 
The  two  tribes  numbered  73  in  1897. 
Nakomgilisala  gentes  are  Gyeksem  and 





Nak-o'mgyilisila.-Hoas  in  «.  h  Rep.  \  \V.. ]  v ., 
Can  M.IMHI  Naqo'mg'ihsala.—  Roasin  Re]'.  N,  i. 
M  s.  1SH5  3"'.>  1'  .  Naqomqilis.-B.Mis  in  Bull, 
iiii  (ii'oK  Soc  "26  1**7.  Ne-kum'.-ke-lis-la.— 
«],.i\kiI|iM.ixitiotedT>vDa\vson  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc. 
Can  sec  II,  65,  18*7.  Nokumktesilla.-Brit.  Col. 

"'Nakoiis-hadai  (X<t  yon*  .nVtfa~i,  'great- 
house  people').  A  sulxlivision  ot  the 
Yadus,  a  family  of  the  l-lagle  clan  of  the 
Haida,  named 'from  one  of  their  houses. 
The  Yadus  were  a  part  of  the  Stustas 
^([  v  ).— Swanton,Cont.  Haida,  276,  1905. 

Nakoshkeni  (XdkoxhX'''"',  'place  of  the 
dam'  i.  A  former  Modoc  settlement  at 
the  junction  of  Lost  r.  with  Tule  lake, 
( )n>tr. — ( Jatschet  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Kthnol.,  n, 
pt.  i,  xxxii.  1S90. 

Nakotchokutchin.  A  Kntchin  tribe 
dwelling  on  the  lower  Mackenzie  r..  x.  of 
the  Kawchodinneh,  in  lat.  n'S0  N.,  Ion. 
i:;:;°  w.  Their  hunting  grounds  are  i:.  ot 
the  Marken/.ie  as  far  as  Anderson  r.,  and 
their  chief  game  is  the  caribou.  In  for 
mer  days  they  w  aired  intermittent  warfare 
against' the  Kskimoof  Macketi/ie  r.,  with 
whom,  however,  they  havealways  traded. 
Their  men  numbered  ."•>()  in  1S66. 
Bastard.  — Da  wson  in  Rep.  (ieol.  Surv.  Can.  for 
isss,  'J(H»n,  1  *-*'.».  Gens  de  la  Grande  Riviere.  —  Ross, 
MS.  notes  on  Tinne,  H.  A.  K.  Loucheux.  —  Frank 
lin,  .lourn.  I'olar  Sen,  261.  1*21.  Mackenzie's  R. 
Louchioux.  —  Ross,  MS.  notes  on  Tinne.  H.  A.  K. 
Nakotcho-Kuttchin.  —  I'etitot  in  Bull.  Soc.  deGeog. 
1'arK  cliart,  1*75.  Nakotchpo-ondjig-Kouttchin. — 
I'etitot.  Autour  du  lac  ties  Ksclaves,  361,  1891  (= 
•people  of  the  river  with  Idyll  banks').  Nako- 
tch,,6  ondjig-Kuttchin.  —  I'etitot,  Diet.  Dene-Din- 
djie.  xx.  1*76.  Na-kutch-oo-un  jeek.—  (iibbs.  MS. 
notes  from  Rossi  .'half-caste  Indians').  Na'- 
kutch-u'-un-juk  ku'tchln.  — Ross,  MS.  notes  on 
Tinne.  174.  H.  A.  K. 

Nak.raztli  ('it  flowed  with  arrows  of 
the  enemy1).  A  village  of  the  Niko/li- 
autiu  at  the  outlet  of  Stuart  lake,  Brit. 
Col.  Pop.  17S  in  1901',  h)2  iu  1906. 
Na-ka-ztli.  — Morice  in  Trans.  Can.  Inst..  188.  isyi). 
Na'kraztli.— Ibi<l.  Na'kraztti.— Morice  in  Trans. 
lioy.  Soc.  Can.,  .\,  ]u»i,  l*l.i'2. 

Nakuimana  (Xt'i'kuimaiKt,  'bear  peo 
ple'  i.  A  local  band  of  the  (Southern) 
Cheyenne.  (.1.  M. ) 

Nakuntlun.  The  original  village  of  the 
Tsilkotin,  on  Nakuntluu  lake  at  the 
head  of  Salmon  r.,  Brit.  ( 'ol.,  and  once  the 
mo>t  populous,  but  now  almost  deserted. 

Nakoontloon.  — Tolinie  and  Da  w  son.  Vocabs.  Brit. 
Col.,  122U.  1*^1.  Nakunt'lun.— Morice  in  Trans. 
Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  x.  in1.',  1*'.»2.  Tsoolootum. — (Jainsby 
in  Can.  I'ac.  Ry.  liep.,  17'.t,  1*77. 

Nakwutthume  (  Xd'-yi'il-fcii'-iiu',  'at  the 
gniss  higher  up  the  st  ream  ').  A  former 
village  of  the  ( 'hetco  on  ( 'hetco  r. ,  ( )re<jf. , 
above  all  their  other  \  illaires.  —  Dorsey  in 
Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in,  L'.'Ji;,  IS'.M). 

Nalekuitk  (  X<~i'li'kn //./•).  A  elan  of  the 
Wikeno,  a  Kwakiutl  tribe.  —  Boasin  Kep. 
Nat.  Mns.  1S<)."),  :;-_'S,  1S!)7. 

Nalkitgoniash.  A  .Micmac  village  or 
band  in  17'K),  perhaps  in  Nova  Scotia.— 
!•>>•«•  07*10)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st 

Naltunnetunne  ('people  among  the 
mushrooms').  An  Athapascan  tribe  for- 

merly  living  on  the  coast  of  Oregon  b 
twee'n  the  Tututniand  the  Chetco.  Tlu 
were  not  divided  into  villages,  and  had 
dialect  distinct  from  that  of  the  Tututn 
Thesurvivors  are  now  onSiletzres.,  Oreg 
numbering  77  in  1877,  according  to  Yi 
tor  (Overland  Mo.,  vn,  847,  1877). 
Nal'-te-ne-me'  lunne. —Dorsey,  Chetco  MS.  vocal 
H  V  K  1SS4.  Nal'teneiuniie'.—  Dorsey.  Tutu  M 
vocab.,I5.A.E.J8S4.  Nal'-tun-ne'  junne'.— Dorse 
in. lour.  Am.  Folk-lore, ill, 236, 1890.  Noltanana. 
Ncwcoinb  in  Ind.  A  if.  Rep.,  162,  1861.  Noltns 
nah.—Ind.AfY.  Rep.  1867, 62, 1868.  Nolt-nat-nahs. 
Ind.  AiY.  Rep..  470,  1865.  Noltonatria.— Ind.  A 
Rep  oOO  1877  Nootanana.  —  Ind.  Art'.  Rep.  18t 
505  1864.  Nult-nort-nas.— Ind.Aff.Rep.,495, 186 
Nul-to-nat-na.— Siletz  agency  roll,  1884.  Null 
nat'-tene.— Everette,  Tutu  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  f 
1883  (trans.,  'people  by  the  ocean  '). 

Nama    (Xu»i ii,  'sturgeon').     A  gens  » 
the  Chippewa.     See  NameuUini. 

Na-ma.— Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  166,  1877.  Nama. 
Wm.  Jones, in'f'n,  1906.  Name.— Gatschet,  Ojilnv 
MS..  }\.  A.  K.,  1882.  Numa. — Warren  (185'2)  J 
Minn.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  V,  45, 1885. 

Namabin  (  \r,tnt"ihni,  '  sucker' ) .     A  gei 
of  the  Chippewa. 

Nah-iha-bin.—  Tanner,  Narr.,  315,  1830  <tran 
•carp'».  Nam-a'-bin.— Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  10, 
1S77  i  trans,  'carp').  Namabin. — Wm.  Jono 
inf'n.  I'.tlHl  (siir.  'sucker').'  Numa-bin. — Warro 
(1S52)  in  Minn.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  V,  45, 

Namakagon.     A  former  village  of  th 
Munominikasheenhug    division    of    th 
Chippewa  at  upper  St  Croix  lake,  w. 

Num-a  quag-um. — Ramsey  in  Ind.  Aft".  Rep.,  8( 

Namanu  ('beaver').     A  sUbphratry 
gens  of  the  Menominee. — Hoffman  in  14t 
Rep.  B.  A.  K,  4'2,  1S<)(>. 

Namasket    (from     ixiinaus    'fish',     a 
'land,'  et  'at.'—.).  N.  H.  II).     A  tribe 
band  formerly  living  in  a  village  of  th 
same  name  about  the  site  of  Middleborc 
Mass.     They   were  subordinate  to    tl 
Wampanoag.      The  village  was  populou 
Avheu  lirst  known,  but  the  Indians  ra^ 
idly  decreased  as  the  white  settlemen 
advanced.     In  1794  there  were  still  aboi 
40.     One   family,   named   Mitchell,   sti 
resides  (1907)  near  Middleboro  andclai 
descent  from  King  Philip.     A  member  i 
this  family  wears  a  so-called  Indian  cos 
tume  (see  ]S'ew  England  Mag.,  392,  Dec 
1905).  (j.  M.    F.  o.  8.) 

Lamasket.— Hinckley  (1685)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc 
Coll.,  4th  *.,  v,  133,  1861  (misprint).  Namascet.- 
Dee  in  Smith  (1629),  Va.,  II,  '227,  repr.  1819.  Na 
maschet.— Monrt  (1622)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll. 
2<1  s..  ix,  52,  1822.  Namascheucks.— Monrt  (1622] 
ibid.,  i.v.  52,  1822.  Namasket.— Dernier  (1620] 
ibid.  Namassachusett. — Records  (1644),  ibid.,  VI] 
137,  I*l,s.  Namassakett.— Bradford (ra.  1650), ibid. 
4th  s.,  in,  1(13,  1856.  Namassekett.— Cotton  (1674] 
ibid.,  Ists.,  1,200, 1*06.  Nemascut.— Church (1716 
quoted l>y  Drake,  Ind.  Wars,  75, 1825.  Nemasket.- 
Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  3,  9,  1848.  Nummastaquyt.- 
Denner  (1611))  quoted  by  Drake,  ibid.,  bk.2,20. 

Namassingakent.  A  village  of  the  Pow 
hatan  confederacy  existing  in  1608  on  th' 
s.  bank  of  the  Potomac  in  Fairfax  co. 
Va. — Smith  (1(529),  Va.,  i,  map,  repr 

BULL.  30] 



Namatha  (Na-ma-tha',  'turtle').  A 
gens  of  the  Shawnee. — Morgan,  Anc. 
Soc.,  168,  1877. 

Namaycush.  One  of  the  names  of  the 
lake  trout  (Salmo  namaycush),  Macki 
naw  trout,  or  great  lake  trout,  called 
togue  in  Maine;  from  namekus,  which  in 
the  Cree  dialect  of  Algonquian  signifies 
'trout',  the  Chippewa  word  being  name- 
gos.  Namekus  is  a  diminutive  of  nameiv, 
'fish'.  The  word  originated  in  x.  w. 
Canada.  See  Togue.  (A.  p.  c. ) 

Nambe  (from  Nam-be-e,  the  native 
name,  probably  referring  to  a  round  hill 
or  a  round  valley).  A  Tewa  pueblo, 


situated  about  16 "m.  N.~  of  Santa  Fe, 
N.  Mex.,  on  Nambe  r.,  a  small  tributary 
of  the  Rio  Grande.  It  became  the  seat 
of  a  Franciscan  mission  early  in  the  17th 
century,  but  was  reduced  to  a  visita  of 
Ppjoaque  in  1782.  Like  Santa  Clara  and 
Sia  this  pueblo  doubtless  owes  its  decline 
to  the  constant  intertribal  execution  for 
supposed  evil  practices  of  witchcraft  (Ban- 
delier  in  Arch.  Inst.  Pap.,  in,  35,  1890). 
Pop.  79  in  1890,  100  (est.)  in  1904.  The 
Nambe"  people  claim  to  have  once  inhab 
ited  the  now  ruined  pueblos  of  Agawano, 
Kaayu,  Keguayo,  Kekwaii,  Kopiwari,  and 
Tobhipangge.  The  Nambe  clans,  so  far  as 
known,  are  Cloud  (Owhu),  Birch  (Nana), 

Fire  (Pa),  Mountain  Lion  (Qen)    Ea<*le 
(Tse),    Bear    (Ke),   Tobacco    (Sa),    Sun 
(Tan,     extinct),    Calabash     (Po).     Ant 
(Kungyi),    Earth    (Nang),    Grass    (Ta) 
See  Pueblos,  Tewa.  (F.  w    „.) 

Mambe.— Ward   in  Ind.  AfT.  Rep.  1867    212    1868 
Mambo.-Ward,  ibid.,  1864, 191,  1865.    Na-im-bai.- 


Jouvenceau  in  Oath.  Tion..  i,  no.  9,  12.  1906. 
Na-imbe.— Bandolier  in  Arch.  Inst.  Papers,  in, 
124, 1890.  Na-im-be.— Ibid.,  260  (own  name  of  pue 
blo).  Na-i-mbi.— Ibid.,  iv,  83.  1892  (or  Nambe"). 
Kamba.— Bent  (1849)  in  Cal.  Mess,  and  Corres., 
211  1850  Nambe.—  MS.  en.  1715  quoted  by  Ban- 
del'ier  in  Arch.  Inst.  Papers,  v,  193,  1890. 
Nambe  —  D'Anville,  map  Am.  Sept.,  1746.  Nam- 
behun  —  Gatschet,  Isleta  MS.  voeab.,  B.  A.  E.,1886 
(Isleta  name  for  the  people;  sing.  Nainbe-huide). 


rt,!'lft«riilT«iti«Mi-x.,  111,317,1871.  St.  Fran- 
cii.—  Shea.  <'ath.  Miss.,  Ml.  ]>•">•">.  Vampe.  — 1  ike, 
Kx|«-«l..*linap.  l*»in. 

Nameaug  (Mahiean:  name-attic,  i 
place.'  «»r  'where  fish  are  taken.'— Trum- 
Imll).  A  former  village  near  the  site  of 
NYw  London,  Conn.,  in  which  some  of 
the  con<iuered  Pequot  were  settled  in  1647 
under  the  dominion  of  the  Mahiean.  The 
last  chief  died  about  1740,  but  there  were 
-till  a  considerable  number  of  Indians 
there  in  17^.  (.1.  M.) 

Mameae.  — Kendall,  Trav..  I.  W2.  1809.  Mame- 
eag.  -Stili-s  (17.1'J)  in  Muss.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  Ms., 
\  iul-iu:>.  isi'.i.  Namcet.  —  Mason  (1('>")9),  ibid., 
4th  s  vn;  42:5.  18i;.->.  Nameacke.— Doc.  cited  by 
Tnunbull,  Iii.l.  Names  Conn.,  31.  issl.  Name- 
age  Mason  i  IdlS),  ihi«l..  11H.  Nameaug.  —  Hoyt, 
\ntiii.  Kes..  (VJ.  1821.  Nameeag. -Deed  ( 
quoted  by  Drake,  Hk.  Inds..  bk.  2,  110,  1S4S. 
Nameock.—  Trnmbnll,  Ind.  Names  Conn..  3I.1SS1. 
Nameocke.— Hopkins  (l«M<n  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll  4th  s..  VI,  334,  18C.3.  Nameoke.— Drake,  Bk. 
Inds..  bk.  2.  9.r>,  1^18.  Nameug.— Williams  (lf>17) 
in  Ma-.  Hist.  Soc.  ('..11..  3d  s.,  l.\.  2(18,  IMC,. 
Nameugg.— Dor.  cited  by  Truinbull,  Ind.  Names 
Ci.nn..  :U,  lvsl.  Nammiog.  —  Ibid.  Namyok. — 
Ibid.  Tawawag.— Ibid..  72.  Tawawog.— Deed  of 
li::>t  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  X.  101-103,1809. 
Tfrwawog.— Kendull,  Trav.,  i.  292,  1809. 

Namequa.  The  only  daughter  of  Black 
Hawk  («].  v.),  regarded  as  one  of  the 
handsomest  of  the  Sank  maidens  of  her 
time.  A  young  Baltimorean  of  high  so 
cial  standing,  being  on  a  visit  to  Ft  Madi 
son.  lo\va,  became  enamored  of  her  and 
would  have  made  her  his  wife  but  for  the 
opposition  of  his  Iriends.  Namequa  ap- 
{x-ars  to  have  been  ever  faithful  to  her 
father's  interests  and  to  his  memory,  and 
after  reaching  maturer  years,  and  even 
after  her  marriage,  was  a  constant  help 
to  her  mother,  especially  during  her  fath 
er's  imprisonment  and  after  his  death  in 
1*K  (c.  T.) 

Nameroughquena.  A  viliageof  the  Tow- 
hatan  confederacy  in  Kids,  in  the  present 
Alexandria <•<>.,  Ya.,  on  the  s.  hank  of  the 
1'otumac,  opposite  NN'ashin^ton,  I).  ('. — 
S^mh  (HiL".n,  Va..  i.  map,  repr.  lsl<). 
^X^Names  and  Naming.  Amon^r  thi^  In 
dians  personal  names  were  j^iven  and 
changed  at  the  critical  epochs  of  life,  such 
a*  birth,  puberty,  the  lirst  war  expedi 
tion,  some  notable  feat,  elevation  to  chief 
tainship,  and,  finally,  retirement  from 
active  life  was  marked  by  the  adoption 
of  the  name  of  one's  son.  In  general, 
names  may  he  divided  into  two  classes: 
(1)  True  names,  corresponding  to  our 
ixTHoiial  names,  and  (!')  names -which 
answer  rather  to  our  titles  and  honorary 
appellations.  The  former  define  or  indi 
cate  the  Hoeial  group  into  which  a  man  is 

born,  whatever  honor  they  entail  being 
due  to  the  accomplishments  of  ancestors, 
while  the  latter  mark  what  the  individual 
has  done  himself. 

There  are  characteristic:  tribal  differ 
ences  in  names,  and  where  a  clan  system 
existed  each  clan  had  its  own  setof  names, 
distinct  from  those  of  all  other  clans,  and, 
in  the  majority  of  cases,  referring  to  the 
totem  animal,  plant,  or  object  At  the 
same  time  there  were  tribes  in  which 
names  apparently  had  nothing  to  do  with 
totems,  and  some  such  names  were  apt 
to  occur  in  clans  having  totemic  names. 
Most  Siouan  clans  and  bands  had  names 
that  were  applied  in  a  definite  order  to  the 
hoys  and  girls  born  into  them.  AMohave 
child  born  out  of  wedlock  received  some 
ancient  name,  not  commonly  employed 
in  the  tribe.  Among  the  interior  Salish, 
where  there  were  no  clans,  names  were 
usually  inherited  in  both  the  male  and 
female  lines  for  several  generations, 
though  new  names  were  continually  in 
troduced  that  were  taken  from  dreams 
or  noteworthy  events.  Loskiel  records 
that  a  Delaware  child  was  often  named 
in  accordance  with  some  dream  that  had 
come  to  its  father.  According  to  Ross, 
a  father  among  some  of  the  northern 
Athapascan  tribes  lost  bis  name  as  soon 
as  a  male  child  was  born  and  was  hence 
forth  called  after  the  name  of  his  son- 
a  Thlingchadinne  changed  his  name  after 
the  birth  of  each  successive  child,  while 
an  unmarried  man  was  known  as  the 
child  of  his  favorite  dog.  Among  the 
Maidu  infants  might  be  named  with  ref 
erence  to  some  incident  occurring  at  the 
time  of  birth,  but  many  received  no 
names  other  than  such  general  appella 
tions  as 'child,'  'baby,'  or  'boy,'  until 
they  were  old  enough  to  exhibit  some 
characteristic  which  suggested  something 
appropriate.  The  father  and  mother  ad 
dressed  a  boy  all  his  life  by  his  boyhood 
name.  A  girl,  however,  received  differ 
ent  successive  names  at  puberty,  child 
birth,  and  in  old  age.  TheKiowa,  being 
without  elans,  received  names  suggested 
by  some  passing  incident  or  to  commemo 
rate  a  warlike  exploit  of  some  ancestor. 
Sometimes,  however,  they  were  heredi 
tary,  and  in  any  case1,  they  were  bestowed 
by  the  grandparents  to  the  exclusion  of 
the  parents.  Young  men  as  they  grew 
up  usually  assumed  dream  names,  In  obe 
dience  to  visions. 

The  naming  of  a  rich  man's  child 
among  the  coast  Salish  was  accompanied 
by  a  great  feast  and  distribution  of  prop 
erty,  and  an  invited  chief  publicly  an 
nounced  the  name  given.  Names  even 
originally  belonging  to  the  higher  class 
were  bestowed  upon  young  people 
among  the  Haida  and  Tlingit  when 
their  relatives  had  potlatches,  and  it 

BULL.  30] 



thus  resulted  that  names  individually 
acquired  became  in  time  hereditary  and 
were  added  to  the  list  of  common  names 
owned  by  the  clan. 

The  second  name,  or  title,  was  some 
times,  as  has  been  said,  bestowed  on 
account  of  some  brave  or  meritorious 
action.  Thus  a  Pawnee  "  was  permitted 
to  take  a  new  name  only  after  the  per 
formance  of  an  act  indicative  of  great 
ability  or  strength  of  character,"  and  it 
was  done  during  a  public  ceremonial. 
Among  the  Siouan  tribes  a  similar  cus 
tom  seems  to  have  prevailed,  but  among 
the  Maidu  of  California  entrance  into  the 
secret  society  took  its  place  as  a  reason 
for  the  bestowal  of  new  titles.  On  the 
N.  W.  coast  a  man  adopted  one  of  the 
potlatch,  or  sacred,  names  of  his  pred 
ecessor  when  he  gave  the  mortuary 
feast  and  erected  the  grave  post.  At 
every  subsequent  potlatch  he  was  at 
liberty  to  adopt  an  additional  title,  either 
one  used  by  his  predecessor  or  a  new 
one  commemorative  of  an  encounter  with 
a  supernatural  being  or  of  some  success  in 
war  or  feast-giving.  Along  with  his  place 
in  a  secret  society  a  Kwakiutl  obtained 
the  right  to  certain  sacred  names  which 
had  been  received  by  the  first  holder  of 
his  position  from  the  spirit  patron  of  the 
society  and  \vere  used  only  during  the 
season  of  the  ceremonial,  like  the  titles 
employed  in  the  fraternal  and  other 
societies  of  civili/ed  life.  The  second 
name  among  this  people  also  marks  indi 
vidual  excellence  rather  than  the  attain 
ment  of  an  hereditary  position,  for  the 
person  did  not  succeed  to  the  office,  but 
had  to  pass  through  a  long  period  of 
training  and  labor  to  be  accepted.  After 
a  man  died  his  name  was  held  in  abey 
ance  for  a  longer  or  shorter  period,  and 
if  it  were  taken  from  the  name  of  some 
familiar  object,  the  name  of  that  object 
often  had  to  be  altered,  but  the  taboo 
period  was  not  longer  than  \vould  aiiow 
the  person's  successor  to  collect  his  prop 
erty  and  give  the  death  feast,  and  a  sim 
ple  phonetic  change  often  satisfied  all 
scruples.  Changes  of  this  kind  seem  to 
have  been  carried  to  greater  extremes  by 
some  tribes,  notably  the  Kiowa,  where, 
on  the  death  of  any  member  of  a  family 
all  the  others  take  new  names,  while  all 
the  terms  suggesting  the  name  of  the 
dead  person  are  dropped  from  the  lan 
guage  for  a  period  of  years.  Among  the 
coast  Salish  a  single  name  was  often 
used  by  successive  chiefs  for  four  or 
five  generations.  Among  the  Iroquois 
and  cognate  tribes,  according  to  Hewitt, 
the  official  name  of  a  chieftaincy  is  also 
the  official  name  of  the  officer  who  may 
for  the  time  being  become  installed  in  it, 
and  the  name  of  this  chieftaincy  is  never 
changed,  no  matter  how  many  persons 

3456— Bull.  30,  pt  2— G/ 2 

may  successively  become  incumbents  of 
it.  Unlike  the  Indians  of  most  tribes  a 
Pueblo,  although  bearing  several  names 
usually  retained  one  name  throughout 
life.  In  many  tribes  a  curious  custom 
prohibited  a  man  from  directly  address 
ing  his  wife,  his  mother-in-law,  and 
sometimes  his  father-in-law,  and  vice 

Names  of  men  and  women  were  usually, 
though  not  always,  different.  When  not 
taken  from  the  totem  animal,  they  were 
often  grandiloquent  terms  referring  to  the 
greatness  and  wealth  of  the  bearer,  or  they 
mightcommemorate  some  special  triumph 
of  the  family,  while,  as  among  the  Xavaho, 
nicknames  referring  to  a  personal  charac 
teristic  were  often  used.  The  first  name 
frequently  refers  to  something  which  es 
pecially  impressed  the  child's  mother  at 
the  time  of  its  birth.  Often  names  wen- 
ironical  and  had  to  be  interpreted  in  a 
manner  directly  opposite  to  the  apparent 
sense.  A  failure  to  understand  this,  along 
with  faulty  interpretation,  has  brought 
about  strange,  sometimes  ludicrous,  mis 
conceptions.  Thus  the  name  of  a  I  >ak<  >tn 
chief,  translated  '  Young-man-afraid-of- 
his-horses,'  really  signifies  'Young  man 
whose  very  horses  are  feared."  Where 
the  clan  system  did  not  flourish,  as 
among  the  Salish,  the  name  often  in 
dicated  the  object  in  nature  in  which 
a  person's  guardian  spirit  was  supposed 
to  dwell.  Names  for  houses,  and  canoes 
went  by  families  and  clans  like  personal 
names  and  property  in  general. 

Names  could  often  be  loaned,  pawned, 
or  even  given  or  thrown  away  outright; 
on  the  other  hand,  they  might  be  adopted 
out  of  revenge  without  the  consent  of  the 
owner.  The  possession  of  a  name  was 
everywhere  jealously  guarded,  and  it  was 
considered  discourteous  or  even  insulting 
to  address  one  directly  by  it.  This  reti 
cence,  on  the,  part  of  some  Indians  at  lea.-t, 
appears  to  have  been  due  to  the  fact  that 
every  man,  and  every  thing  as  well,  was 
supposed  to  have  a  real  name  which  so 
perfectly  expressed  bin  inmost  nature  as 
to  be  practically  identical  with  him. 
This  name  might  long  remain  unknown 
to  all,  even  to  its  owner,  but  at  some  crit 
ical  period  in  life  it  was  confidentially 
revealed  to  him.  It  was  largely  on  ac 
count  of  this  sacred  character  that  an  In 
dian  commonly  refused  to  give  his  proper 
designation,  or,  when  pressed  for  an  an 
swer,  asked  someone  else?  to  speak  it. 
Among  the  Maidu  it  was  not  customary, 
in  addressing  a  person,  to  use  the  name 
descriptive  of  his  personal  characteristics. 

In  modern  times  the  problem  of  satis 
factorily  naming  Indians  for  purposes  of 
permanent  record  has  been  very  pu/- 
zling  owing  to  their  custom  of  changing 
names  and  to  the  ignorance  on  the  part 



[  B.  A.  E. 

of  persons  in  authority  of  native  cus 
toms  and  methods  of  reckoning  descent. 
According  to  Mooney,  Setimkia,  'Bear 
hearing  down  (an  antagonist),'  thejion- 
oraMe  war  name  of  a  noted  Kiowa 
chief,  is  mistranslated  'Stumbling-Bear.' 
Tenepiabi,  'Bird  coming  into  sight',  has 
I »een  popularly  known  as  'Humming 
bird'  since  he 'was  a  prisoner  in  Florida 
in  1S75,  probably  a  mistake  for  'Coining 
bird.'  Hajo,  a  Creek  war  title  signifying 
'recklessly  bravo, '  is  popularly  rendered 
'cra/y,'  as  in  the  case  of  Chito  Hajo, 
leader  of  the  Creek  opposition  to  allot 
ment,  whose  name  is  popularly  and  offi 
cially  rendered  '  Cra/.y  Snake/  Even 
when  translated  correctly  an  Indian  name 
often  conveys  an  impression  to  a  white 
man  quite  the  reverse  of  the  Indian  con 
notation.  Thus  'StinkingSaddlelUanket' 
(Takaibodal)  might  be  considered  an  op- 
probious  epithet,  whereas  it  is  an  honor 
ary  designation,  meaning  that  the  bearer 
of 'it,  a  Kiowa,  was  on  the  warpath  so  con 
tinuously  that  he  did  not  have  time  to 
take  off  his  saddle  blanket.  '  Vnable-to- 
buy,'  the  name  of  a  llaida  chief,  instead 
of  indicating  his  poverty,  commemorates 
an  occasion  when  a  rival  chief  did  not 
have  enough  property  to  purchase  a  cop 
per  plate  he  offered  for  sale. 

In  recent  years  the  Office  of  Indian  Af 
fairs  has  made  an  effort  to  systematize 
the  names  of  some  of  the' Indians  for  the 
purpose  of  facilitating  land  allotments,  etc. 
By  circular  issued  Dec.  1,  1902,  the  office 
set  forth  the  following  principles  govern 
ing  the  recording  of  Indian  names  on 
agency  rolls,  etc.:  (1)  The  father's  name 
should  l>e  the  family  surname;  (2)  the 
Indian  name,  unless  too  long  and  clumsy, 
should  he  preferred  to  a  translation; 
(.'>)  a  clumsy  name  may  be  arbitrarily 
shortened  (by  one  familiar  with  the  lan 
guage)  without  losing  its  identity;  (4) 
if  the  use  of  a  translation  seems  neces 
sary,"  or  if  a  translation  has  come  into 
such  general  and  accepted  use  that  it 
ought  to  be  retained,  that  name  should 
be  written  as  one  word. 

Consult  Boas  in  Kep.  Nat.  Mus.  1895, 
181*7;  Cook  in  I  nd.  Aff.  Kep.  1904, 423-427, 
1905;  Dixon  in  Bull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist., 
xvii,  pt.  ?>,  M)i)5;  .}.  ().  horsey  in  3d 
Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  lss-4;  Fletcher  in  Am 
Anthrop.,  Jan.  1899;  Hill-Tout  (1)  in  Kep. 
Brit.  A.  A.  S.,  1902,  (2)  in  Am.  Anthrop., 
vn,  no.  4,  1905;  (iatschet,  Creek  Migr. 
Leg.,  I,  M,  1884-88;  Loskiel,  I  list,  of  Mis 
sions  of  I'nited  Brethren,  1794;  Mooney, 
Calendar  Hist.  Kiowa,  17th  Rep.  B.  A.  !•! 
1898;  JJiggs,  Dakota-Kng.  Diet.,  1852; 
Sapir  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  i\,  no.  2,  1907; 
Speck,  ibid.;  Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.,  n,  no.  4,  1900.  (.1.  u.  s. ) 

Nameuilini  ( AY/ ///////•/?/////,  'sturgeon 
man.'  —  \V.  .1.).  A  band  living  x.  w.  of 

L.  Superior,  between  Rainy  lake  and  L. 
Nipigon,  in  Algoma,  Ontario,  about  1760. 
Chauvignerie  says  their  totem  was  a  stur 
geon.  They  are*  probably  the  Nama  gens 
of  the  Chippewa. 

Kinongeouilini.—  St  Pierre  (1753)  in  Margry,  Dec., 
VI,  644,  1886.  Nakonkirhirimms. — Dobbs,  Hudson 
B.iy,  23,  1744.  Namawinini.— YVm.  Jones,  inf'n, 
1901).  Nameanilieu. — Schoolcraft,  I  ml.  Tribes,  in, 
556,  1S53  (misprint).  NameSilinis.— Chauvignerie 
(1736)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist,,  IX,  1054,  1855. 
Namewilinis.— Doc.  of  1736  in  \Vis.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
xvn,  246, 1906.  Sturgeon  In.dians.— Dobbs,  Hudson 
Bay,  13, 1744. 

Namoit.  A  village  of  a  tribe  of  the 
Chinookan  family  formerly  situated  on 
the  Columbia  side  of  Sauvies  id.,  Oreg., 
near  its  lower  end.  According  to  Lane 
(hid.  Aff.  Kep.,  11)1,  1850)  the  inhabitants 
in  1850  were  associated  with  the  Cathla- 
eumup  and  Katlaminimim.  Nothing 
-more  is  known  of  them.  (L.  F.  ) 

Mamnit.— Gairdner,  after  Framboise  (1835),  in 
Jour.  Geog.  Soc.  Lond.,  xi,  255,  1841.  Nah-moo- 
itk.—  Lyman  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soc.  Quar.,  1,322,  1900. 
Namo'itk. — Boas,  inf'n,  1905.  Namowit. — Ross, 
Adventures,  106,  1S49.  Naw-moo-it.— Ibid.,  236. 

Namontack.  A  trusted  Powhatan  Ind- 
dian  whom  Powhatan  gave  to  Capt.  New 
port  in  1608  in  return  for  the  English  boy, 
Thomas  Savage,  left  with  the  former  for 
the  purpose  of  gaining  knowledge  of  the 
language,  manners,  customs,  and  geog 
raphy  of  tidewater  Virginia.  Namontack 
was  of  shrewd  and  subtle  character,  and 
proved  of  service  to  the  English  in  pre 
venting  attack  and  in  obtaining  needed 
corn  (Smith,  Works,  Arber  ed.,  128, 1884). 
He  was  subsequently  sent  to  England, 
and  on  the  way  back,  in  1610,  was  mur 
dered  in  the  Burmudas  by  an  Indian 

Nampa  image.  A. small  human  figure  of 
baked  clay,  1  £  in.  in  height,  apparently  in 
tended  to  represent  a  female.  It  is  so 
much  injured  by  exposure  that  the  fea 
tures  are  entirely  destroyed  and  the 
hands  and  feet  are  missing.  It  derives  its 
archeological  interest  from  the  fact  that  it 
is  said  to  have  been  brought  from  a  depth 
of  320  ft  by  an  artesian  well  sand-pump, 
at  Nampa,  Idaho,  in  1889.  According  to 
Emmons,  the  formations  in  which  the 
pump  was  operating  are  of  late  Ter 
tiary  or  early  Quaternary  age;  and  the 
apparent  improbability  of  the  occurrence 
of  a  well-modeled  human  figure  in  de 
posits  of  such  great  antiquity  has  led  to 
grave  doubt  as  to  its  authenticity.  It  is 
one  of  those  discoveries  which,  on  ac 
count  of  the  importance  of  the  prob 
lems  involved,  requires  definitive  veri 
fication.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that 
the  age  of  this  object,  supposing  it  to  be 
authentic,  corresponds  with  that  of  the 
incipient  man  whose  bones  wrere  recently 
recovered  by  Dubois  from  the  late  Ter 
tiary  or  early  Quaternary  formations  of 
Java,  and  it  follows  that  the  autochthon 
ous  American  sculptor  had  produced  this 

BULL.  30] 


''beautifully  formed"  iigure  of  a  woman 
at  a  period  when  the  Master  of  the  Uni 
verse  had  succeeded  only  in  blocking  out 
the  first  rude  suggestion  of  the  human 
form  divine  in  the  Old  World. 

The  history  of  this  specimen  is  given 
by  Wright  in  Proc.  Boston  Soc.  Nat. 
Hist.,  Jan.  1890,  and  Feb.  1891.  Em- 
mons'  statement  regarding  the  age  of  the 
formations  involved  is  given  in  the  same 
connection.  Its  authenticity  is  ques 
tioned  by  Powell  in  Pop.  Sci.  Monthly, 
July,  1893.  (w.  n.  H.)" 

Namskaket.  A  Nauset  village  on  or 
near  Namskaket  cr.,  Barnstableco.,  Mass. 
The  Indians  sold  the  site  in  1644. 
Naamskeket.— Freeman  (1792)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  1st  s.,  I,  232,  1806.  Naemschatet.—  Bradford 
(ra.  1(540),  ibid., 4th  s.,  in,  373, 1856.  Namskeket.— 
Morton  (1668)  quoted  by  Drake,  Ind.  Wars,  276, 
1825.  Naumskachett. — Bradford  ( ra.J.650)  in  Mass 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  4th  s.,  in,  219,  1856. 

Namukatsup.  A  former  Chitiniacha 
village  in  St  Martins  parish,  La. 

Bayou  Chene  village. — Gatsehet  in  Trails.  Anthrop. 
Soc.  Wash.,  n,  152,  1883.  Namu  katsup.— Ibid. 
(n<irm*= '  village '). 

Namumpam.     See  Wetamoo. 

Nana  (also  Nanay,  Narie).  A  subordi 
nate  chief  and  warrior  of  the  Chiricahua 
Apache  daring  their  hostilities  against  the 
whites  in  the  latter  part  of  the  19th  cen 
tury.  He  was  Victorio's  associate  until 
the  death  of  the  latter  in  Mexico  in  1880. 
In  July  1881,  with  15  warriors  who  had 
been  with  Yictorio,  Nana  crossed  the  Rio 
Grande  and  made  his  way  into  New  Mex 
ico,  where  he  was  joined  by  25  Mescaleros. 
He  then  made  a  rapid  and  bloody  raid 
across  the  southern  part  of  the  territory, 
falling  upon  herders  and  prospectors, 
murdering  them  without  mercy.  The 
band  was  driven  back  to  Mexico  by  the 
troops  in  August  of  the  same  year.  This 
was  probably  the  last  serious  raid  made 
by  Nana,  wrho  was  now  an  old  man. 
Bourke  (Apache  Campaign,  99,  1886)  de 
scribes  him  as  having  "a  strong  face, 
marked  with  intelligence,  courage,  and 
good  nature,  but  with  an  under  stratum 
of  cruelty  and  vindictiveness.  He  has 
received  many  wounds  in  his  countless 
fights  with  the  whites,  and  limps  very 
perceptibly  in  one  leg."  Lummis  (Land 
D!  Poco  Tiempo,  178, 1893)  speaks  of  Nana 
as  fond  of  wearing  in  each  ear  a  huge  gold 
watch  chain. 

Nana.  Tire  Birch  clan  of  the  Tewa 
pueblo  of  Nambe,  N.  Mex. 

Nana-tdoa.— Hodge  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  IX,  352,1896 
Jd6a='  people'). 

Nanabozho.  The  demiurge  of  the  cos- 
nologic  traditions  of  the  Algonquian 
Bribes,  known  among  the  various  peoples 
)y  several  unrelated  names,  based  on 
jome  marked  characteristic  or  dominant 
unction  of  this  personage.  Among  these 
lames  are  Jamum,  Kloskap  (Gloskap), 
Vlanabozho,  Messou,  Michabo,  Mina- 

bozho,  Misabos,  Xapiw,  Xenabozho 
Wieska,  Wisakedjak,  and  their  dialectic 
variants.  The  etymologies  proposed  for 
these  several  names  are  most  probably 
incorrect,  wholly  or  in  material  parts. 

Nanabozho  is  apparently  the  imper 
sonation  of  life,  the  active  quickening 
power  of  'life— of  life  manifested  and 
embodied  in  the  myriad  forms  of  sen 
tient  and  physical  nature.  He  is  there 
fore  reputed  to  possess  not  only  the 
power  to  live,  but  also  the  correlative, 
power  of  renewing  his  own  life  and 
of  quickening  and  therefore  of  creating 
life  in  others.  He  impersonates  life  in 
an  unlimited  series  of  diverse  personali 
ties  which  represent  various  phases  and 
conditions  of  life,  and  the  histories  of  the 
life  and  acts  of  these  separate  indivit^nali- 
ties  form  an  entire  cycle  of  traditions  and 
myths  which,  when  compared  one  with 
another,  are  sometimes  apparently  con 
tradictory  and  incongruous,  relating,  as 
these  stories  do,  to  the  unrelated  objects 
and  subjects  in  nature.  The  conception 
named  Nanabozho  exercises  the  diverse 
functions  of  many  persons,  and  he  like 
wise  suffers  their  pains  and  needs.  He 
is  this  life  struggling  with  the  many 
forms  of  want,  misfortune,  and  death  that 
come  to  the  bodies  and  beings  of  nature. 

The  true  character  of  the  concept  em 
bodied  in  the  personality  called  Nana 
bozho  has  been  misconceived.  Horatio 
Hale,  for  example,  calls  the  Chippevva 
Nanabozho  a  fantastic  deity,  declaring 
him  to  have  no  relation  to  the  Iroquois 
Te'horo"'hiawa'k'ho"',  whereas  he  is  in 
everything  but  minor  details  identical 
with  the  Iroquoian  conception  embodied 
in  the  latter  personality.  Few,  if  any,  of 
the  characteristic  acts  and  functions  of 
the  one  may  not  safely  and  correctly  be 
predicated  of  the  other,  and  it  is  a  remark 
able  parallel  if  the  one  is  not  a  concept 
borrowed  by  the  people  of  one  linguistic 
family  from  the  thought  of  the  other.  If 
independent  creations,  they  agree  in  so 
many  points  that  it  is  more  than  probable 
that  the  one  suggested  the  other.  Kvon 
the  play  of  popular  interpretation  and 
etymologic  analysis  have  made  like  er 
rors  in  the  events  connected  with  the  life 
history  of  each.  In  the  Iroquois  legend 
the  brother  of  Te'horo'"hiawa'k'ho"  is 
reputed  to  have  been  embodied  in  chert 
or  flint,  a  statement  based  on  a  miscon 
ception  arising  from  the  common  origin 
of  some  terms  denotive  of  ice  on  the  one 
hand  and  of  chert  on  the  other.  A  like 
error  gave  rise  to  the  Chippewa  name  for 
chert  or  flint  (1  miskwam) t  which  signi 
fies  'ice-stone,'  and  the  connection  be 
tween  inolxinii,  'wolf,'  and  ma'halig,  'a 
flint  or  chert,'  also  a  name  of  Chakeke- 
napok,  the  brother  of  Nanabozho.  The 
confusion  is  that  the  ruler  of  winter,  the 



[B.  A.  B. 

ruler  clothed  in  frost,  ice,  and  snow,  is 
identified  with  chert  or  flint,  in  Iroquois 
too,  hernuse  of  the  identity  of  origin  be 
tween  the  terms  for  crystal  or  sparkling 
ice  and  the  smooth  glistening  surface  of 
chert  or  Hint. 

In  Potawatomi  and  cognate  tradition 
Nanal>o/ho  is  the  eldest  of  male  quad 
ruplets,  the  beloved  Chipiapoos  being  the 
second,  Wabosbo  the  third,  and  Chake 
kenapok  the  fourth.  They  were  begot 
ten  by  a  great  primal  being,  who  had 
come  to  earth,  and  were  born  of  a  reputed 
daughter  of  the  children  of  men.  Nana- 
bo/.ho  was  the  professed  and  active  friend 
of  the  human  race.  The  mild  and  gentle 
but  unfortunate  Chipiapoos  became  the 
warder  of  the  dead,  the  ruler  of  the  coun 
try  of  the  manes,  after  this  transforma 
tion.  Wabosso  ( 'Maker  of  White'),  see 
ing  the  sunlight,  went  to  the  northland, 
where,  assuming  the  form  of  a  white  hare, 
he  is  regarded  as  possessing  most  potent 
manito  or  orenda  (q.  v. ).  Lastly,  Cha- 
kekenapok,  named  from  chert,  flint,  or 
tirestone  (?fire),  was  the  impersonation 
originally  of  winter,  and  in  coming  into 
the  world  ruthlessly  caused  the  death  of 
his  mother. 

Having  attained  the  age  of  manhood, 
Nanabo/ho,  still  feeling  deep  resentment 
for  the  death  of  his  mother,  resolved  to 
avenge  it  by  the  destruction  of  his  brother 
Chakekenapok.  The  two  brothers  soon 
grappled  with  each  other.  Chakekenapok 
finally  turned  and  tied,  but  Nanabo/ho 
pursued  him  over  the  world,  finally  over 
taking  and  striking  him  with  a  deerhorn 
<>r  a  chert,  fracturing  or  chipping  pieces 
from  various  parts  of  his  body,  and  de 
stroying  him  by  tearing  out  his  entrails. 
The  fragments  from  Chakekenapok' s  body 
became  huge  rocks,  and  the  masses  of 
Hint  or  chert  found  in  various  parts  of  the 
world  show  where  the  conflicts  between 
the  two  brothers  took  place,  while  his 
entrails  became  vines.  Before  the  Indians 
knew  the  art  of  lire-making  Nanabo/ho 
taught  them  the  art  of  making  hatchets, 
lances,  and  arrowpoints. 

Nanaho/ho  and  Chipiapoos  dwelt  to 
gether  in  a  lain?  far  removed  from  the 
haunts  of  mankind.  They  were  noted 
for  excellence  of  body  and  beneficence  of 
mind,  and  for  the  supreme  character  of 
the  magic  power  they  possessed.  These 
qualities  and  attributes  excited  the  bitter 
antagonism  of  the  evil  manitos  of  the  air, 
earth,  and  waters,  who  plotted  to  destroy 
the>e  two  brothers.  Nanabo/ho,  who 
was,  immune  to  the  effects  of  adverse 
orenda  and  from  whose  knowledge  noth 
ing  \\as  haired,  knew  their  snares  and 
devices  and  hence  eluded  and  avoided 
them.  He,  however,  warned  Chipiapoos, 
his  less-gifted  brother,  not  to  leave  their 
lodge  or  to  separate  from  him  even  fora 

moment.  But,  disregarding  this  admoni 
tion,  one  day  Chipiapoos  ventured  outoT 
the  lodge  and  went  on  the  ice  of  a  great 
lake,  probably  L.  Michigan.  This  temerity 
was  the  opportunity  sought  by  the  mani 
tos,  who  broke  the  ice,  causing  Chipia 
poos  to  sink  to  the  bottom  of  the  lake, 
where  his  body  was  hidden  by  the  mani 
tos.  Upon  returning  to  the  lodge,  Nana 
bozho,  missing  Chipiapoios  and  surmising 
his  fate,  became  inconsolable.  Every 
where  over  the  face  of  the  earth  he  sought 
for  him  in  vain.  Then  he  became  en 
raged  and  waged  relentless  war  against 
all  manitos,  wreaking  vengeance  by  pre 
cipitating  a  multitude  of  them  into  the 
abyss  of  the  world,  lie  next  declared  a 
truce  in  order  to  mourn  for  his  brother, 
disfiguring  his  person  and  covering  his 
head  to  indicate  grief,  bitterly  weeping, 
and  uttering  from  time  to  time  the  name 
of  the  lost  and  unhappy  Chipiapoos.  It 
is  said  Nanabozho  secluded  himself  for 
six  years  in  his  lodge  of  mourning. 
During  this  truce  the  evil  manitos, 
knowing  the  unlimited  powers  of  Nana 
bozho  and  recollecting  the  destruction 
of  the  vast  numbers  of  manitos  by  their 
metamorphosis  to  gratify  his  anger, 
consulted  together  to  devise  means 
for  pacifying  Nanabozho' s  wrath;  but 
through  fear  of  their  great  adversary 
their  plans  came  to  naught.  At  last  four 
of  the  manitos,  hoary  with  age  and  ripe 
in  experience  and  wisdom,  and  who  had 
not  been  parties  to  the  death  of  Chipia 
poos,  undertook  a  mission  of  pacification. 
Having  built  a  lodge  of  condolence  near 
that  of  Nanabozho,  they  prepared  a  feast 
of  welcome,  filling  with  tobacco  a  pipe 
the  stem  of  which  was  a  calumet,  and 
then  silently  and  ceremoniously  moved 
toward  their  antagonist.  The  four  am 
bassadors  severally  carried  a  bag  made 
from  the  entire  skin  of  an  otter,  a  lynx, 
a  beaver,  or  of  some  other  animal,  which 
contained  magically  potent  medicines 
and  powerful  fetishes.  Arriving  at  the 
lodge  of  Nanabozho,  they  chanted  to 
him  with  ceremonial  formality  their  good 
intentions  and  kind  greetings,  and  asked 
him  to  be  pleased  to  accompany  them  to 
their  lodge.  Moved  by  these  greetings, 
Nanabozho  uncovered  his  head,  and, 
arising,  washed  himself  and  then  accom 
panied  them.  On  his  entering  the  lodge 
the  manitos  offered  him  a  cup  of  purifica 
tion  medicine  preparatory  to  his  initia 
tion  into  the  Mide,  or  Grand  Medicine 
Society.  Nanabo/ho  partook  of  the  draft, 
and  at  once  found  himself  completely 
freed  from  feelings  of  resentment  and 
melancholy.  Then  the  prescribed  ritual 
was  performed  by  the  manitos.  The 
proper  dances  and  the  chants  of  the  Mide 
were  chanted,  and  the  four  manitos,  hu- 
mani/ed  primal  beings,  gently  applied  to 

BULL.  30] 



Nanabozho  their  pindikosan,  or  magically 
potent  medicine-bags,  which,  after  cere 
monially  blowing  their  orenda  or  magic 
power  into  him,  they  cast  on  the  ground. 
At  every  fall  of  the  medicine-bags  Nana- 
bozho  became  aware  that  the  melancholy, 
sadness,  hatred,  and  anger  that  oppressed 
him  gradually  left,  and  that  beneficent 
affection  and  feelings  of  joy  arose  in  his 
heart.  On  the  completion  of  his  initia 
tion  he  joined  in  the  dances  and  in  the 
chanting;  then  they  all  ate  and  smoked 
together,  and  Nanabozho  expressed 
thanks  to  his  hosts  for  initiating  him  into 
the  mysteries  of  the  grand  medicine. 

To  further  show  their  good  will,  the 
manitos,  by  the  exercise  of  their  magic 
powers,  brought  back  the  missing  Chipia- 
poos,  but,  owing  to  his  metamorphosis, 
he  was  forbidden  to  enter  the  lodge. 
Having  received  a  lighted  torch  through 
a  chink  in  the  walls  of  the  lodge,  he  was 
required  to  go  to  rule  the  country  of 
the  manes,  where,  with  the  lighted  torch 
he  carried,  he  should  kindle  a  fire  that 
should  never  be  extinguished,  for  the 
pleasure  of  his  uncles  and  aunts — namely, 
all  men  and  women — who  would  repair 
thither.  Subsequently,  Nanabozho  again 
descended  upon  the  earth,  and  at  once  ini 
tiated  all  his  family  in  the  mysteries  of 
the  grand  medicine.  He  provided  each 
of  them  with  a  medicine-bag,  well  sup 
plied  with  potent  medicines,  charms,  and 
fetishes.  He  also  strictly  enjoined  upon 
them  the  need  of  perpetuating  the  accom 
panying  ceremonies  among  their  de 
scendants,  explaining  to  them  that  these 
practices  faithfully  observed  would  cure 
their  diseases,  obtain  for  them  abundance 
in  fishing  and  hunting,  and  gain  for  them 
complete  victory  over  their  enemies. 

Some  hold  to" the  doctrine  that  Nana 
bozho  created  the  animals  for  the  food 
and  raiment  of  man ;  that  he  caused  those 
plants  and  roots  to  grow  whose  virtues 
cure  disease  and  enable  the  hunter  to  kill 
wild  animals  in  order  to  drive  away  fam 
ine.  These  plants  he  confided  to  the 
watchful  care  of  his  grandmother,  the 
great-grandmother  of  the  human  race, 
Mesakkummikokwi,  and  lest  man  should 
invoke  her  in  vain  she  was  strictly  for 
bidden  ever  to  leave  her  lodge.  So,  when 
collecting  plants,  roots,  and  herbs  for 
their  natural  and  magic  virtues,  an  Al- 
gonquian  Indian  faithfully  leaves  on  the 
ground  hard  by  the  place  whence  he  has 
taken  the  root  or  plant  a  small  offering  to 

It  is  said  that  Nanabozho  in  his  many 
journeys  over  the  earth  destroyed  many 
ferocious  monsters  of  land  and  water  whose 
continued  existence  would  have  placed 
in  jeopardy  the'  fate  of  mankind.  It  is 
believed  by  the  faithful  that  Nanabozho, 
resting  from  his  toils,  dwells  on  a  great 

island  of  ice  floating  on  a  large  sea  in  the 
northland,  where  the  seraphim  of  auroral 
light  keep  nightly  vigil.  It  is  also  be 
lieved  that  should  he  set  foot  on  the  land 
the  world  would  at  once  take  fire  and 
every  living  being  would  share  with  it  a 
common  destruction.  As  a  perversion  of 
an  earlier  tradition,  it  is  said  that  Nanabo 
zho  has  placed  four  beneficent  humanized 
beings^  one  at  each  of  the  four  cardi 
nal  points  or  world-quarters,  to  aid  in 
promoting  the  welfare  of  the  human 
race— the  one  at  the  E.  supplies  light 
and  starts  the  HUH  on  his  daily  journey 
over  the  sky;  the  one  at  the  s.  supplies 
warmth,  heat,  and  the  refreshing  dews 
that  cause  the  growth  of  the  soothing 
tobacco  plant,  and  of  corn,  beans, 
squashes,  and  all  the  herbs  and  shrubs 
that  bear  fruit;  the  one  at  the  w.  supplies 
cooling  and  life-giving ^  showers;  lastly, 
the  one  at  the  N.  supplies  snow  and  ice, 
enabling  the  tracking  and  successful  pur 
suit  of  wild  animals,  and  who  causes  them 
to  hibernate,  to  seek  places  of  conceal 
ment  from  the  cold  of  winter.  Under 
the  care  of  the  man-being  of  the  s. 
Nanabozho  placed  lesser  humanized  be 
ings,  dominantly  bird-like  in  form,  whose 
voices  are  the  thunder  and  the  flashing 
of  whose  eyes  is  the  lightning,  and  to 
whom  offerings  of  tobacco  are  made  when 
their  voices  are  loud  and  menacing. 

Like  the  Iroquois  and  Huron  sages,  the 
Algoiiquian  philosophers  taught  that  the 
disembodied  souls  of  the  dead,  on  their 
journey  to  the  great  meadow  in  which  is 
situated  the  village  of  their  deceased  an 
cestors,  must  cross  a  swift  stream  precari 
ously  bridged  by  a  tree  trunk,  which  was 
in  continual  motion.  Over  this  the  manes 
of  the  justified  pass  in  safety,  while  the 
shades  of  the  vicious,  overcome  by  the 
magic  power  of  adverse  fate,  fail  at  this 
ordeal,  and,  falling  into  the  abyss  below, 
are  lost. 

Another  and  equally  credited  tradition 
is  to  the  effect  that  a  manito  or  primal 
man-being  formed  a  world  which  he  peo 
pled  with  man-beings  having  the  form 
but  not  the  benevolent  attributes  of  man, 
and  that  these  primal  man-beings,  doing 
nothing  but  evil,  finally  caused  the  de 
struction  of  the  world  and  themselves  by 
a  flood;  that  having  thus  satisfied  his  dis 
pleasure  the  primal  man  being  brought 
the  world  again  out  of  the  waters  and 
formed  anew  a  fine  looking  young  man, 
but,  being  alone,  the  latter  seemed  dis 
consolate  and  weary  of  life.  Then,  pity 
ing  him,  the  primal  man-being  brought 
him  as  he  slept  a  sister  for  a  companion. 
Awaking,  the  young  man  was  rejoiced  to 
see  his  sister,  and  the  two  dwelt  together 
for  many  years  in  mutual  amusement  and 
agreeable 'discourse.  Finally  the  young 
man  dreamed  for  the  first  time,  and  he 


[B.  A. 

related  his  dream  to  bis  mister,  saying 
that  it  had  been  revealed  to  him  that 
live  young  man-beings  would  that  night 
visit  'their  lodge,  and  that  she  was  for 
bidden  to  speak  to  01-  in  any  manner  rec- 
o'jni/.e  any  of  the  first  four  who  would 
seek  adm'ission  to  the  lodge,  but  that 
she  should  welcome  the  lit'th  when  he 
would  seek  admission.  This  advice  she 
followed.  After  their  metamorphosis 
these  four  primal  young  man-beings  be 
came  respectively  Sama  or  Tobacco,  who, 
receiving  no  answer  from  the  sister,  died 
of  chagrin;  Wapekoiie  or  Squash;  Kshke- 
tainok  or  Melon,  and  Kojees  or  Bean, 
who  shared  the  fate  of  the  first.  Hut 
Mandamin  or  Corn,  the  fifth,  was  an 
swered  and  welcomed  by  the  sister,  and 
he  entered  the  lodge  and  became  her  hus 
band.  Then  Mandamin  buried  his  four 
comrades,  and  soon  from  their  graves 
sprain:  up  respectively  tobacco,  squashes, 
melons,  and  beans  in  such  quantity  as  to 
supply  them  for  the  year,  and  tobacco 
enough  to  enable  them  to  make  offerings 
to  t lie  primal  man-beings  and  to  smoke 
in  council.  From  this  union  sprang  the 
Indian  race. 

In  one  version  of  the  prevailing  Algon- 
quian  cosmogonic  story  it  is  said  that 
before  the  formation  of  the  earth  there 
was  only  water;  that  on  the  surface  of 
this  vast  expanse  of  water  floated  a  large 
raft  on  which  were  the  animals  of  the 
various  kinds  which  are  on  the  earth  and 
of  which  the  Great  Hare  was  the  chief. 
They  sought  a  tit  and  firm  place  on  which 
to  disembark;  but  as  there  were  in  sight 
only  swans  and  other  waterfowl,  they 
'began  to  lose  hope,  and,  having  no  other, 
they  requested  the  beaver  to  dive  for  the 
purpose  of  bringing  up  some  earth  from 
the  bottom  of  the  water,  assuring  him  in 
the  name  of  all  the  animals  present  that, 
should  he  return  with  only  a  single  par 
ticle,  it  would  produce,  an  earth  sufficiently 
spacious  to  contain  and  nourish  all.  Hut 
the  beaver  sought  an  excuse  for  refusal, 
saying  that  he  had  already  dived  around 
the  rait  and  had  failed  to'  reach  the  bot 
tom.  He  was  pressed  so  strongly  to  make 
anew  so  worthy  an  attempt,  however,  that 
he  took  the  ha/ard  and  dived.  He  re 
mained  without  returning  for  so  long  a 
time  that  the  supplicants  believed  him 
drowned.  Finally  they  saw  him  appear 
nearly  dead  and  motionless.  Then  all  the 
animals,  seeing  that  he  was  in  no  condi 
tion  to  remount  the  raft,  at  once  interested 
themselves  to  take  him  into  it.  After  ex 
amining  carefully  his  pa\\s  and  tail,  they 
found  nothing.  '  Hut  the  little  hope  left 
them  of  being  able  to  save  their  lives  com 
pelled  them  to  address  themselves  to  the 
otter  to  ask  that  he  make  an  attempt  to 
find  earth  at  the  bottom  of  the  waters. 
it  was  told  him  that  his  own  safety,  as 

well  as  theirs,  depended  on  the  result  of 
his  effort.  So  the  otter  yielded  to 
their  urging  and  dived,  lie  remained 
in  the  depths  of  the  waters  a  longer  time 
than  did  the  beaver,  but,  like  him,  he 
came  to  the  surface  without  success. 
The  impossibility  of  finding  a  place  to 
dwell  where  they  could  subsist  left  them 
nothing  more  to  hope,  when  the  musk- 
rat  offered  to  attempt  to  find  the  bottom, 
and  he  flattered  himself  that  he  would 
bring  back  sand.  Although  the  beaver 
and  the  otter,  much  stronger  than  he,  had 
not  been  able  to  accomplish  the  task,  they 
encouraged  him,  promising  even  that,  ii 
he  succeeded  in  his  attempt,  he  should  be 
the  ruler  of  the  whole  world.  The  musk- 
rat  then  cast  himself  into  the  waters  and 
bravely  dived  into  the  depths.  Aftei 
remaining  therein  nearly  an  entire  da> 
and  night  he  appeared  motionless  at  the 
side  of  the  raft,  belly  uppermost  and 
paws  closed.  The  other  animals  care 
fully  took  him  out  of  the  water,  opened 
one  of  his  paws,  then  a  second,  then  i 
third,  and  finally  the  fourth,  where  then 
was  a  small  grain  of  sand  between  his 
claws.  The  Great  Hare,  who  was  en 
couraged  to  form  a  vast  and  spacious 
earth,  took  this  grain  of  sand  and  let  ii 
fall  on  the  raft,  which  became  larger. 
He  took  a  part  and  scattered  it,  which 
caused  the  mass  to  increase  more  anc 
more.  When  it  was  of  the  size  of  i 
mountain  he  willed  it  to  turn,  and  a* 
it  turned  the  mass  still  increased  in  si/e 
As  soon  as  it  appeared  quite  large  hf 
gave  orders  to  the  fox  to  examine  his 
work  with  power  to  enlarge  it.  H< 
obeyed.  The  fox,  having  learned  tha' 
the  earth  was  of  such  size  that  he  coulc; 
easily  take  his  prey,  returned  to  the  Grea 
Hare  to  inform  him  that  the  earth  was 
large  enough  to  contain  and  nourish  al 
the  animals.  After  this  report  the  Urea 
Hare  went  over  his  work,  and,  on  goinj 
around  it,  found  it  imperfect.  He  ha; 
since  not  been  disposed  to  trust  any  one 
of  all  the  other  animals,  and  ever  keep) 
on  enlarging  the  earth  by  ceaselessly 
going  around  it.  The  rumblings  heart 
in  the  caverns  of  mountains  confirm  th< 
Indians  in  the  belief  that  the  Great  Har<! 
continues  the  work  of  enlarging  tin 
earth.  Heis  honored  by  them,  and  the] 
regard  him  as  the  god  who  has  formec 
the  land. 

Such  is  what  the  Algonquians  teacl 
regarding  the  formation  of  the  earth 
which  they  believe  is  borne  on  a  raft 
Concerning  the  sea  and  the  firmament 
they  assert  that  they  have  existed  for  al 
time.  After  the  formation  of  the  eartl 
all  the  other  animals  withdrew  into  th< 
places  most  fitted  to  them,  where  the? 
could  feed  and  find  their  prey.  The  firs 
of  these  having  died,  the  Great  Hart 

BULL.  30] 


caused  men  to  be  born  from  their  cada 
vers,  even  from  those  of  the  fish  which 
were  found  along  the  banks  of  rivers 
which  he  had  made  in  forming  the  earth, 
and  gave  each  a  different  language  or 
dialect.  Because  some  ascribed  their 
origin  to  the  bear,  others  to  the  elk, 
and  thus  to  all  the  different  animals, 
they  believed  that  they  had  their  being 
from  these  creatures.  (j.  x.  B.  H.) 

Nanahuani.     A  former  Chumashan  vil 
lage  on  Santa  Cruz  id.,  Cal. 
Nanahuani. —Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Apr.  24,  1863. 
Na-na-wa'-ni. — Henshaw,   Buenaventura  MS.  vo- 
cab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1884.      • 

Nanaimo  (contraction  of  Snanaimux}. 
A  Salish  tribe,  speaking  the  Cowichan 
dialect,  living  about  Nanaimo  harbor,  on 
the  E.  coast  of  Vancouver  id.  and  on 
Nanaimo  lake,  Brit.  Col.  Pop.  161  in  1906. 
Their  gentes  are  Anuenes,  Koltsiowotl, 
Ksalokul,  Tewetken,  and  Yesheken. 

Nanaimos.— Mayne,  Brit.  Col.,  165,  1861.  Nanai- 
muk.— Gibbs  quoted  by  Dall  in  Cont.  N.  A. 
Ethnol.,  I,  241,  1877.  Nanainio.— Douglas  in  Jour. 
Roy.  Geog.  Soc.,  246,  1854.  Snanaimooh.—  Tolmie 
and  Dawson,  Vocabs.  Brit.  Col.,  120B,  1884. 
Snanaimuq. — Boas  in  5th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can., 
32, 1889.  Suanaimuchs.— Grant  in  Jour.  Roy.  Geog. 
Soc.,  293,  1857. 

Nanamakewuk  (N8riem&klwugi,  'thun- 
derers.' — W.  J. ).  A  gens  of  the  Sauk  and 

Na-na-ma'-kew-uk. — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  170,  1S77 
(trans,  'thunder').  Neneme'kiwag'.—Wm.  Jones, 
inf'n,  1906. 

Nananawi  (Na/-nan-a-wi,  a  species  of 
lizard).  A  clan  of  the  Tuwa  (Earth  or 
Sand)  phratry  of  the  Hopi.— Stephen  in 
8th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  39,  1891. 

Nanashthezhin  ( 'black-horizontal-stripe 
aliens',  referring  to  the  Zufii).  ANavaho 
clan,  descended  from  a  body  of  Zuni  who 
amalgamated  with  the  Navaho. 
Nanacpeji". — Matthews  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
in,  104,  1890.  TS&n&ste'zin.— Matthews,  Navaho 
Legends,  30,  1897. 

Nanatlugunyi  (Nd'nft-tlu'giin'yl,  or,  in 
abbreviated  form,  Nd'nii-tlu  lyufi',  or 
Nd'nti-tsu  *gun',  l  spruce-tree  place ' ) .  A 
traditional  Cherokee  settlement  on  the 
site  of  Jonesboro,  Washington  co.,  Tenn. 
The  name  of  Nolichucky  r.  is  probably  a 
corruption  of  the  same  word. — Mooney  in 
19th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  527,  1900. 

Nanatsoho.  Probably  a  subdivision  of 
one  of  the  tribes  of  the  Caddo  confederacy 
which  resided  in  a  village  on  Red  r.  of 
Louisiana,  and,  according  to  Joutel,  were 
allies  of  the  Kadohadacho,  Natchitoch, 
and  Nasoni  in  1687.  They  probably 
drifted  southward  in  the  middle  of  the 
18th  century,  gradually  lost  their  distinc 
tive  organization,  and  became  merged 
with  their  kindred  during  the  turbulence 
of  that  period,  suffering  distress  incident 
to  the  introduction  of  new  diseases  by  the 
whites.  In  1812  a  settlement  of  12families 
was  said  to  exist  near  the  locality  of  their 
former  villages.  (A.  c.  F.) 

Nadsoos.— La  Harpe  (1718)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  vi,  243, 
1886.  Nadsous.— Jefferys,  Am.  Atlas,  map  5,  1776. 

Nanatscho.—  Trimble  (1818)  in  Morse  Ren  to  Sec- 
War,  259,  1822  (village).  Natchoos.— Douay  (ai 
1687)  quoted  by  Shea,  Discov.  Miss.  Val.,  218, 1852! 
Nathosos.— Jontel  (1687)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll.  La. 
T,  168,  1846.  Nathsoos. — Barcia,  Ensayo,  278,  1723* 
Natsohocks. — Coxe,  Carolana,  10,  1741  (also  Nat 
choos).  Natsohok.— Ibid.,  map.  Natsohos.— Jou 
tel  (1687)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  in,  409  1878  Nat- 
soos.— La  Harpe  (1719),  ibid.,  vi,  263,  1886.  Pecan 
Point.— Trimble  (en.  1812)  in  Morse,  Rep  to  Sec 
War,  259,  1S22  (Nanatscho,  or). 

Nanawonggabe.  The  principal  chief, 
about  the  middle  of  the  19th  century,  of 
the  Chippewa  of  Lake  Superior.  He  was 
born  about  1800,  and  was  noted  chiefly  as 
an  orator,  and  as  the  father  of  Ahshah- 
waygeeshegoqua  ( '  The  Hanging  Cloud ' ), 
the  so-called  "Chippewa  Princess",  who 
was  renowned  as  a  warrior  and  as  the 
only  female  among  the  Chippewa  allowed 
to  participate  in  the  war  ceremonies  and 
dances,  and  to  wear  the  plumes  of  the 
warriors.  Nanawonggabe  is  described  as 
having  been  of  less  than  medium  height 
and  size,  and  as  having  intelligent  fea 
tures.  See  Morse  in  Wis.  Hist. Soc. Coll., 
in,  338, 1857. 

Nanawu.  The  Small  Striped  Squirrel 
clan  of  the  Tuwa  (Earth  or  Sand)  phratry 
of  the  Hopi. 

Na'-na-wii  wun-wii. — Fewkes  in  Am.  Anthrop., 
vii,  404,  1894  (wim-wu='clan'). 

Nanay.     See  Nana. 

Nan-chee-ning-ga.     See  Xacheninija. 

Nandell.  A  Tenankutchin  village, 
named  from  its  chief,  with  80  inhabitants 
in  1885;  situated  on  Tetling  r.,  near  Wag 
ner  lake,  about  20  in.  from  Tanana  r., 
lat.  63°  2(Y,  Alaska. 

Nandell.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  453,  1906. 
Nandellas. — Error  cited,  ibid.  Nandell's  village. — 
Allen,  Rep.,  75,  137,  1885. 

Nane.     See  Nana. 

Nanepashemet.  A  Nipmuc  chief  of  con 
siderable  note  in  the  early  days  of  the 
Massachusetts  colonies.  His  home  was 
in  Medford,  Middlesex  co.,  near  Mystic 
pond.  His  house,  it  is  said,  unlike  others, 
was  elevated  on  a  scaffold  about  6  ft 
above  the  ground,  on  a  hill,  at  the  bottom 
of  which  was  his  fort.  He  was  killed 
about  1619.  His  widow,  who  subse 
quently  married  Webcowit,  assumed  the 
chieftaincy  and  was  known  as  the  Squaw- 
sachem  of  the  Nipmuc.  lie  left  5  chil 
dren — one  known  as  Sagamore  James 
became  sachem  of  Saugus;  another,  the 
sachem  of  Winnesimet.  (c.  T.  ) 

Nang.  The  Earth  or  Sand  clans  of  the 
Tewa  pueblos  of  San  Juan,  Santa  Clara, 
Nambe,  and  Tesuque,  N.  Mex.,  and 
Hano,  Ariz.;  that  of  Tesuque  is  extinct. 
Cf.  Nung. 

Nan-tdoa.— Hodge  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  ix,  3,50,  1896 
(Nambe  and  Tesuque  form;  W6a=lj>eoplo>). 
Nan-towa.— Ibid.  (Hano  form).  Na-tdoa.—  Ibid. 
(San  Juan  and  Santa  Clam  form). 

Nang.  The  Stone  clan  of  the  Tewa 
pueblo  of  San  Juan,  N.  Mex.  Said  to 
be  distinct  from  the  Nil  (Earth  or  Sand) 
clan  of  that  pueblo.  Cf.  Kn. 
Nan-tdoa.— Hodge  in  Am.  Anthrop. ,  ix,  352,  18% 
(td6a='  people'). 


[B.  A.  fl. 

Nanibas  ( '  fish  eaters ' ) .  Probably  a 
Choctaw  tribe  which  early  in  the  18th 
century  occupied  a  village  near  the  Mo 
bile  and  Tohome  tribes,  about  5  leagues 
from  Ft  Mobile,  on  Mobile  bay,  Ala. 
Their  earlier  home,  according  to  Hamil 
ton  (Col.  Mobile,  90-91,  1897),  was  at  the 
bluff  on  Tombigbee  r.,  still  known  as 
"  Xanna  Hubba,"  just  above  its  junction 
with  Alabama  r.  After  removal  to  the 
vicinity  of  Ft  Mobile  they  were  absorbed 
bv  the* Mobile  tribe. 

Namabas.— Poniciuit  (1702)  in  Margry,  Doc.,  v. 
CJT.  INS;.  Naniaba.— .U'lTerys,  Am.  Atlas,  map  5, 
ITTii  Naniabas.— IV'iiicaut  (1702)  in  French,  Hist. 
Coll.  La.,  n.s.,  I,  SO,  isc,i). 

Nanicksah.  One  of  the  chiefs  sent  by 
the  Ohio  Shawnee  in  1765  to  negotiate  a 
•treaty  of  peace  with  >Sir  Win.  Johnson  on 
behalf  of  the  British  government.  The 
treaty  was  signed  at  Johnson  Hall,  N.  Y., 
July  13,  1765.— X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vn, 
755,  1S56. 

Nanihaba  ( ' nnnth  'hill,'  aba  'above'). 
One  of  the  5  hamlets  comprising  the 
former  Choctaw  town  of  Imongalasha, 
in  the  ] »resent  Neshoba  co.,  Miss. — H al 
bert  in  Tub.  .Miss.  Hist.  Soc.,  vi,  432,  1902. 

Nanikypusson.  One  of  the  chiefs  s.'iit 
by  the  Shawnee  of  Ohio  in  1705  to  nego 
tiate  a  treaty  of  peace  with  Sir  Win.  John- 
son  in  In-half  of  the  British  government. 
The  treaty  was  completed  and  signed  at 
.Johnson  Hall,  X.  Y.,  July  13,  1765.— X.Y. 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vn,  755J  1856. 

Nanipacna  (Choctaw:  'high  moun 
tain  '-  -Gatsehet:  'hill  top '— Halbert). 
An  important  town  visited  in  1559-00  by 
Tristan  de  Luna,  by  whom  it  was  named 
Santa  Cm/ de  Nanipacna;  situated  in  s. 
Alabama,  not  far  from  Alabama  r.  Hal 
bert  (Gulf  States  Hist  Mag.,n,  130,  1903) 
thinks  it  was  on  the  E.  side  of  Alabama 
r.  in  t  he  present  Wilcox  co.,  while  Lou  cry 
(Spanish  Settlements,  301,  1901)  places  it 
fart  tier  down  the  river,  in  Monroe  co. 
It  had  been  visited  and  partly  destroyed 
by  other  white;  men,  probably  De  Soto's 
expedition,  some  years  before.  (.1.  M.) 
Nanipacna.— Burcia,  Knsay< >,:'.:'.,  172:;.  Napicnoca. — 
Fairbanks  Ha.,  f>9.190l  (misprint).  Santa  Cruzde 
Nanipacna.  — Bareia,  0)1.  cit. 

Nannehamgeh  (Creek:  •///'///  'trail', 
fi'imt/lii  'one':  'single  trail ').  The  "old 
town"  inhabited  by  theNatche/. — Adair, 
Am.  Inds.,  190,  1775. 

Nanortalik.  An  Kskimo  village  on  a 
small  island  in  s.  Greenland,  lat.  00°. 

Nannortalik. -Ail-land,  !<;•_>,  IsSti.  Nanortalik.— 
Nanscn,  First  Crossing,  :in7,  IS<H).  Nennortalik.— 
KoMewey,  German  A  ret  Kxped.,  1*2,  1874. 

Nanpanta  (  \n"/ftn"((i1  'deer' ).      A  <^ua- 
paw  gens. — Dorsey  in  15th  Rep.  P>.  A.  10 
2L".»,  1S97. 

Nanpanta.      A  Deer  gens:  a  division  of 
the  \\'ashashe,wanun  gens  of  the  Osage. 
Ke  ^a'tati. — Dorsry  in  15th  Kep.  H.  A.  !•',.,  2:>4,  1X97 
i -Turtle  with  a  serrated  crest  along  the  shell') 
Na"'pa"ta.— ibid. 

Nansattico.  A  former  Matchotic  village 
on  Rappahannock  r.,  s.  w.  of  the  present 
Hampstead,  in  King  George  co.,  Va. 

Nansattico.— Herrman.  map,   1670.     Nanzaticos.— 
JelTerson,  Notes,  i:W,  1H)1. 

Nansemond  ( from  nansamend,  'one  goes 
to  fish,'  or  'one  (who)  goes  to  iish  (or 
fishing),'  possibly  originally  a  personal 
name. — Gerard)/  An  important  tribe 
of  the  Pcwhataii  confederacy  (q.  v. ) 
formerly  occupying  a  territory  on  the  s. 
side  of 'lower  James  r.,  Ya.,  within  the 
present  Nansemond  and  Norfolk  cos.,  and 
having  their  principal  town,  "Nandsa- 
mund,"  probably  about  the  present 
Chuckatuck  in  the  former  county.  They 
were  estimated  by  Capt.  John  Smith,  in 
1608,  at  200  warriors,  or  perhaps  a  total 
population  of  700  or  800.  Like  the  other 
tribes  of  the  confederacy  they  quickly 
declined  after  the  advent  of  the  whites, 
and  1U1722,  when  they  are  mentioned  in 
the  Albany  treaty  with  the  Iroquois,  they 
numbered,  according  to  Beverley,  only  1 50 
in  all.  A  scattered  band  of  about  180 
mixed-bloods,  mostly  truck  farmers,  still 
keep  up  the  name*  near  Bowershill,  a 
few  miles  s.  w.  from  Norfolk.  (j.  M.  ) 
Nancymond.— Vassill  (1667)  in  N.  C.  Col.  Rec.,  I, 
159,  18X6.  Nandsamunds.  —  -mith  (1624),  Va.,  347, 
18X1.  Nanemonds.— Albany  conf.  (1722)  in  N.  Y. 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  V,  (>73,  lXf>5.  Nansamond. — Bev 
erley,  Va.,  bk.  3,  <)3,  1705.  Nansamund. — Smith 
(1029),  Va.,  II.  04,  1819.  Nanseman.- -Winthrop 
(1647)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 4ths.,Vil, 438, 1865. 
Nansemond. — Doc.  of  1729  in  Martin,  N.  ('.,  i,npp., 
xvii.  1X29.  Nansemun. — Harrison  (1647)  in  Mass. 
Hist.  Hoc.  Coll., 4th  s.,  VII,  438, 1865.  Nasamonds.— 
Jefferson,  Notes,  138,  1801.  Nassamonds.— Boudi- 
not,  Star  in  the  West,  127,  1816.  Nausamund.— 
Smith  (1629).  Va.,  n,  10.  1819. 

Nantahala  (N&fL'd&yeU  ('middle  [i.  e. 
noonday]  sun').  Originally  the  name 
of  a  point  on  Nantahala  r.  near  Jarrett 
station,  Macon  co.,  N.  C.,  where  the  cliffs 
are  so  perpendicular  that  the  sun  is  not 
seen  at  their  liases  until  noon;  later  ap 
plied  to  the  neighboring  Cherokee  settle 
ment  of  Briertown  (q.  v.). 
Nantahala.— Mooney  in  19th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  528, 
1900.  Nantiyallee.— Doc.  of  1799  quoted  by  Royce 
in  5th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  144,  18X7.  Nuntialla. 
— 'Mooney,  op.  cii. 

Nantapoyac.  A  villageof  the  Powhatan 
confederacy  in  1608,  situated  on  the  s. 
bank  of  James  r.  in  Surry  co.,  -Va. — Smith 
(1620),  Ya.,  i,  map,  repr.  1811). 

Nantaughtacund.  A  tribe  and  village 
of  the  Powhatan  confederacy,  formerly 
s.  of  the?  Rappahannock,  in  Essex  and 
Caroline  cos.,  Va.  In  1608  they  numbered 
about  750. 

Nandtaughtacund. — Strachey  (en.  1612),  Va.,  37, 
1849.  Nantaughtacund.—  Smith  (1629),  Va.,  I,  117, 
repr.  1819.  Nantautacund. — Simons  in  Smith,  ibid., 
189.  Naudtaughtacund.  — 1'urclias,  1'ilgrimes,  IV, 
map.  1716  (misprint).  Nautaughtacunds. — Drake, 
Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  4,  9,  1848  (misprint). 

Nanticoke  (from  Nentego,  var.  of  Dela 
ware  (')H_'rht</o,  Unalachtgo,  'tidewater  peo 
ple').  An  important  Algonquian  tribe 
living  on  Nanticoke  r.  of  Maryland,  on  the 

BOLL.  30] 

E.  shore,  where  Smith  in  1608  located  their 
principal  village,  called  Nanticoke.  They 
were  connected  linguistically  and  ethnic 
ally  with  the  Delawares  and  the  Conoy, 
notwithstanding  the  idiomatic  variance 
in  the  language  of  the  latter.  Their  tra 
ditional  history  is  brief  and  affords  but 
little  aid  in  tracing  their  movements  in 
prehistoric  times.  The  10th  verse  of 
the  fifth  song  of  the  Walam  Olum  is 
translated  by  Squier:  "The  Nentegos 
and  the  Shawanis  went  to  the  south 
lands."  Although  the  Shawriee  and 
Nanticoke  are  brought  together  in  this 
verse,  it  does  not  necessarily  indicate 
that  they  separated  from  the  main  body 
at  the  same  time  and  place;  but  in  both 
cases  the  separation  appears  to  have  oc 
curred  in  the  region  that  in  verse  1,  same 
canto,  is  designated  Talega  land,  which 
was  probably  in  Ohio,  since  their  tradi 
tion  recorded  by  Beatty  (Brinton,  Lenape 
Leg.,  139,  1885)  is  precisely  the  same  as 
that  of  the  Shawnee.  It  is  also  probable 
that  "south"  in  the  legend  signifies  some 
point  below  the  latitude  of  Pittsburg,  Pa., 
but  not  s.  of  the  Kanawha.  A  different 
and  more  probable  account  was  given  to 
Heckewelder  by  the  old  chief,  White, 
who  said  that,  being  grer.t  trappers  and 
fishers,  they  separated  from  the  Dela 
wares  after  these  had  reached  their  east 
ern  seat  and  wandered  s.  in  search  of  good 
fishing  and  trapping  grounds. 

The  Conoy  in  1660  informed  the  gov 
ernor  of  Maryland  of  a  "league  that  had 
existed  for  13  generations  with  an  em 
peror  of  Nanticoke  lineage  at  its  head, 
which  embraced  all  the  "tribes  of  the 
province,  and  also  the  Potomac  and,  as 
they  pretended,  even  the  Iroquoian  Con- 
estoga"  (Maryland  Arch.,  Proc.  Counc., 
1636-67,  403).  The  Tocwogh  of  Smith, 
as  well  as  the  later  Doag,  were  possibly 
identical  with  the  Nanticoke. 

A  short  time  after  its  settlement  the 
Maryland  colony  found  the  Nanticoke  a 
thorn  in  its  side.  As  early  as  1642  they 
were  formally  declared  to"  be  enemies, 
and  not  until  1678  was  the  strife  com 
posed  by  treaty.  A  renewal  of  hostilities 
wras  threatened  in  1687,  but  by  prudent 
measures  this  wras  prevented  and  the 
peace  reaffirmed.  In  1698,  and  from  that 
time  forward  as  long  as  they  remained  in 
the  region,  reservations  were  set  aside  for 
them.  In  1 707  they  had  at  least  7  vil 
lages.  In  1722  their  principal  village, 
called  Nanduge  by  Beverley,  contained 
about  100  inhabitants  and  was  the  resi 
dence  of  the  "empress,"  who  ruled  over 
all  the  neighboring  Indians.  At  that 
time  they  numbered  about  500.  Soon 
afterward  they  began  to  move  N.,  stop 
ping  for  a  time  on  the  Susquehanna, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Juniata,  and  about 


1/48  the  greater  part  of  the  tribe  went 
up  the  Susquehanna,  halting  at  various 
points,  and  finally  settled  under  Iroquois 
protection  at  Chenango,  Chugnut,  and 
Owego,  on  the  E.  branch  of  the  Susque 
hanna  in  s.  New  York.  They  were  esti 
mated  at  about  500  in  1765.  "A  part  re 
mained  in  Maryland,  where  they  were 
still  living  under  the  name  of  AViwash 
in  1792,  although  reduced  to  about  30. 
In  1753  a  part  of  those  on  the  upper 
Susquehanna  joined  the  Iroquois  in  w. 
New  York,  with  whom  they  were  still 
living  in  18-10,  but  the  majority  of  the 
tribe,  in  company  with  remnants  of 
the  Mahican  and  Wappinger,  emigrated 
to  the  AV.  about  1784  and  joined  the 
Delawares  in  Ohio  and  Indiana,  with 
whom  they  soon  became  incorporated, 
disappearing  as  a  distinct  tribe.  A  few 
mixed  bloods  live  on  Indian  r.,  Delaware. 

The  Nanticoke  were  distinguished  from 
neighboring  tribes  by  a  darker  color  and 
peculiar  customs.  They  appear  to  have 
been  devoted  to  fishing  and  trapping  as 
a  means  of  subsistence.  Heckewelder 
says:  "They  are  said  to  have  been  the 
inventors  of  a  poisonous  substance  by 
which  they  could  destroy  a  whole  settle 
ment  of  people,  and  they  are  accused  of 
being  skilled  in  the  arts  of  witchcraft. 
It  is  certain  they  are  dreaded  on  this  ac 
count.  1  have  known  Indians  who  firmly 
believed  that  they  had  people  among 
them  who  could,  if  they  pleased,  destroy 
a  whole  army  by  merely  blowing  their 
breath  toward  them.  Those  of  the  Le 
nape  and  other  tribes  who  pretend  to 
witchcraft  say  that  they  learned  the 
science  from  the  Nanticokes."  AVhut 
particular  characteristic,  art,  or  knowl 
edge  caused  them  to  be  looked  upon  in 
this  light  is  not  stated;  but  it  probably 
was  their  knowledge  of  poisons  and  the 
singular  custom,  which  Heckewelder  de 
scribes,  of  removing  the  bones  of  their 
dead  from  place  to  place  during  their  va 
rious  shiftings.  They  appear  to  have  had 
a  head  chief,  to  whom  the  English,  adopt 
ing  Old  AVorld  terms,  applied  the  name 
emperor  to  distinguish  him  from  the  sub 
ordinate  chiefs  whom  they  called  kings. 
The  line  of  descent  of  the  former  was 
in  the  female  line,  and  as  noted  above, 
if  Beverley  be  correct,  a  woman  might, 
under  certain  circumstances,  hold  the 
chieftaincy.  Their  towns  appear  to  have 
l>een  in  some  instances  fortified,  as  Smith 
says:  "They  conducted  us  to  their  palli- 
zadoed  towne,  mantelled  with  the  barkes 
of  trees,  with  scaffolds  like  mounts, 
brested  about  with  brests  very  formally." 

The  Nanticoke  confederacy  appears  to 
have  included,  besides  the  Nanticoke 
proper,  the  Arseek,  Cuscarawaoc,  Nause, 
Ozinies  (?),  and  Sarapinagh.  The  Nan- 


[B.  A.  E. 

tieoke  had  at  various  times  the  following 
villages:  Askimimkansen,  Byengeahtein 
(mixed),  Chenango  (mixed),  Locust 
Neckt<>\vn,  Matchcouchtin,  Matcheatto- 
chousie,  Nanduge,  Nafcihquois,  Pekoi- 
noke,  Poheeommeati,  Teahquois,  and 

Doages.  — Lord    Baltimore  (1650)  quoted   by  Boz- 
Md.,  i.  119.  1837.     doegs.— Writer  of  1676  in 

.        ,          .  . 

Mass  Hist.  Soe.  Coll.  ,4th  s.,  IX,  165,  1871.     Gannia- 
e.—  (iatschet  in  Am.  Antiq..IV,  75,  1882 


taratich  rone 

arac     rone.—  .  ..,      , 

(Mohawk  name).  Mantaquak.—  Brownell,  In 
Races,  Idti,  IS")!',  (misprint).  Naaticokes.  —  Pete 
(17ti(t)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  4th  s..  IX,  258,  1871. 

.          .        .          ., 

Nanduye.—  Bevcrley,  Va.,hk.3,  62,  1705. 
quack.—  Smith  (  1629),  Va.,  I,  map,  repr.  1819. 

.          .,  ..      ,        , 

Va.,hk.3,  62,  1705.     Nanta- 

.  ,        .,.,       , 

quack.—  Smith  (  1629),  Va.,  I,  map,  repr.  1819.  Nan- 
taquaes.  —  Katinesque  in  Marshall,  Ky.,  i.introd., 
37.1824.  Nantaquak.  —  Simons  in  Smith  (1629),Va., 
I,  175,  rei>r.  1819.  Nantekokies.  —  Miiumee  counc. 
(1793)  in  Am.  St.  Papers,  Ind.  AIT.,  I,  357.  1832. 
Nantiakokies.—  Perkins  and  Peck,  Annals  of  the 
West  423  1850  Nantico.  —  Heckewelder  in  Mass. 
Hist.  Soe.  Coll.  ,2ds.,X,  129,  1823.  Nanticock.—  Bar 
ton,  New  Views,  app.,  5,  1798.  Nanticoes.  —  Rafin- 
esqne  in  Marshall.  Ky.,  I,  introd.,  37.  1821.  Nanti- 
cokes.—  Marshe  (17-44)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st 
s  vii,  199,  1801.  Nanticoks.—  German  Flats  conf. 
(17701  inN.Y.Doc.Col.  Hist.,  VIII,  229,  1857.  Nan- 
ticooks.—  Ed  wards  (1788)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
1st  s  ,  ix,  92,  1804.  Nantihokes.  —  McKenneyand 
Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in.  80,  1854.  Nantikokes.—  Ft 
Johnson  conf.  (1757)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vii, 
245,  1856.  Nantikokies.—  Brant  (1793)  in  Am.  St. 
Papers,  Ind.  AIT.,  1,350,  1832.  Nantiocks.—  Macau- 
ley,  N.  Y.,  in.  39.1829.  Nantiokes.—  Ft  Johnson 
conf.  (1756)  inN.Y.Doc.Col.  Hist.,  vii,  173,  1856. 
Nantiquacks.  —Heckewelder  (1819)  quoted  by 
Bozman.  Md  .  i,  177,  1837.  Nantiquaks.—  Bozman, 
Md..  i.  110,  1837.  Nantue.—  Herrman,  map,  1670. 
Nantycokes,  —  Peters  (1761)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  Ith  s.,  ix,  440,  1871.  Nautaquake.  —  Purchas, 
Piltfrimes.  iv,  1713  (misprint).  Nauticokes.— 
Vater,  Mitllfc  pi.  3.  see.  3,  312,  1816  (misprint). 
Nentego.  —  Fteckewelder  (1819)  quoted  by  Boxnian, 
Md.,  i,  174,  1837  town  name).  Nentegowi.  — 
Brinton,  Lenape  Letf..  204,  1885.  Nentico.  — 
Heekewelder  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s..  x, 
129.1823.  Otayaehgo.—  Heckewelder  (1819)  quoted 
by  Ho/man.  Md.,  i,  171,  1837  r  bridge  people',  so 
called  by  the  Mahican  and  Dela  wares  because  of 
their  custom  of  felling  trees  across  streams  on 
which  to  set  their  traps,  and  of  their  skill  in 
fastening  lo^s  together  to  form  bridges). 
Scanehaderadeyghroones.  —  Albany  conf.  (1748) 
in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  VI,  441,  1855  ('  be- 
yond-the-sea  people'  i.  Scaniadaradighroonas.  —  Ft 
Johnson  conf.  (1756).  ibid.,  vn,  106,  1856. 
Scanihaderadighroones.  —  Ft  Johnson  conf.  (1753), 
ibid.,  vi,  811,  1855.  Schanadarighroenes.—  Ft 
Johnson  conf.  (  1755),  ibid.,  964.  Schaniadaradigh- 
roonas.  —  Ibid.,  9*8.  Schani.ha.der.adygh.roon,- 
ees.  —  Clinton  (1750),  ibid.,  518.  Seganiatera- 
tickrohne.  —  Heckewelder  (1819)  quoted  by  Boz 
man,  Md.,  i,  174,  lh37  rbeyond-the-sea  people': 
Iroqnois  namei.  Shaniadaradighroonas.—  Ft 
Johnson  conf.  (I756i  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vii, 
.r>0,  1856.  Shanihadaradighroones.  —  Albany  conf' 
(1754)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  3d  s.,  v,  30,  1836. 
Skanatiarationo.  --Mont  real  conf.  (1756)  in  N.  Y! 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.  ,x.  503.  1858.  Skaniadaradighroonas.— 
Ft  Johnson  conf.  (1755),  ibid.,  vi,  977,  1855.  Skan- 
iatarati-haka.  —  (Jatvchet.  Tuscarora  MS..  B.  A.  K., 
1885  (Tuscarora  name).  Skaniatarationo.—  Mon 
treal  conf.  (1756)  in  N.Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  x.  500,1858, 
Skanigadaradighroonas.  —  Johnson  (  1756).  ibid.,  vn, 
136.1856.  Skamodaraghroonas.  —  Ft  Johnson  conf' 
(17.56),  ibid.,  -16.  Skaun  ya-ta-ha-ti-hawk.—  Macau- 
ley,  N.  Y.,  n.  1C,6.  1829.  Taux.—  Smith  (1629) 
Va;,113,  repr.  1884  (fromTawachguano).  Tawach- 
guans.—  Heckewelder  (18l«i)  (pioted  by  (iallatin 
in  Trans.  Am.  Anti<|.  Soc..  n,  52.  1836  '(Delaware 
name:  'bridge  people',  from  t<ii<ir/,t/<iu<ni.  'a, 
bridge').  Tawackguano.—Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes, 
VI,  131,  1857.  Tayachquans.  —  Heckewelder  (1819) 
quoted  by  Bo/man,  Md.,  i,  174,  1SI57.  Tiawco.— 
Kaston  treaty  (1757)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist  vn 
294,  1856.  Toags.—  Smith  (1629),  Va.,  I,  177,  repr. 

1819.  Trappers.— Heckewelder  (1819)  quoted  by 
Bo/man,  Md.,  i,  174.  1837  (name  sometimes  used 
by  the  whites,  having  reference  to  their  skill  in 
trapping  animals).  TTnechtgo.—  Ibid.  (Delaware 
name).  Wenuhtokowuk.  —  Aupaumut(1791)quoted 
by  Brinton,  Lenape  Leg.,  20,  1885  (Mahican 

Nanticoke.  A  sort  of  bean;  from  the 
name  of  an  Algonquian  tribe.  Lawson 
(Hist.  Carolina,  76,  1709)  mentions  nan- 
ticokrx  among  "the  pulse  which  we  found 
the  Indians  possessed  of  when  we  settled 
in  America."  (A.  F.  c.) 

Nantucket.  When  first  settled  by  the 
whites  this  island,  s.  of  the  coast  of  Mas 
sachusetts,  was  occupied  by  two  tribes 
whose  names  have  not  been  preserved. 
One  occupied  the  w.  end  of  the  island 
and  was  supposed  to  have  come  from  the 
mainland  by  way  of  Marthas  Vineyard; 
the  other  tribe  lived  at  the  E.  end  and 
was  said  to  have  come  direct  from  the 
mainland.  The  two  tribes  were  inde 
pendent  and  were  hostile  to  each  other. 
They  had  several  villages  and  numbered 
about  1,500  at  the  first  settlement  of  the 
island  in  1642  (Mayhew).  In  1763  there 
were  only  358  remaining  and  two-thirds 
of  these  died  of  a  fever  the  next  winter. 
In  1792  there  were  only  20  left,  and  these 
were  reduced  in  1809  to  2  or  3  persons  oi 
pure  blood  and  a  few  of  mixed  race.  The 
Indian  names  of  different  districts,  which 
were  probably  the  names  of  villages  also, 
were  Shimmoah  (also  a  village),  Tetau- 
kimmo,  Shaukimmo,  Quayz,  Podpis. 
Squam,  Sasacacheh,  and  Siasconsit,  and 
the  village  Miacomet  (Notes  on  Nan 
tucket  (1807)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
2d  s.,  in,  25-26,  1815).  For  informatior 
concerning  the  early  grants  and  convey 
ances  of  Nantucket  lands,  see  Bull.  Nan 
tucket  Hist.  Assn.,  i,  1896-1902.  (j.  M.  ) 
Mantukes. — London  Doc.  (1682)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col 
Hist,,  in,  328,  1853.  Mantukett.— Ibid.  Nan 
tuckett.— London  Doc.  (1692-3),  ibid.,  iv,  28.  1854 
Nantucquet.— London  Doc.  (1664),  ibid.,  in,  84 
1853.  Nantukes.— Holland  Doc.  (1664),  ibid.,  II 
296.  1858.  Nantukett.— London  Doc.  (1674),  ibid, 
in,  215,  1853. 

Nantuxet.  A  division  of  the  Unam 
branch  of  the  Delawares  formerly  living 
in  Pennsylvania  and  Delaware. — Macau 
ley,  N.  Y.,  n,  166,  1829. 

Nanualikmut  ('lake  people':  Kodial 
name).  A  division  of  the  Knaiakhotan:; 
of  Cook  inlet,  Alaska. 

Na-nua-li'-q'mut.— Hoffman,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  188 
('people  around  the  lake':  Chugachigmiu 
name).  Na-nu'-a-luk'.— Ibid,  ('lake  people':  Ka 
niagmiut  name). 

Nanumpum.     See  Wectamo. 

Nanuntenoo.  A  sachem  of  the  Narra 
ganset,  son  of  Miantonomo,  called  als< 
Canonchet  or  Quananchit.  He  was  th< 
first  signer  of  the  treaty  of  Oct.  1675,  bu 
supplied  the  strength  of  the  Narraganse 
war  against  the  English,  his  young  mei 
having  long  secretly  supported  Philip 
He  escaped  with  his  life  from  the  figh 
of  Dec.  1(575,  and  in  Mar.  1676  defeate< 
the  English  under  Capt.  Peirse;  but  ii 

BULL.  30] 


April  of  that  year  he  was  surprised  by  an 
English  force'and  surrendered.  He  was 
taken  to  Stonington,  Conn.,  and  was  shot 
by  representatives  of  his  allied  enemies 
under  the  eyes  of  the  English.  His  head 
was  sent  as  a  trophy  to  the  magistrates  of 
Hartford  (De  Forest,  Inds.  of  Conn.,  282, 
1852) .  Nanuntenoo  was  tall  and  strongly 
built,  and  was  a  man  of  courage  and  ability . 
His  fame  at  times  was  hardly  less  than  that 
of  King  Philip.  Some  of  his  sayings  have 
been  preserved.  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Nanusek.  An  Eskimo  settlement  in  s. 
E.  Greenland. — Meddelelser  om  Gron- 
land,  xxv,  map,  1902. 

Nanussussouk  (Ncnusinsowugi,  'they  go 
by  the  name  of  the  buffalo.' — W.  J. ).  A 
gens  of  the  Sank  and  Foxes. 

Na-nus-sus'-so-uk.— Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  170,  1877. 
Nenuswisowag'. — Win.  Jones,  inf'n,  1906. 

Nanvogaloklak.  A  Magemiut  village 
on  one  of  the  lakes  connected  with  Kvich- 
ivak  r.,  Alaska;  pop.  100  in  1880. 

Nanvogalokhlagamute. — Nelson  (1879)  quoted  by 
Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  454,  IDOti  (mute= 
'people').  Nanvogaloklak.— Baker,  ibid.  Nau- 
vogalokhlagamute. — Petroff  in  10th  Census, 
Alaska,  map,  1884  (misprint).  Nauwogalokhlaga- 
mute.— Petroff,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  54,  1881  (mis 

Nanyaayi  (perhaps  'people  of  Nanya'). 
The  most  important  social  group  among 
the  southern  Tlingit.  They  belong  to 
the  Wolf  clan,  have  their  winter  town  at 
Wrangell,  and  camp  in  summer  along 
Stikine  r.  in  Alaska.  Ketgohittan  and 
Kutshittan  are  given  as  divisions. 
Naa-nu-aa-ghu. — Kane,  Wand,  in  N.  A.,  app.,1859. 
Nanaa'ri.— Boas,  5th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  25, 
1889.  Nan-gche-ari.  —  Kranse,  Tlinkit  Ind.,  120, 
1885.  Nanya'ayi.— Swanton,  field  notes,  B.  A.  E., 

Nanykypusson.     See  Nanikypusson* 

Nanzewaspe  ( '  quiet  heart ', ) .  The  prin 
cipal  settlement  of  the  Osage  formerly  in 
Neosho  valley,  s.  E.  Kans.  According  to 
De  Smet  its  inhabitants  numbered  600  in 

(Ean'^se  waspe. — Dorsey,  Osage  MS.  vocal).,  B.  A. 
E.,  1883.  Nan'ise  waspe.— Ibid.  Nanze- Waspe.— 
De  Smet,  W.  Missions,  355,  1856. 

Naogeh  ( '  deer ' ) .  A  clan  of  the  Seneca. 
Canendeshe.— French  writer  (10(56)  in  N.  Y.  Doe. 
Col.  Hist.,  ix,  47,  1855.  Na-o'-geh,— Morgan, 
League  Iroq.,  46,  80, 1851  (Seneca  form). 

Nap  a.  A  name  of  doubtful  Indian 
origin,  nowr  used  to  designate  a  county,  a 
town,  a  river,  and  a  creek  in  California. 
So  far  as  can  be  learned  it  was  not  used  as  a 
village  name  by  either  the  Wintun  or  the 
Yukian  Wappo,  the  territories  of  both  of 
which  peoples  em  brace  parts  of  Napaco., 
the  boundary  between  them  passing  just 
N.  of  Napa  City.  Powers  (Cont.  N.  A. 
Ethnol.,  in,  218,  1877)  lists  itasaPatwin 
tribe.  (s.  A.  B.) 

Napai.  A  mixed  Athapascan  and  Kus- 
kwogmiut  village  on  the  N.  bank  of  Kus- 
kokwim  r.,  a  little  above  Kolmakof, 
Alaska;  pop.  23  in  1890. 

Napaimute.— Hallock  in  Nat.  Geog.  Mag.,  ix,  91, 

Napai.  A  Nushagagmiut  Eskimo  vil 
lage  in  the  Nushagak  district,  Alaska; 
pop.  11  in  1890. 

Napaimiut.— llth  Census,  Alaska, 164, 1893(  Eskimo 
name  for  the  people). 

Napaiskak.  A  Kuskwogmiut  Eskimo 
village  on  the  left  bank  of  Kuskokwim 
r.,  about  4  in.  below  Bethel,  Alaska; 
pop.  196  in  1880,  97  in  1S90. 
Napaiskagamut. — Kilbuck  quoted  by  Baker,  Geog. 
Diet.  Alaska,  1902.  Napaskeagamiut. — llth  Cen 
sus,  Alaska,  164,  1893.  Napaskiagamute.—  I'etrofY 
in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  17,  1SS4. 

Napakiak.  A  Kuskwogmiut  village  on 
the  right  bank  of  Kuskokwim  r.,  about 
10  m.  below  Bethel,  Alaska;  pop.  98  in 

Napachiakachagamut. — Kilbuck  quoted  by  Baker, 
Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  451,  1906.  Napahaiagamut. — 
Nelson  in  isth  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  pt.  1,  23,  map,  ls'J9. 
Napahaiagamute. — IVtroff  in  loth  Census,  Alaska, 
17,  1881.  Napahayagamiut. — llth  Census,  Alaska, 
104,  1S93.  Napahayagamute. — Petroff,  Resources 
of  Alaska,  53,  1881. 

Napaklulik.  A  Malemiut  Kskirno  vil 
lage  on  Mangoak  r.,  Alaska,  S.K.  of  Sela- 
wik  lake,  about  lat,  6<>°  20',  Ion.  ir>0°  2(V '. 
Nah-park-lu-lik.  —  Stoney  (1886)  quoted  by  Baker, 
Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  154, 1906.  Napaklulik.— Baker, 

Napakutak.  An  Eskimo  village  on  an 
island  variously  called  Ettyhren,  Ipekut, 
and  Chirluk,  off  the  N.  K.  coast  of  Siberia. 
Pop.  52  in  5  houses  about  1895;  ;>7  in  4 
houses  in  1901. 

Napa'kutak.—  Bogoras,  Chukehee,  29,  1904  (Eski 
mo  name).  Nepe'kuten.— Ibid.  (Chukehee name). 

Napeshneeduta  ('Red  man  who  flees 
not').  A  Mdewakanton  Sioux,  the  first 
full-blood  Dakota  man  to  be  baptized  and 
received  into  a  Christian  church.  He 
was  a  son  of  the  sister  of  Mrs  Renville, 
wife  of  Joseph  Renville  the  trader,  and 
claimed  kindred  with  some  of  the  prin 
cipal  chiefs  of  the  Mdewakanton.  He  is 
described  as  having  been  above  the  aver 
age  height,  well  formed,  and  with  a  coun 
tenance*  indicative  of  intelligence,  kind 
ness,  and  honesty.  Pie  was  baptized  at 
Lac-qui-Parle,  Minn.,  Feb.  21,  1S40,  re 
ceiving  the  name  Joseph  Napeshnee;  hisv 
wife  was  received  into  the  church  at  the 
same  time,  and  he  brought  four  children 
to  be  baptized,  three  of  them  by  former 
wives.  His  wife  died  within  5  years, 
when  he  married  a  convert,  Pretty  Rain 
bow,  who  deserted  him  ;  he  later  married 
another  Christian  woman  and  removed 
to  Little  Crow's  Village,  a  few  miles  below 
Ft  Snellinu,  on  the  Mississippi,  where 
manv  of  his  relatives  lived.  Here  he 
became  ill  with  fever,  and  because  of  his 
change  of  religious  faith  his  people  re 
fused  him  food  and  help.  ^  hen  t 
outbreak  of  the  Sioux  began  in  1 
Joseph,  like  the  other  Christum  Indians, 
befriended  the  whites,  and  in  thefollow- 
ing  spring  he  was  engaged  as  a  Govern 
ment  scout,  a  position  which  he  held  for 
several  years,  returning  finally  to  Lac- 
qui-Parle  where  he  died  in  July  1870. 


[B.  A.  s. 

his  last  years  Joseph  was  respected  for 
his  piety  and  industry  by  both  whites 
and  Indians.  For  nearly  10  years  he  was 
a  ruling  elder  in  the  Presbyterian  church, 
and  supported  his  family,  notwithstand 
ing  the  infirmities  of  old  age,  without 
Government  aid.  See  Williamson  in 
Minn.  Hist.  Soe.  Toll.,  in,  188,  1880. 

Napetaca.  A  village  of  the  Yustaga 
tribe  or  "province"  in  Florida,  the  scene 
of  one  «>f  the  fiercest  battles  between  the 
Indians  and  De  Soto's  troops  in  1539.  It 
was  probably  on  one  of  the  head-streams 
of  Suwannee  r.  (.1.  M.) 

.Napetaca. — <Jentl.  of  Elvas  (1557)  quoted  by 
Bourne,  De  Soto  Nan1.,  1,41,  190-1.  Napetuca.— 
(it-ntl.  of  Elvas  in  Hakluyt  Soc.  Pub.,  ix,  39,  1851. 
Napituca.— Ranjel  (en.  1546)  in  Bourne,  op.  cit., 
II.  7:5,  1904. 

Napeut.     A  former  Pima  rancheria  on 
the  x.  hank  of  the  Rio  Gila,  s.  Ariz.;  vis 
ited  by  Father  Garees  in  1770. 
Napeut.— Arricivita,  Chronica,  n,  416,  1792. 

Napissa  (Choctaw:  na»pixa,  'spy,'  'sen 
tinel').  A  tril>e  mentioned  in  1699  by 
Iberville  as  united  with  the  Chickasaw, 
living  in  villages  adjoining  those  of  the 
latter,  and  speaking  the  same  or  a  cognate 
language.  As  they  disappear  from  his 
tory  early  in  the  18th  century,  it  is  prob 
able  that  they  were  absorbed  by  the 
Chickasaw,  if  indeed  they  were  not  a 
local  division  of  the  latter.  (A.  s.  G.  ) 
Napissa.— Ibrrville  flti'.i'.M  in  Margry,  Doc.,  IV,  184, 
ls*0.  Napyosa.— Ibid.,  161.  Napyssas.— Ibid.,  180. 

Napiw.     See  XnnnbozJio. 

Nap  ob  a  tin.  A  name  said  by  Gibbs 
(Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  110,  1853) 
to  signify  'many  houses,'  and  to  have 
been  used  by  the  Indians  of  Big  valley, 
on  the  s.  shore  of  the  main  body  of  Clear 
lake,  for  themselves  collectively.  This  is 
doubtful.  (s.  A.  B.) 

Napochies.  A  tribe  living  near  Coosar., 
Ala.,  at  war  with  the  Cocas  (Creeks)  in 
15lin.  They  were  probably  a  Muskhogean 
people,  more  nearly  affiliated  to  the  mod 
ern  Choctaw.  CL*N<ipissa. 
Napaches.  —  Fairbanks,  Hist.  Fla.,  80,1871  Napo 
chies.— Harcia,  Knsayu,  35  37,  1723. 

Napoya.  ^  A  clan  of  the  Apohola  phra- 
try  of  the  Timucua  of  Florida. — Pa  re  j  a 
('•<i.  Kill')  (jnoted  by  (Jatschet  in  Proc. 
Am.  Philos.  Soc.,  xvn,  492,  1878. 

Nappeckamak  ('enclosed  or  occupied 
water-place').  The  principal  village  of 
the  Manhattan,  on  the  site  of  Yonkers, 

Nappeckamaks.-Bolton    quoted    by    Ruttenber, 
I  rib,-  Hudson's  K-,  77.  1*72.     Nappikomack.-Rut- 
•s,   •->:},    1906.     Nepahko- 

trnbrr.    Ind 
iuk.— Ibi. 

Napuchi  ('mountain  pass').  A  small 
rancheria  of  the  Tarahumare  near  Noro- 
uachic,  Chihuahua,  Mexico.  —  Lumholtz 
inf'n,  1*94. 

Naquiscopa.  An  unidentified  town  vis 
ited  by  MOSCOHO'H  troops  in  1542,  w.  of 
Mississippi  r.—  ( Jentl.  of  Klvas  (1557)  in 
trench,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  n,  199,  1850. 

Narajeracbic  ('where  the  dead  are 
dancing').  A  burial  cave  of  tru  Tarahu 
mare  in  the  Arroyo  de  las  Iglesias,  on  the 
road  from  Batopilas  to  Carichic,  in  s.  w. 
Chihuahua,  Mexico.  It  has  been  much 
despoiled  in  recent  years  on  account  of 
mining  the  saltpeter  deposits  in  the  cave, 
in  conducting  which  about  a  hundred 
bodies  were  uncovered. — Lumholtz,  Un 
known  Mex.,  i,  222,  1902. 

Nararachic  (probably  'place  of  tears', 
or  'weeping  place').  Formerly  a  large 
pueblo  of  the  Tarahumare,  but  now  an 
unimportant  settlement  about  15  m.  N. 
of  Norogachic,  lat.  27°  40r,  Ion.  107°, 
Chihuahua,  Mexico.  With  the  neigh 
boring  ranches  the  population  numbered 
about  180  families  in  1902. 
Marrarachic.—  Lumholtz  in  Scribner's  Mag.,  xvi, 
311,  Sept.  1S94  (misprint).  Nararachic.— Lumholtz 
in  Internal.  Cong.  Anthrop.,  102,  1894. 

Naraticon.  A  division  of  the  Dela wares 
of  s.  Ncv/  Jersey.  They  have  been  vari 
ously  located  by  writers,  but  according 
to  Brinton  lived  on  Raccoon  cr. 
llattikongy.— De  Laet  (1633)  in  X.  Y.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  2d  s.,  I,  315,  1841.  Naratekons.— De  Laet 
(1633),  ibid.,  303.  Naraticons.— Brinton,  Lenape 
Log.,  42, 1S85.  Naricon.— Doc.  of  1656  in  X.  Y.  Doc 
Col.  Hist.,  i,  590, 1856  <  the  creek).  Narraticongs.— 
Proud,  Penn.,  n,  295,  1798.  Narraticonse.— Stuy- 
vesant  (1608)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  XII,  61, 1877. 
Narratikonck.— Ilerrman  map,  1670.  Nar-rit-i- 
congs. — Macauley,  N.  Y.,  u,  164, 1829. 

Narices.  A  tribe,  probably  Coahuilte- 
can  or  Tamaulipan,  at  Reinoso,  Mexico, 
near  the  Rio  Grain  le,  below  Laredo,  Texas, 
in  1757.  They  were  with  the  Nazas, 
Comecrudos,  and  Tejones.  The  Narices 
and  the  Nazas  had  been  converted  at 
Villa  de  Pilon,  in  Nueva  Leon  (Joseph 
Tienda  de  Cuervo,  Informe  del  Recono- 
cimiento  e  Ynspeccion  de  la  Colonia  de  el 
Seno  M^exicano,  1757,  MS.  in  the  Archive 
General,  Historia,  LVI;  Orozco  v  Berra. 
Geog.,  294,  1864).  (IT/KB.) 

Narises. — Tienda  de  Cuervo,  op.  cit.,  1757. 

Nariz  (probably  Spanish  'nose').  A 
Papago  village,  probably  in  Pima  co.,  s.. 
Ariz.;  pop.  about  250  in  18(53. 
Naris.— Browne,  Apache  Country,  291,  1869  (mis 
quoting  Poston).  Nariz. — Poston  in  Ind.  Aff. 
liep.  1863,  385,  1864. 

Narosigak.  An  Ikogmiut  F^skimo  vil 
lage  on  the  left  bank  of  Kwemeluk  pass, 
at  Nioklakowik  slough,  Yukon  delta, 

Narosigagamieut.— Putnam  (1899)  cited  by  Baker, 
Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  454,  1906  (>nieut=f  people'). 
Narosigak.— Baker,  ibid. 

Narraganset  ( '  people  of  the  small  point, ' 
from  naiayans, diminutive  of  naiag,  'small 
point  of  land,'  with  locative  ending  -el). 
An  Algonquian  tribe,  formerly  one  of  the 
leading  tribes  of  New  England.  They 
occupied  Rhode  Island  w.  of  Narragansett 
bay,  including  theNiantie  territory,  from 
Providence  r.  on  the  x.  E.  to  Pawcafcuck 
r.  on  the  s.  w.  On  the  x.  w.  they  claimed 
control  over  a  part  of  the  country  of  the 
Coweset  and  Nipmuc,  and  on  the  s.  w. 
they  claimed  by  conquest  from,  the  Pequot 

BULL.  30] 



a  strip  extending  to  the  Connecticut  line. 
They  also"  owned  most  of  the  islands  in 
the  bay,  some  of  which  had  been  con 
quered  from  the  Wampanoag.  The 
Niantic,  living  in  the  western  part  of  the 
country,  were  a  subordinate  tribe  who  be 
came  merged  with  the  Narraganset  after 
King  Philip's  war.  The  Narraganset 
escaped  the  great  pestilence  that  in  1617 
desolated  the  -southern  New  England 
coast,  and,  being  joined  by  numbers  of 
the  fugitives  from  the  E.,  became  a 
strong  tribe.  The  early  estimates,  as 
usual,  greatly  exaggerate,  but  it  is  certain 

WISCONSIN.         (p.    G.    SPECK,    PHOTO.) 

that  they  numbered,  including  their  de 
pendents,  several  thousand  when  first 
known  to  the  whites.  In  1633  they  lost 
700  by  smallpox,  but  in  1674  they  still 
numbered  about  5,000.  The  next  year 
saw  the  outbreak  of  King  Philip's  war, 
which  involved  all  the  neighboring  tribes 
and  resulted  in  the  destruction  of  the 
Indian  power  in  southern  New  England. 
The  Narraganset  threw  their  whole 
strength  into  the  contest  and  shared  the 
common  fate.  In  the  celebrated  swamp 
fight  near  Kingston,  R.  I.,  on  Dec.  19, 
1675,  they  lost  nearly  1,000  in  killed  and 
prisoners,  and  soon  thereafter  the  survi 

vors  were  forced  to  abandon  their  country 
and  take  refuge  in  small  bands  among 
the  interior  tribes  in  the  N.  and  W 
It  is  probable  that  most  of  them  joined 
the  Mahican  and  Abnaki,  though 
some  may  have  found  their  way  to  Can 
ada.  In  1682  a  party  of  about  100  fugi 
tives  at  Albany  asked  permission  to 
return  in  peace.  The  Niantic  had  taken 
no  part  in  the  war  against  the  whiten, 
and  in  this  way  preserved  their  tribal 
organization  and  territory.  The  scattered 
Narraganset,  as  they  surrendered,  were 
settled  among  them,  and  the  whole  body 
henceforth  took  the  name  of  Narraganset. 
They  were  assigned  a  tract  near  Charles- 
town,  R.  I.,  and  constantly  decreased  in 
numbers,  as  they  were  hemmed  in  by  the 
whites.  Many  of  them  joined  the  Broth- 
erton  Indians  in  New  York  in  1788. 
Those  who  remained  numbered  about 
140  in  1812,  and  80  in  1832,  but  these  are 
now  reduced  to  a  few  individuals  of 
mixed  Indian  and  negro  blood,  some  of 
whom  have  joined  the  Mohegan  near 
Norwich,  Conn. 

The  Narraganset  were  ruled  by  eight 
chiefs,  each  of  whom  had  his  own  particu 
lar  territory,  but  was  subject  to  the  head 
chief,  who  lived  at  their  principal  village, 
called  Narraganset,  about  the  site  of 
Kingston.  Of  the  religion  of  the  abo 
rigines  of  Rhode  Island,  Roger  Williams 
wrote,  Feb.  28,  1638  (Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  4th  s.,  vi,  225,  1863)  as  follows: 
"They  have  plenty  of  Gods  or  divine 
powers:  the  Sunn,  Moone,  Fire,  Water, 
Earth,  the  Deere,  the  Beare,  &c.  I 
brought  home  lately  from  the  Nanhig- 
gonsicks  the  names  of  38  of  their  Gods, 
all  they  could  remember. ' '  Denison  says: 
"They  made  no  images;  their  divinities 
were  ghosts;  they  were  extreme  spiritual 
ists.  Every  element  and  material  and 
object  had  its  ruling  spirit,  called  a  god,  or 
Manitou.  These  divinities  seemed  ever 
passionate  and  engaged  in  war  with  each 
other;  hence  the  passionate  and  warlike 
character  of  the  worshippers.  They 
adored  not  intelligence  and  virtue,  but 
power  and  revenge.  Every  person  was 
believed  to  be  under  the  influence  of  some 
spirit,  good  or  evil — that  is,  weak  or 
strong— to  further  the  person's  desires. 
These  spirits,  or  Manitous,  inhabited  dif 
ferent  material  forms,  or  dwelt  at  times  in 
them.  The  symbolic  signature  employed 
by  sachems  and  chiefs,  in  signing  deeds, 
represented,  in  many  cases,  the  forms 
inhabited  by  their  guardian  or  inspiring 
spirits;  these  were  bows,  arrows,  birds, 
fishes,  beasts,  reptiles,  and  the  like." 

The  following  were  the  Narraganset 
and  Niantic  villages:  Charlestown,  Chau- 
batick,  Maushapogue,  Mittaubscut,  Narra 
ganset,  Niantic,  Pawchauquet,  and  Sha- 


[B.  A.  E. 

In  addition  to  the  writings  cited  below, 
consult,  for  historical  data,  Rider,  Lands 
of  Rhode  Island,  1904.  (.1.  M.) 

Amirgankaniois.—  ,les.  Rel.  1652,  26.  1*58.  Anygan- 
sets.  — Prince  (1632 1  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s., 
vn.  59,  1818.  Marraganeet. — .lones,  Ojebway 
Inds.,  139.  1*01  nnisprint).  •  Nahiganiouetch. — 
Je-.  Rel.  1010,  35.  1S5S.  Nahiganset, — Williams 
(16S2i  in  R.  I.  Col.  Rec.,  I,  26.  1856.  Nahiggan- 
neucks.  — Patent  of  1613.  ibid..  1  11.  Nahiggonset.— 
Williams  1 16751  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Col  1., "4th s.,  VI, 
301,  1*03.  Nahiggonsick. — Williams  (1638),  ibid., 
217.  Nahiggonsjcks.— Williams  (1675),  ibid..  304. 
Nahigonset.  — Ibid..  300.  Nahigonsick.— Williams 
.163*'.  ibid..  216.  Nanaganset.— Doc.  of  1671 
in  R.  I.  Col.  Rec..  n.  368.  1*57.  Nanheygan- 
setts.—  Doc.  of  1612.  ibid..  I.  130,  1*5(1.  Nanhigan- 
sets.  — Act  oT  1611,  ibid..  131.  Nanhigganeuck. — 
Williams  1 16i:'>i  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  in, 
2o5.  1791  (the  true  tribal  name).  Nanhigganset.— 
Williams  ( 1646)  in  R.  I.  Col.  Rec.,  I,  33,  1*56.  Nan- 
higgansick. — Williams  (1637)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  3d  s..  ix.  299.  1*46.  Nanhiggon.— William; 

I,  222 



,s.,  vi,  222,  lsd3.     Nanhiggonset. — 
—  Ibid. ,223.    Nanhiggon- 

Ibid.     NanhiggonL 

ticks.— Williams  1 1636).  ibid.,  3d  s..  I,  100.  1*25 
Nanhiggs.— Williams  (1600)  quoted  by  Canlkins, 
Hist  Norwich.  47.  1*66.  Nanhigonset. — Williams 
i  UiOM  quoted  by  Drake.  Hk.Jnds..  l)k.2,  100,  1*4S. 
Nanhigonsick.  — Williams  ( 1638  i  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
('..11..  4th  s.,  vi.  223.  1S03.  Nanhygansett.—  Doc.of 
1651  in  R.  I.  Col.  Rec.,  1.131. 1*56.  Nanhygansit.— 
(iorton  a!id  Holden  (1667).  ibid,,  n,  231,  1857. 
Nanihiggonsicks. — Williams  (1637  i  in  Mass.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll..  It li  s.,  vi.  1*9.  1*63.  Nannogans. — Mason 
1 16i:;  i.  ibid.,  vn.  411,  1*65  (abbreviation).  Nan- 
nogansetts.  —  Ibid.  Nanohigganeuks. —Monrt 
.1622 1,  ibid..  1st  s..  viii,  211,  1*02.  Nanohiggan- 
set.— Ibid.,  239.  Nanohiggunsets. — Doc.  of  1613 
limited  by  Drake.  Hk.  Inds..  bk.  2,  55.  1*4*.  Nanti- 
gansick.  — Williams  (<•/:.  1610),  ibid.,  23.  Nanty- 
gansick.— Callender  in  R.  I.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  iv,  73, 
1*3*.  Nantyggansiks.— Callenderquoted  by  Drake, 
Hk.  Inds.,  bk.  2.  2:;.  isis.  Naragancetts.— Doc.  of 
1612  in  Ma-s.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  3d  s..  Ill,  101,  1*33. 
Naraganset.— Win  thro  p  (1031:.  ibid.,  4th  s..  in, 
320.  1*56.  Naragansicks.  —  Peter  (<•«.  1637),  ibid., 
VI,  95,  1*63.  Naraghenses.—  .H-s.  Rel,  1060,  27,  1858. 
Naransett, — Underbill  (IMS)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll. , 3d  s., VI.  1.1X37.  Naregansets.— Patrick  1 1637)! 
ibid.,  4th  s.,  VII,  323, 1*65.  Narhigansets.  — Doc.  of 
1675inN.Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  xiv,  699. 1**3.  Narhig- 
gansetts. — Hradiord  i  1610)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,,159. 1*63.  Narhiggon.  —  Doc.of  1075inN.V' 
Doc.Col.Hist.,.\iv,099.1**3.  Naricanset.— Pynchon 
(1613)  in  Masv  Hist.  Soe.  Coll.,  1th  s..  VI, 373, 1803. 
Narigansets. — Cu-hmaM  i  1622).  ibid.,  in,  122,'lS50» 
Narigansette.— Treaty  ( 1644  i.  ibid..  430.  Narigans- 
sets.— Bradford  (c<i.  ]V,5oi,  ibid..  235.  N-trigenset  — 
Williams)  1651  ,(|iioted  by  Drake,  Hk.  Inds., bk.2, 80, 
v  Nariggansets,—  Williams  ( 16 IS)  in  Mass.  Hist. 
Sue.  Coll.. :5ds..  ix. 271.  ls|6.  Narighansets.— Brad 
ford  \f<i.  1050).  ibid.,  1th  s..  in,  102,  l.s'iO  Narihgan- 
sets.  —  Ibid.,  113.  Narogansetts.— Writer  of  1070 
quoted  by  Drake.Ind.Chron.,  115,1*30.  Narohigan- 
sets.  -Patent  of  16: 15  in  N.Y.  Doe.  Co].  Hist.,  xiv 

.  Narragancett.  — Doc.  of  Kltls  in  R.  |.  ('of. 
llec..  n,231, 1*57.  Narragangsett.~<;reene  ( 1670)  ill 
R.  I. Col.  Rec..  n.31  1.  l*.")7.  Narraganses.  — Do\\  nintr 
<  1030 1  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  4th  s.,  vi,  38,  1S03. 
Narragansett.  —  Haynes  ( 1013),  ibi<l.,  3d  s  i  230 
*25.  Narraghansets.— Harris,  Voy.  and  Tra'v.,  i' 
*51.  1705.  Narrangansett.— Writer  of  16i|jn  j{  j' 
r<)l-  It''*'-,  I.  13*.  1*5(1.  Narregansets.- Patrick 
(1637)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1th  s..  vn.323  1*65 
Narrhagansitt.  — Do.-,  of  1679  in  R.  I.  Col.  Rec  m  63 
1*5*.  Narricanses  —  Doc.  of  16.V)  in  N.  V  Doc  Co']' 
Hist.,  xin.  5*.  !*.*].  Narrigansets.  — Bradford 
(b'.Ki)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  4th  s..  vi,  160  ls(;3 
Narrigonset.  -Williams  (103*),  ibid.,  217  Narro- 
ganteU.  — Howes  (1611)  ibid.,  513.  Narrohigan- 
Bet8.-Mourt  (1022),  ibid.,  1M  s..  vn,.  23M,  l>0, 
Warrohigganscts.  —  |)ee  in  Smitln  1029),  Va  II  •>•>! 
repr  1*19.  Narrohiggenset.  Doc.  of  Kit:,  iti'Dra'ke' 
Hk.  Inds.,  bk.2. 93,  1*1*.  Narrohiggin.  Ibid  <>]' 
Narrohiggonseta.  M.Mirt  M622i  in  Mass.  Hist. Soc! 
Coll., 'Ms.,  IX,  27,  1*22.  Narrowbiggonset.  — Ibid 
0*(iaisprint;.  Narrowgancett.  —  Allvn  (1670)  in  R! 

I.  Col.  Rec.,  II,  317,  1ST.7.  Narrowgannenciis. — Doc. 
of  1726.  ibid.,  IV,  371,  T859.  Narrowganneucks. — 
Warwick  (1643),  ibid. ,303.  narrow  Ganset. — John 
son  (1654)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s.,  IV,  42, 1816. 
Narrowgaiissits.  —  Ibid.,  II,  00,  1814.  Narrowgan- 
zet.— Ibid.,  IV,  28,  1810.  Narrow  Higansetts.— Pat 
ent  of  1661  quoted  by  Thompson,  Lonj?  Id.,  90, 
1839.  Narrow  Higgansents,  —  Patent/of  1664  in  Vt. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  11,501,1871.  Narygansetts.— \Vin- 
throp  (1650)  in  .Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  IX,  289, 
1846.  Nayhiggonsiks. — Williams  (1670),  ibid.,  1st  s., 
1,278,  1806.  Nazaganset.  — Kliot  (1051),  ibid.,  3d 
s.,iv,  125,  1834.  Nechegansitt. — Gookin  (ca.  3677) 
quoted  by  Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.2,23,J£48.  Neragon- 
sitt.—  St'inton(1070)inN.Y.Doc.Col  Hist.,xiv,715,. 
1883.  Norragansett. — Coddinjjrton  (1674)  in  Mass. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll. ,4th  s.,  vn,  295,  1865.  Nousaghau- 
set. — James  quoted  by  Tanner,  Narr.,329, 1830. 

Narragansett  pacer.  A  breed  of  horses 
for  which  Rhode  Island  was  once  famous; 
so  called  from  the  place-name  Narragan 
sett,  also  the  appellation  of  the  Algon- 
quian  tribe  formerly  resident  in  the  Rhode 
Island  country.  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Narsak.  An  Eskimo  village  at  the 
month  of  Ameralik  fjord,  lat,  04°,  w. 
(ireenland. — Xansen,  First  Crossing  of 
(irec-nland,  n,  2~r2,  1890. 

Narsarsuk.  An  Eskimo  village  in  w. 
<  ireenland. — Ilartwig,  JVdar  World,  402, 
map,  1S()9. 

Narsuk.  An  Eskimo  village  on  the 
s.  K.  coast  of  Greenland,  lat.  00°  3CK; 
pop.  20  in  1829.— (iraah,  Exped.  East 
Coast  (ireenland,  114,  1837. 

Na.  Sa.  Eor  all  names  beginning  with 
this  abbreviation,  see  JVw,s'/w  tfefioni. 

Nasagas-haidagai  (Xa  wuja's  xa'i- 
dAga-i,  '}>eo{)le  of  the  rotten  house'). 
A  subdivision  of  the  (iitins  of  the  Ilaida 
of  Skidegate,  belonging  to  the  Eagle  clan. 
They  were  unable  to  restore  their  house 
for  such  a  long  time  that  it  began  to  fall 
to  pieces,  hence  the  name.  They  once 
occupied  a  separate  town.  (.1.  R.  s. ) 

Na  s'a'gas  qa'edra.— Boas  in  12th  Rep.  N.  W. 
Tribes  Can.,  21,25,  1898.  Na  saga's  xa'-idAga-i.— 
Swan  ton,  Cont.  Haida,  273,  1905.  Na^  s'a/yas 
qa'etqa.— Boas  in  5th  Rep.  X.  \V.  Tribes  Can.,  26, 
1S98.  NisigasHaade. — Harrison  in  Proc.  Rt>y.  Soc. 
fan.,  125,  1895. 

Nasaump.     See  $an)p. 

Nascapee  (a  term  of  reproach  applied 
by  the  Montagnais).  The  most  north 
easterly  of  the  Algonquian  tribes,  occu 
pying  the  elevated  interior  of  Quebec  and 
Labrador  penin.  N.  of  the  Gulf  of  St  Law 
rence  and  extending  from  the  vicinity  of 
L.  Mistassini  to  Ungava  bay  on  the  x. 
They  call  themselves  Nanenot,  'true, 
real  men.'  .Many  of  them  have  inter 
married  with  their  congeners  the  Mon 
tagnais,  and  when  they  visit  the  coast 
the  two  tribes  frequent  the  same  stations. 
When  in  the  neighborhood  of  Tngava 
hay  they  are  known  as  Tngava  Indians. 
They  are  shorter  and  of  lighter  build  than 
the  .Montagnais,  and  have  delicately 
formed  and  clear-cut  features,  small  hands 
and  tect,  and  large,  rather  soft,  eyes. 

According  to  their  traditions  the  Nas 
capee  were  driven  into  their  present 

BULL.  30] 



country  in  early  times  by  the  Iro-quois. 
They  assert  that  originally  they  lived  in 
a  region  to  the  w. ,  N.  of  a  great  river  (sup 
posed  to  be  the  St  Lawrence)  and  toward 
the  E.  lay  an  enormous  body  of  water 
(believed  to  be  Hudson  bay).  When 
they  reached  the  Ungava  region  their 
only  neighbors  were  Eskimo,  who  occu 
pied  the  coast  strip  and  with  whom  they 
became  involved  in  war,  which  continued 
until  after  the  arrival  of  the  whites.  The 
two  peoples  are  now  on  terms  of  intimacy. 
The  Nascapee  do  not  have  the  endurance 
of  their  Eskimo  neighbors  against  fatigue 
and  hunger,  although  equally  able  to 
\vithstand  the  rigors  of  their  harsh  cli 
mate.  The  children  are  obedient;  disre 
spect  toward  their  elders  is  unknown,  and 
in  their  dealings  one  with  another  there 
is  no  quarreling.  The  Nascapee  are  gen 
erally  healthy;  their  prevailing  diseases 
are  of  the  lungs  and  bowels — the  former 
resulting  from  exposure  to  the  extremes 
3f  wet  and  cold  and  their  insanitary 
houses;  the  latter  due  to  their  gluttony 
ifter  long  fasting  from  scarcity  of  food. 
Those  who  go  to  the  coast  to 'reside,  as 
nany  have  in  recent  years,  appear  to  be 
nore  subject  to  diseases  than  those  in  the 
nterior.  Medical  treatment  consists  of 
ihamanistic  incantations  and  the  use  of 
Dowders  and  liniments,  both  native  and 
;hose  procured  from  traders.  Mar- 
iage  is  effected  without  ceremony  and 
s  conditioned  on  the  consent  of  the 
>arents  of  the  young  woman  and  the 
ibility  of  the  prospective  husband  to 
support  a  wife;  after  marriage  the  bond 
nay  be  severed  by  either  party  on  slight 
revocation.  Polygamy  is  common,  the 
lumber  of  wives  a  man  may  have  being 
imited  only  by  his  means  of  support- 
ng  them.  The  sexual  relations  of  the 
Nascapee  are  very  loose;  but  their  im- 
fiorality  is  confined  to  their  own  people. 
Ahe  division  of  labor  is  similar  to  that 
mong  most  tribes:  the  women  perform 
11  domestic  work,  including  the  trans- 
ortation  of  game,  fetching  the  fuel, 
recting  the  tipis,  hauling  the  sleds  when 
raveling,  etc. ;  the  men  are  the  providers, 
rirls  reach  puberty  at  14  or  15  years,  and 
re  taken  as  wives  at  even  an  earlier  age. 
lothers  usually  do  not  bear  more  than  4 
hildren;  twins  are  rare. 
The  Nascapee  suspend  the  bodies  of 
leir  dead  from  branches  of  trees  if  the 
round  be  much  frozen,  and  endeavor  to 
eturn  when  the  weather  is  warm  to  bury 
iem.  Interment,  however,  has  been 
ractised  only  since  the  advent  of  mis- 
onaries.  A  man  of  distinction  is  often 
uried  at  once,  after  a  fire  has  been  built 
i  a  tipi  to  thaw  the  earth.  They  have 
o  horror  _for  the  dead,  having  been 
nown,  it  is  said,  to  rob  Eskimo  corpses 
f  their  clothing  and  accompanying  im- 

Like  other  Indians  the  Nascapee  be 
lieve  that  every  object,  animate  or  inani 
mate,  is  possessed  of  a  form  of  spirit 
which,  in  order  that  it  may  perform  its 
services  for  the  welfare  of  the  people 
must  be  propitiated  with  acceptable  offer 
ings.  The  medicine-men  are  supposed  to 
be  in  direct  contact  with  all  forms  of 
spirits,  and  are  consulted  when  it  is  de 
sired  to  overcome  their  baneful  influence 
by  means  of  the  shaman's  art, 

The  subsistence  of  the  Nascapee  is 
gained  by  the  chase,  which  is  engaged  in 
chiefly  during  the  winter.  In  the  spring 
men,  women,  and  children  repair  to  the 
trading  posts,  chiefly  Ft  Chi  mo,  where 
they  trade  furs,  ptarmigan  feathers,  etc., 
for  the  articles  and  products  of  civiliza 
tion.  The  reindeer  forms  the  chief  source 
of  their  food  and  clothing,  although  fish, 
ptarmigan,  ducks,  geese,  hares,  rabbits, 
porcupines,  beaver,  and,  in  stress  of  hun 
ger,  an  occasional  lynx,  are  also  eaten ;  the 
eggs  of  wild  fowl  are  consumed  in  enormous 
quantities  and  in  all  stages  of  incubation. 
Reindeer  are  speared  from  canoes  while 
crossing  a  stream,  or  snared  or  shot  from 
ambush  while  passing  through  a  narrow 
defile,  or,  in  winter,  are  driven  into  a 
snowbank  and  speared.  In  these  slaugh 
terings  an  incredible  number  of  carcasses 
and  skins  are  left  to  decay.  Wolverenes, 
wolves,  and  foxes  are  never  eaten.  The 
flesh  of  game  animals  is  dried,  pounded, 
made  into  pemmican,  and  stored  in  bas 
kets  and  bags  for  future  use. 

The  apparel  of  the  Nascapee  is  quite 
distinct  for  the  two  sexes;  the  clothing 
varies  also  with  the  season,  as  the  ex 
tremes  of  climate  a  re  very  great.  That  of 
the  men  consists  of  tanned  reindeer  coat, 
breeches,  leggings,  moccasins,  gloves  or 
mittens,  and  cap  or  headdress.  Seams 
are  sewed  with  sinew,  and  all  the  gar 
ments  except  the  leggings,  which  are 
mostly  hidden  by  the  long  coat,  are  orna 
mented  with  extravagant  painted  designs. 
Moccasins  are  rarely  ornamented,  except 
with  beads  or  with  strips  of  colored  cloth. 
Beaded  head-bands  are  used  for  bearing 
burdens,  especially  for  carrying  canoes 
when  making  portages.  In  winter  the 
men  wear  the  coat  with  the  fur  side  in 
ward  and  with  a  hood  attached.  In  sum 
mer  the  women  wear  calico  dresses,  thin 
shawTls  obtained  through  trade,  and  moc 
casins;  in  winter  their  apparel  consists 
of  a  reindeer  skin  robe,  a  sleeveless  gown 
reaching  a  little  below  the  knees,  often 
highly  ornamented  with  painted  designs, 
bead  work,  and  fringe;  and  blanket 
shawl,  shoulder  cape,  leggings,  mocca 
sins,  and  cap. 

The  dwellings,  for  both  winter  and 
summer,  are  tents  or  tipis  of  reindeer 
skins  sewed  together,  and  measuring  1( 
to  18  ft  at  the  base  and  10  to  14  ft  high. 
The  floor  is  carpeted  with  young  spruce 



[B.  A.  H. 

branches,  except  around  the  central  fire 
place;  the  smoke  escapes  through  an 
opening  in  the  top  of  the  tipi  where  the 
supporting  poles  are  brought  together. 
The  place  of  honor  is  the  side  opposite 
the  fire.  Poles  extend  across  the  tipi  for 
the  suspension  of  pots  and  kettles,  and 
hunting  apparatus,  clothing,  etc.  are 
hung  in  convenient  places.  The  outer 
edge  of  the  interior  is  slightly  raised 
above  the  center  of  the  floor,  affording  a 
slope  for  the  occupants  when  sleeping 
with  their  feet  toward  the  fire.  Sweat 
lodges  of  small  poles  covered  with  tent 
skins  are  in  common  use,  and  are  heated, 
as  usual,  by  means  of  hot  stones  on  which 
water  is  poured.  The  domestic  utensils 
of  the  Xascapee  consist  of  thin  vessels  of 
spruce  or  birch,  of  various  sixes,  for  hold 
ing  liquids  and  for  use  as  drinking  cups; 
berry  dishes  or  baskets  of  birchbark, 
sewed  like  the  wooden  vessels  with  split 
root>:  baskets  of  birehbark  with  buck 
skin  top  and  draw-string;  bags  made  of 
the  skins  of  reindeer  legs  sewed  together; 
ami  spoons  or  ladles  of  wood  nicely  carved. 
They  are  inordinately  fond  of  smoking, 
chewing,  and  snulling  tobacco— the  lat 
ter,  however,  is  practised  only  among 
the  aired,  especially  the  women.  When 
camped  at  the  trading  posts  the  Indians 
boil  together  tobacco  and  molasses,  to 
which  water  is  added;  this  compound  is 
drunk  until  stupefaction  ensues.  Pipes 
are  made  usually  of  sandstone  or  slate, 
with  stem  of  spruce,  often  ornamented 
with  beadwork,  and  are  valued  according 
to  the  color  of  the  stone.  Transportation 
and  traveling  are  conducted  by  means  of 
canoes  made  of  slats  or  ribs  covered  with 
birchbark,  sleds  or  toboggans  (tn-lxtx-knn), 
and  snowshoes  of  four  styles  framed  with 
wood  and  netted.  Bows  and  arrows  are 
now  almost  discarded  for  guns;  but  blunt- 
pointed  arrows  are  still  used  fo'r  killing 
small  game,  and  by  boys.  The  reindeer 
spears,  already  referred  to,  consist  of  a 
shaft  6  ft  long  \\ith  a  steel  head  made 
Irom  a  fiat  iile.  Reindeer  snares  are 
made  of  reindeer  parchment  cut  into  thin 
narrow  thongs  and  plaited,  or  of  tanned 
skin.  Beaver  are  sometimes  trapped  in 
a  sort  of  net.  Knives,  awls,  ice  scoops 
and  picks,  hair  combs  and  comb  cases', 
porcupine  tails  for  cleaning  the  combs, 
and  fishing  tackle  are  among  the  neces 
sary  implements  of  every  Nascapee  house 

The  chief  amusements  of  the  men  are 
games  of  draughts  or  checkers,  of  which 
they  are  exceedingly  fond,  and  cup-and- 
ball.  Feasts,  acTTjnipanied  by  dam*;  and 
ceremony,  may  be  given  by 'a  man  who 
has  been  unusually  successful  jn  hunt 
ing.  Drums  and 'drum-like  rattles  are 
used  for  musical  accompaniments  in  their 
ceremonies;  other  rattles,  as  well  as  bows 

and  arrows,  which  are  shot  at  effigy  tar 
gets,  are  used  by  the  boys,  while  elabo 
rately  costumed  dolls  are  made  for  the 
girls.  Like  other  tribes  the  Nascapee 
have  an  abundance  of  folktales,  the  chief 
subject  of  which  are  the  animals  common 
to  their  environment.  In  these  tales  the 
wolverene  seems  to  play  a  prominent 
part.  (See  Turner  in  llth  Rep.  B.  A.  E., 
267  et  seq.,  1894.) 

On  account  of  their  wandering  habits, 
the  nature  of  their  country,  and  their 
mixture  with  the  Montagnais,  it  is  im 
possible  to  give  an  exact  statement  of 
their  numbers.  "Jn  1858  they  vvere  esti 
mated  at  about  2,500.  In  1884  the  Nas- 
kapee  of  the  lower  St  Lawrence  were 
officially  reported  to  number  2,860,  and 
the  Indians  of  Labrador  and  E.  Ruperts 
Land  were  returned  as  5,016.  ln(1906 
there  were  2,18:>  Montagnais  and  Nasca 
pee  officially  noted  as  such,  and  2,741i 
unnamed  Indians  in  the  interior,  1,253 
of  whom  were  in  the  unorganized  territo 
ries  of  Chicoutimi  and  Saguenay.  See 
Montagnais,  Xilcltefjti.ou.. 

Cunsskapi. — Laure  (1731)  quoted  by  Hind,  Lab. 
Penin.,  i,  34,  18(i3  (misprint  for  Ouneskapi).  Es 
ko-piks.— Walch,  Map  Am.,  1805.  Nascopi.— 
Stearns,  Labrador,  262, 1884.  Nascopie.  -McLean, 
Hudson  Bay,  n.  53,  1849.  Nascupi.— Stearns,  Lab 
rador,  262,  1*84.  Naskapis. — Hoc-quart  (1733) 
quoted  by  Hind, op.  cit.,  11.  Naskapit. — Kingsley, 
Stand.  Nat.  Hist.,  pt.  6,  149,  1885.  Naskopie.— 
Turner  in  llth  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  183,  1894.  Nasko- 
pis.— Kingsley,  Stand.  Nat.  Hist.,  pt.  6,  149,  1885. 
Naskupis.— Hocquart  (1733)  quoted  by  Hind,  Lab. 
Penin.,  n,  96,  1863.  Naspapees, — Stearns,  Labra 
dor,  262,  1881.  Nasquapees.— - Ibid,  (correct form). 
Nasquapicks. — Cartwright  (1774)  quoted  by  Hind, 
Lab.  Penin.,  n,  litl,  1803.  Ne  ne  not.— Turner  in 
llth  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  183,  1894  ('true  men':  own 
name).  Neskaupe.— Kingsley,  Stand.  Nat.  Hist., 
pt.G,  148, 188.").  Ounachkapiouek.—  Jes.  Rel.  for  1643, 
38,  1858.  Ounadcapis.— Stearns,  Labrador,  262, 
18s  1.  Ounascapis.— Hind,  Lab.  Penin.,  I,  275,  1863. 
Ounescapi. — Bell  in,  map,  1755.  Scoffies. — Gallatin 
in  Trans.  Am.  Ethnol.  Soc.,  II,  ciii,  1848.  Secof- 
fee. — Brinton,  Lenape  Leg.,  11,  1885.  Shouda- 
munk. — Gatschrt  in  Trans.  Am.  Philos.  Soc.,409, 
1885  i  -good  Indians':  Beothuk  name).  Skoffie. — 
Writer  a;.  1799  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soe.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  VI,  ; 
16.  1800.  TJnescapis. — La  Tour,  map,  1779.  Ungava 
Indians. — McLean,  Hudson  Bay,  n,  53,  1849. 

Nashamoiess.  An  Algonquian  village  in 
the  s.  E.  part  of  Marthas  Vineyard,  Mass., 
in  1659.—  Cotton  in  Mass.  IJist.  Soc.  Coll., 
1st  s.,  i,  204,  1806. 

Nashanekammuck.  A  former  Algon 
quian  village  at  Chilmark,  Marthas 
Vineyard,  Mass.  In  1698  the  inhabitants 
numbered  2:>1. 

Nashanekammuck.  —  Rep.  of  1698  in  Mass  Hist  Soc. 
Coll.,  1st  s.,  x,  131,  ISO'.).  Nashouohkamack.— Ibid., 
1,204,  note,  180(1.  Nashouohkamuk.— Mayhew,  Ind. 
Converts,  13.  1727.  Nashuakemmiuk.— Cotton  in 
Mass.  Hist.  Soc,  Coll.,  Ists.,  I,  204,  1806. 

Nasheakusk  ('Loud  Thunder';  also 
spelled,  Xasheshtik,  Nasues- 
kuk,  Nasheaskusk,  Nasheescuck,  etc.). 
The  son  of  Black  JIa\vk  and  his  wife 
Asshawequa  ('Singing  Bird').  He  was 
the  eldest  of  Black  Hawk's  three  chil 
dren,  the  others  being  Nasomsee  or 
Gamesett,  a  son,  and  Namequa,  a  daugh- 

BULL.  30] 


ter,  who  were  living  at  the  close  of  the 
Black  Hawk  war  in  1832.  Nasheakusk 
did  not  bear  a  conspicuous  part  in  the 
Indian  history  of  the  N.  W.,  being  of 
note  chiefly  from  his  association  with  his 
famous  father.  He  was  horn  probably 
about  the  close  of  the  18th  century.  He 
remained  with  and  followed  the  fortunes 
of  his  father  not  only  during  the  war  of 
1832,  but  also  during  his  captivity,  and 
seems  also  to  have  lived  with  his  father's 
family  until  the  latter' s  death,  Oct.  3, 
1838,  subsequently  remaining  with  bin 
mother  for  some  years,  probably  until 
her  death,  Aug.  29,  1846.  Nasheakusk 
and  his  brother  made  complaint  to  Gov. 
Lucas  of  Iowa  when  their  father's  grave 
was  desecrated,  which  resulted  in  the  re 
covery  of  the  bones.  The  time  of  his 

quoted   by  Drake,   Ind. 


death  is  not  given. 

by  Samuel  M.  Brookes 

and  his  father  were  prisoners  of   war  at 

A  portrait,  {minted 
while  Xasheakusk 

Fortress  Monroe,  Va.,  is  in  possession  of 
the  Historical  Society  of  Wisconsin  (see 
illustration).  (c.  T.  ) 

Nashobah.  A  former  village  of  Chris 
tian  Indians  in  the  N  ipmuc  country,  near 
Magog  pond,  in  Littleton,  Mass.  "  Of  it 
John  Eliot  wrote  in  1070:  "This  place 
lying  in  the  road-way  which  the  Mau- 
quaogs  [Mohawk]  haunted,  was  much  mo 
lested  by  them,  and  was  one  year  wholly 
deserted,  but  this  year  the  people  have 
taken  courage,  and  dwell  upon  it  again." 
In  1675  the  inhabitants,  numbering  about 
50,  wrere  removed  to  Concord,  Mass.,  on 
account  of  King  Philip's  war. 
Nashoba.—  Drake,  Bk.  of  Inds.,  bk.  2,  54,  1833. 
Nashobah.—  Gookin  (1674)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
1st.  s.,  i,  188,  1806.  Nasholah.—  Writer  of  1676 

3456—  Bull.  30,  pt  2-07  -  3 


Nashola  ('wolf').     A  Chickasaw  clan 
oi  the  Isnpanee  phratrv. 

Nashoba.  -Catschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  i.  96,  18K4 
Na-sho-la.—  Morgan,  Am:.  Hoc.,  if,;}   1x77 

Nashua  ('the  laud  between').  '  V  tribe 
formerly  living  on  upper  Nashua  r  in 
Worcester  co.,  Mass.,  said  by  some  to 
have  been  connected  with  the  Massa- 
chuset,  but  clashed  by  Potter  with  the 
Fennacook.  They  had  a  village  called 
Nashua  near  the  present  Leominster,  but 
their  principal  village  seems  to  have  been 
\\eshacum,  a  few  miles  farther  s.  The 
Nashua  tract  extended  for  several  miles 
in  every  direction  around  Lancaster.  (  )u 
the  outbreak  "of  King  Philip's  war,  in 
1675,  they  joined  the  hostile  Indians,  and, 
numbering  several  hundred,  attempted  to 
escape  at  his  death  in  two  bodies  to  the 
E.  and  w.  Both  parties  were  pursued  and 
a  large  number  were  killed  and  captured, 
the  prisoners  being  afterward  sold  into 
slavery.  A  few  who  escaped  eastward 
joined  the  Pennacook,  while  about  200  of 
the  others  crossed  the  Hudson  to  the  Ma- 
hican  or  the  Munsee.  and  ceased  to  exist 
as  a  separate  tribe.  A  fe\v  still  remained 
near  their  old  homes  in  1701.  (.1.  M.) 
Nashaue.  —  Karly  form  cited  by  Kinnicutt  Ind 
Names,  29,  1905.  Nashaway.  —  Kliot  (1651)  in  Mass. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  iv,  123,  1S34.  Nashawog.— 
Eliot  (1648),  ibid.,  81.  Nashawogg.—  Karly  form 
cited  by  Kinnicutt,  op.  cit.  Nashoway.  —  Rep.  (ca. 
1657)  in  N.  H.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  in,  96,  1832.  Nash 
ua.—  Writer  of  1810  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s. 
1,181,1814.  Nashuays.—  Drake.  Bk.  Inds.,  ix.  1848. 
Nashuway.—  Hinckley  (1676)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  4th  s.,  v,  1,  1861.  Nashuyas.—  Domenech, 
Deserts,  1,442.1860.  Nassawach.  —  Courtlandl  1688) 
inN.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  in,  562,  1853.  Nasshaway.— 
Pynchon  (1677),  ibid.,  XIII,  511,  1881.  Nassoway.— 
Writer  of  1676  quoted  by  Drake,  Ind.  Chron.,  130, 
1836.  Naushawag.—  Paine  (ca.  1792)  in  Mass.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  i,115.1XOti. 

Nashwaiya  ('slanting  wolf).  One  of 
the  former  Choctaw  "Sixtowns,"  prob 
ably  in  Jasper  co.,  Miss. 

Nashoopawaya.  —  West  Fla.  ma]),  c<i.  1772.  Nasho- 
weya.—  Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I,  109,  1884. 
Nashwaiya.  —  Halbert  in  Pub.  Ala.  Hisl.  Soc.,  I, 
383,  1901. 

Nasiampaa.  A  band  of  Mdewakanton 
Sioux,  named  from  a  chief,  formerly  liv 
ing  E.  of  Mississippi  r.,  25  m.  from  the 
agency,  near  St  Paul,  Minn.;  pop.  K>9.  — 
Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  612,  1S58. 

Naskotin.  A  Takulli  sept  dwelling  in 
Chentsithala  and  Nesietsha  villages  on 
Eraser  r.,  near  the  mouth  of  Blackwater 
r.,  Brit.  Col.  Pop.  <>5  in  1901),  having  be 
come  reduced  from  90  in  1S90  through 
alcoholic  excesses. 

Nanscud-dinneh.—  Balbi,  Atlas  Ethnog.,  821,  1826. 
Nascotins.—  Domenech,  Deserts,  n.  62,  1860.  Nas- 
cud.—  Cox,  Columbia  R.,  327,  1831.  NascudDenee.— 
Mackenzie  Voy.,n,  175,  1802.  Nashkoten.—  Smet, 
Oregon  Miss.,  100,  1817.  Naskoaten.—  Maefie,  Van 
couver  Id.,  428,  1S65.  Nas-koo-tains.—  Harmon, 
Jour  245,  1820.  Naskotins.—  Cox,  Columbia  K., 
II  346  ls31  Na-sku-tenne.—  A.  (i.  Morice,  inf'n, 
1890.  Nasrad-Denee.—  Vater,  Mithridates,  m,  421, 
1816  Nauscud  Dennies.—  (Jallatin  in  Trans.  Am. 
Antiq.  Soc.,  n,  20,  1836.  Niscotins.—  Hale  in  U.  S. 


[B.  A.  B. 

Kxpl    Kxped.,  iv.  I'll,  IS!.').    Tsistlatho  band. — Can. 

liitf.  Air.,  211.  1902. 

Nasnocomacack.  A  Massac-huset  village 
in  liilH,  on  the  coast  of  Massachusetts, 
probably  a  few  miles  x.  of  Plymouth.— 
Smith  ('l«tlH)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
3d  s.,  vi,  108, -1837. 

Nasoinsee.     See  XasJicakusk. 

Nasoni.  A  former  tribe  of  the  Cadclo 
confederacy.  Their  principal  village 
t'nnu  Jo'S7  to  1  752,  and  probably  later,  was 
about  27  m.  N.  of  Nacogdoches,  on  or 
near  an  eastern  branch  of  Angelina  r.,N.E. 
Texas.  They  are  possibly  identical  with 
the  Nisione  of  the  De  Soto  narrative  of 
Biedma.  They  are  mentioned  by  Jontel 
in  1(>S7  and  by  La  Harpe  in  1719.  The 
Spanish  mission  of  San  Jose  de  los  Na- 
/ones  was  established  among  them  in 
171'i,  east  of  upper  Angelina  r.,  but  was 
transferred  to  San  Antonio  r.  in  1731. 
Being  upon  the  contested  Spanish-French 
border  ground  they  suffered  accordingly 
from  disease.  They  are  mentioned  in 
the  Texas  census  of  1790,  but  seem  to 
have  disappeared  as  a  distinct  tribe  about 
the  end  of  the  century.  In  customs  and 
religion  they  resembled  their  kindred  of 
the  Caddo  confederacy. 

Nadsonites.  —  Do  la  Tour,"  Map  Amerique,  1779. 
Nasone. — Census  of  Sept.  It),  1790,  in  Tex.  State 
Archives.  Nasonis.  — Barcia.  Ensayo,  289,  1723. 
Nasony.— Linares  (171(1)  in  Margry.  Dec.,  vi,  217, 
ixstl.  Nasoris. — Barcia,  op.  eit.,  2(15.  Nasoui.— 
Tomi  in  French,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  T,  73, 
ls4tl.  Nassomtes.— Boyd,  Ind.  Loo.  Names,  70, 
1**5.  Nassoni. — .Joutel  (1(187)  in  Margry,  Dec., 
m.  Ki9,  l.*7s.  Nassonians.— Hennepin,  New  Dis- 
cov..  pt.  n.  2S,  Ki'.ts.  Nassonit.— Walche,  Charte 
von  America,  iso").  Nassonites. — La  Harpe  (1719) 
in  Margry,  Dec.,  vi,  263,  1SS6.  Nazone.—Tex. 
State  Archives,  Nov.  17,  17C>3.  Nisione. — Biedma 
ilMltin  Hakluyt,  Soc.  Pub.,  ix,  197,  1851.  Nis- 
sohone.— Gentl.  of  Elvas  (1557)  quoted  by  Shea, 
Karly  Vuy.,  149,  1861.  Nissoon. — Harris,  Voy.  and 
Trav..  i,  MO,  1705.  Nissoone.—  (Jentl.  of 'Elvas 
(1557)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  n,  198,  1850. 
Noachis.— Bancroft.  No.  Mex.  States,  i,  (ill,  188(1. 
Nossonis.— Hennepin,  Discov.,  Thwaites  ed.,  416. 
1903.  Nozones. — Rivera,  Diario,  leg.  2602,  173(1. 
Sassory.— Cavelier  (Ills")  quoted  bv  Shea  Early 
Voy.,  39,  istil  (possibly  identical). 

Nassauaketon  ('forked  river').  One  of 
the  four  Ottawa  divisions,  living  toward 
the  close  of  the  17th  century  in  x.  Michi 
gan  or  Wisconsin  on  a  river  x.  of  (Jreen 
hay.  They  were  so  called  from  the  fact 
that  they  resided  then  or  previous  to 
leaving  Canada  on  a  river  having  three 
branches.  See  Nat/a  on  ichlri'idouek. 
Nancokoueten.— Writer'of  1(195  in  x.  y.  Doc.  Col. 
\\\^L,  ix, (127, 1S55.  NansoaKouatons.— Bacqueville 
de  la  1'otherie,  Hist.  Am.,  iv,  201,  1753.  Nansoua- 
ketons.—  Ibid.,  11,  tli.  Nansoua,  Kostons.— Ibid 

Nassauaketon.— Cadillac  (1(195)  in  Minn.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  v,  .105,  ],.   Nassauakuetoun.— Cadillac 

H9..I  in  Margry,  Dec.,  v.  so,  is,s;i.  Nassawake- 
ton.  -Yerwyst,  Missionary  Labors.  210,  188(1. 
Nation  de  Fourche. — .les.'  Rel.  1(171,  12,  1858. 
Ounasacoetois.  — De  la  Chesnaye  (ni.  1(195)  in  Mar- 
gry.  Dr.,..,  v,so,  is8;».  People  of'the Fork.— Montreal 
conf.  ilTiHi,  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.  ix.  719,  1S55 
Rasaoua  koueton.— Jes.  l{el.  K140,  35,  1858.  Sassa- 
•ouacottons.  — 1'riM'de  p,,ssession  (].;71  i  in  1'errot, 
Mem.,  29:;,  lhf.1.  Sassasouakouetons.  —  I'errot' 
Mem.,  295,  note,  18(11.  Sassassaouacottons.  — Prise 
de  possession  (1(171  i  in  Margry,  D,V.,  i,  97,  is75 
Sasgassaoua  Cottons. -Prise  de  possession  (1671) 
in  N.  ^  .  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  803,1866. 

Nasskatulok.  (iiven  by  Krause  as  a 
Yuit  Eskimo  village  at  the  head  of  Plover 
bay,  Siberia  (Deutsche  (Jeog.  Bliitt,,  v, 
80,  map,  1882),  but  it  is  not  mentioned 
by  Bogoras. 

Nastedi  ( '  peo])le  of  Nass ' ) .     A  division 
of  the  Wolf  phratry  of  the  Tlingit,  living 
at  Kuiu,  Alaska.    'They  are  said  to  have 
come  from  Nass  r.,  whence  the  name. 
Nas-tedi.— Krause,  Tlinkit  Ind.,  120, 18S5. 

Nasto-kegawai  (Xasto'  qe'ga.'wa-i,  'those 
born  at  Nasto  [  Mippa]  id. ' ) .'  A  branch  of 
the  Skwahladas,  one  of  the  most  impor 
tant  families  of  the  Raven  clan  of  the 
Haida,  living  on  the  w.  coast  of  Queen 
Charlotte  ids.,  Brit.  Col.— -S wanton,  Cont. 
Haida,  270,  1905. 

Nasueskuk. — See  Nasheakusk. 

Nasumi.  A  former  Kusan  village  or  tribe 
on  the  s.  side  of  the  mouth  of  Coquille  r., 
on  the  coast  of  Oregon,  near  the  site  of 
the  present  town  of  Bandon. 

Coquille. — Abbott,  MS.  Coquille  census,  B.  A.  E., 
1858.  Lower  Coquille. — Dorsey,  NaltunnetunnC 
MS.  vocal). ,  B.  A.  E.,  1884.  Masonah.— Taylor  in 
Cal.  Farmer,  June  8,  18(10.  Na'-fu-mi'  ^unne'. — 
Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in,  231,  1890  (Tu- 
tutni  name) .  Nas-ah-mah.— Kant/,  MS.  Census  of 

1854,  B.  A.  E.,  1855.    Nas-o-mah.— I'arrish  in  Ind. 
ArY.  Rep.  1854,  495,  1855.     Na-son.— Smith,' ibid., 
476.    Nas-sou.— Abbott.  MS.  Coquille  census.  B.  A. 
E..  1858.     Na'-su-mi.— Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk 
lore,  in,  231,  1890  (Naltunnetunng  name). 

Natahquois.  A  Nanticoke  village  in 
1707,  probably  on  the  E.  shore  of  Mary 
land  or  on  the  lower  Susquehanna. — 
Evans  (1707)  quoted  by  Day,  Perm.,  391, 
1843.  The  name  is  probably  only  a  vari 
ant  of  Nanticoke. 

Nataini  (' mescal  people ').  A  division 
of  the  Mescalero  Apache  who  claim  the 
country  of  the  present  Mescalero  res., 
N.  Mex.,  as  their  former  home. 
Nata-hinde.— Mooney,  field  notes,  B.  A.  E.,  1897. 
Nata-i'ni.— Ibid. 

Natal  rites.     See  Child-life. 

Natalsemoch.  (liven  by  Kane  as  the 
name  of  a  tribe  in  Smith  inlet,  Brit,  Col. 
It  can  not  be  identified  with  that  of  any 
tribe  in  this  region,  but  it  may  have 
been  applied  to  a  part  of  the  Goasila  who 
also  live  on  Smith  inlet. 
Nalal  se  moch.— Schoolcraft,  Tnd.  Tribes,  v,  488, 

1855.  Nalatsenoch. — Sconler  (1846)  in, lour.  Ethnol. 
Soc.  Lond.,    i,  2153,    1848.     Natal-se-moch.— Kane, 
Wand,  in  N.  Am.,  app.,  1859. 

Nataotin.  A  Takulli  tribe  living  on 
middle  Babine  r.  and  Babine  lake,  Brit. 
Col.  Dawson  gave  their  number  as 
about  300  in  1881.  Morice  (Notes  on 
W.  Denes,  27,  1892)  said  that  they  were 
in  3  villages  on  the  N.  half  of  Babine 
lake  and  numbered  310.  They  are  the 
people  formerly  known  as  Babines,  but 
Morice  gave  that  name  also  to  the  Hwot- 
sotenne,'  as  there  is  perfect  community  of 
language,  and  both  tribes  wear  labrets. 
In  1906  the  two  bands  at  Ft  Babine  and 
at  the  old  fort  numbered  283.  The  names 
of  their  villages  are  Lathakrezla  and 

Babinas. — Domenech,  Deserts  of  N.  Am.,  T,  440, 
18(50.  Babine  Indians.— Hale,  Ethnog.  and  Philol., 

BULL.  30  J 



202,18-16.  Babin  Indians. —Latham  in  Trans.  Philol. 
Soc.  Lond.,  66,  1S56.  Babinis.— Domenech,  op.cit., 
II,  62, 1860.  Big-lips.— Kane,  Wand,  in  N. Am., 241, 
1859.  Nahto-tin— Brit.  Col.  map.  Naotetains.— 
Prichard,  Phys.  Hist.,  v,  377,  1847.  Nataotin.— An 
derson  quoted  by  Gibbs  in  Hist.  Mag. ,  vn,  76, 
1863.  Na-taw-tm!— Dawson  in  Geol.  Surv.  Can. 
1879-80, 30B.1  SSI.  Nate  ote-tains.—  Harmon,  Jour., 
203,  1820.  NatotinTine.—  Am.  Nat.,  xil,  484,  1878. 
Na-to-utenne.— A.  G.  Morice,  inf  n,  1890.  Ntaauo- 
tin.— Latham  in  Trans.  Philol.  Soc.  Lond..  66, 1856. 

Natarghiliitunne  ('people  at  the  big 
dam ' ).  A  former  village  of  the  Mishikh- 
wutmetunne  on  Coquille  r.,  Greg. 
Na'-ta-rxi'-li-i'  ;unne'. — Dorscy  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk 
lore,  m,  232,  1890.  Nate'-l'i'-ate  tene'.— Kverette, 
Tutu  MS.  vocab.,B.  A.  E.,1883  (trans,  'people near 
the  waterfall '). 

Natashquan.  A  Montagnais  rendezvous, 
visited  also  by  the  Nascapee,  at  the  mouth 
of  Natashquan  r.,  on  the  x.  shore  of  the 
Gulf  of  St  Lawrence,  Quebec.  It  con 
tained  76  people  in  1906. 
Natashquan. — Hind,  Lab.  Penin.,  n,  map,  1863. 
Nataskouan.— Ibid.,  180. 

Natasi.  A  former  village  on  Red  r.  of 
Louisiana,  occupied  by  one  of  the  tribes 
of  the  Caddo  confederacy.  In  1882 
a  Caddo  Indian  gave  the  Natasi  as  a 
division  of  the  Caddo  confederacy  (Gat- 
schet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  i,  43,  1884),  but 
as  the  name  does  not  appear  in  the  revised 
list  of  these  divisions  in  1891  (Mooney  in 
14th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  1092,  1896)  it  maybe 
merely  a  subdivision  of  the  Nabedache. 
Tonti  in  1690  mentioned  the  villages  of 
the  "Nadas"  as  N.  w.  of  the  Natchitoch 
and  near  the  Yatasi;  he  also  speaks  of 
the  Nadotic  villages  as  12  leagues  from 
Red  r.  In  both  instances  he  probably 
referred  to  the  same  people  whose  village 
Iberville  learned  of  in  1699,  the  name  of 
which  was  given  by  his  Taensa  Indian 
guide  as  Natache.  La  Harpe  in  1719 
speaks  of  the  same  people  by  the  name 
Nadassa,  saying  they  were  a  small  nation 
on  Red  r.  Although  the  villages  of  the 
Natasi  lay  within  the  area  that  was  in  dis 
pute  by  the  Spaniards,  French,  and  Amer 
icans  during  the  .18th  and  the  first  half  of 
the  19th  centuries,  the  name  of  trie  people 
is  hardly  mentioned.  Nothing  is  known 
of  them  as  a  tribe;  they  had  probably 
mingled  with  their  kindred,  whose  fate 
they  shared,  and  if  any  survive  they  are 
now  with  the  Caddo  on  their  reservation 
in  Oklahoma.  (A.  c.  F.) 

Nadas.— Tonti  (1690)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  I, 
72,1846.  Nadassa.— La  Harpe  (1719),  ibid.,  in,  19, 
1851.  Nadouc.— Tonti,  op.  cit.,  83.  Nadouches.— 
La  Harpe,  op.  cit.,  68.  Natache.—  Iberville  (1699) 
in  Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  178, 1880.  Natassi.— Gatschet, 
Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I,  43, 1884  (Caddo  name).  Nay- 
tasses. — Robin,  Voy.  a  la  Louisiane.  in,  3,  1807. 

Natatladiltin  *  (Xata-tla-cHltin,  'agave 
plant' ).  An  Apache  clan  or  band  at  San 
Carlos  agency  and  Ft  Apache,  Ariz.,  in 
1881. — Bourke  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
in,  112,  1890. 

Natche,  Natchez.     See  Nahche. 

Natchesan  Family.  A  linguistic  family 
established  by  Powell  (7th  Rep.  B.  A.  E., 
1891),  consisting  of  two  tribes,  usually 
known  under  the  names  Natchez  and  Ta 

ensa,  each  comprising  several  villages. 
The  former  dwelt  near  the  present  city 
of  Natchez,  Miss.,  the  latter  nearNewell- 
ton,  La.  For  the  relationship  of  these 
two  tribes  we  are  dependent  entirely  on 
the  categorical  statements  of  early  French 
writers,  as  not  a  word  of  Taensa  is  cer 
tainly  known  to  exist.  A  supposed  gram 
mar  of  this  language  was  published  by 
Adam  and  Parissot,  but  it  is  still  under 
suspicion.  For  the  probable  relations  of 
this  supposed  family  with  the  Muskho- 
geans,  see  Xutcltez. 

>Natches.— Gallatin  in  Trans,  and  Coll.  Am. 
Antiq.  Soc.,  II,  95,  306, 1836  (Xatches  only) ;  Prich 
ard,  Phys.  Hist.  Mankind,  v,  402,  403,  1S47.  >Nat- 
sches.— Berghaus  (1845),  Physik,  Atlas,  map  17, 
1848; ibid. ,1852.  > Natchez.— Bancroft,  Hist.  I'.S. 
248,  1S40;  Gallatin  in  Trans.  Am.  Kthnol.  Soc.,  u, 
pt.  1,  xcix,  77,  1848  (Natchez only );  Latham,  Nat. 
Hist.  Man.,'  340,  1850  (tends  to  include  Tacnsas, 
Pascagoulas,  Colapissas,  and  Biluxi  in  same 
family);  Gallatin  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in, 
401,  1853  (Natchez  only);  Keane  in  Stanford's 
Compend.,  Cent,  and  So.  Am.,  app.,  460.  473,  1878 
(suggests  that  it  may  include  the  Utchees). 
>Naktche.— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  J,  31, 
1884;  Gatschet  in  Science,  414,  Apr.  29,  1S87. 
>Taensa.— Gatschet  in  The  Nation.  382,  May  4, 
1S82;  Gatschet  in  Am.  Antiq.,  iv.  238.  LSS2;  Gat 
schet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I,  33,  1884;  Gatschet  in 
Science,  414,  Apr.  29.  1SS7  (Taensas  only ). 

Natchez.  A  well-known  tribe  that  for 
merly  lived  on  and  about  St  Cathe 
rine's  cr.,  E.  and  s.  of  the  present  city  of 
Natchez,  Miss.  The  name,  belonging  to 
a  single  town,  was  extended  to  the  tribe 
and  entire  group  of  towns,  which  in 
cluded  also  peoples  of  alien  blood  who 
had  been  conquered  by  the  Natchez  or 
had  taken  refuge  with  them.  Iberville, 
on  his  ascent  of  the  Mississippi  in  1699, 
names,  in  the  Choctaw  language,  the  fol 
lowing  8  towns,  exclusive  of  Natchez 
proper:  Achougoulas,  Cogoucoula,  Ousa- 
goucoula,  Pochougoula,  Thoucoue,  Tou- 
goulas,  Yatanocas,  and  Ymacachas.  Of 
these,  Tougoulas  and  perhaps  Thoucoue 
are  the  Tioux  (q.  v. )  towns.  It  is  pro 
bably  safe  to  infer  that  the  9  towns,  in 
cluding  Natchez,  represented  the  entire 
group,  and  that  the  Corn,  Gray,  Jene/en- 
aque,  White  Apple,  and  White  Earth 
villages  areonly  other  names  for  some  ot 
the  abov%,  with  which  it  is  now  impos 
sible  to  identify  them.  The  Tioux  and 
Grigras  were  two  nations  under  the  pro 
tection  of  the  Natchez;  both  were  of  alien 
blood.  Du  Pratz  alludes  to  a  tradition 
that  the  Taensa  and  Chitimacha  were 
formerly  united  with  the  Natchez,  but 
left  them,  though  the  latter  had  al 
ways  recognized  them  as  brothers. 
Taensa  were,  indeed,  probably  an  offshoot 
of  the  Natchez,  but  the  Chitimacha  were 
of  a  distinct  linguistic  family. 

It  is  difficult  to  form  an  estimate  of  the 
numerical  strength  of  this  tribe,  as  the 
figures  given  vary  widely.  It  is  probable 
that  in  1682,  when  first  visited  by  the 
French  thev  numbered  about  6,000.  and 
were  able  to  put  from  1,000  to  1,200  war 
riors  in  the  field. 


IB.  A.  H. 

Tin'  Natche/  engaged  in  three  wars 
with  tin-  French,  in  17K),  17±-\  and  1729. 
The  last,  which  proved  fatal  to  their 
nation,  was  caused  by  the  attempt  of  the 
French  governor,  Chopart,  to  occupy 
tlie  site  of  their  principal  _village  as  a 
plantation,  and  it  opened  with  a  general 
massacre  of  the  French  at  Fort  Rosalie, 
established  in  17 Hi.  The  French,  in  re 
taliation,  attacked  the  Xatchex  villages 
with  a  strong  force  of  Choctaw  allies,  and 
in  1730  the  Natchez  abandoned  their  vil 
lages,  separating  .into  three  bodies.  A 
small  section  remained  not  far  from  their 
former  home,  and  a  second  body  tied  to 
Sicily  id.,  near  Washita  r.,  where  they 
were"  attacked  early  in  17.'U  by  the  French, 
many  of  them  killed,  and  about  450  cap 
tured  and  sold  into  slavery  in  Santo  Do 
mingo.  The  third  and  most  numerous 
division  was  receive*  1  by  the  Chickasaw 
and  built  a  village  near  them  in  N.  Mis 
sissippi,  called  by  Adair,  Nanne  Ilamgeh; 
in  17:15  these  refugees  numbered  180  war 
riors,  or  a  total  of  about  700.  In  the  year 
last  named  a  body  of  Natchez  refugees 
settled  in  South  Carolina  by  permission  of 
the  colonial  government,  but  some  years 
later  moved  up  to  the  Cherokee  country, 
where  they  still  kept  their  distinct  towrn 
and  language  up  to  about  the  year  1800. 
The  principal  bodv  of  refugees,  however, 
had  settled  on  Tallahassee  cr.,  an  affluent 
of  Coosa  r.  Hawkins  in  1799  estimated 
their  gun-men  at  about  50.  They  occu 
pied  the  whole  of  one  town  called  Natchez 
and  part  of  Abikudshi.  The  Natchez  were 
there  fore  not  ex  terminated  by  the  French, 
as  has  frequently  been  stated,  but  after suf- 
feri  i  ig  seven-losses  the  remainder  scattered 
far  and  wide  among  alien  tribes.  A  few 
.-urvivors,  who  speak  their  own  language, 
still  exist  in  Indian  Ter.,  living  with  the 
Cherokee,  and  in  the  councils  of  the  Creeks 
until  recently  had  one  representative. 

Though  the  accounts  of  the  Natchez 
that  have  come  down  to  us  appear  to  be 
highly  colored,  it  is  evident  that  this 
tribe,  and  doubtless  others  on  the  lower 
Mississippi,  occupied  a  somewhat  anom 
alous  position  among  the  Indians.  They 
seem  to  have  been  a  strictly  seden 
tary  peo|,l,..  depending  tor  their  live 
lihood  chiefly  upon  agriculture.  They 
had  developed  considerable  skill  in  the 
arts,  and  wove  a  textile  fabric;  from 
the  inner  bark  of  the  mulberry  which 
they  employed  for  clothing.  They  made 
excellent  pottery  and  raised  mounds  of 
earth  upon  which  to  erect  their  dwell 
ings  and  temples.  They  were  also  OIK; 
of  tin:  eastern  tribes  that  practised  head- 
Hattening.  In  the  main  the  Natchez  ap 
pear  to  have  been  peaceable,  though  like 
other  tribes  they  were  involved  in  fre 
quent  quarrels  with  their  neighbors.  All 
accounts  agree  in  attributing  to  them  an 

extreme  form  of  sun  worship  and  a  highly 
developed  ritual.  Moreover,  the  position 
and  function  of  chief  among  them  dif- 
ered  markedly  from  that  among  other 
tribes,  as  their  head  chief  seems  to  have 
had  absolute  power  over  the  property  and 
lives  of  his  subjects.  On  his  death  his 
wives  were  expected  to  surrender  their 
lives,  and  parents  offered  their  children 
as  sacrifices.  The  nation  was  divided 
into  two  exogamic  classes,  nobility  and 
commoners  or  michmichffupi,  the  former 
being  again  divided  into  suns,  nobles 
proper,  and  esteemed  men.  Children  of 
women  of  these  three  had  the  rank  of  their 
mother,  but  children  of  common  women 
fell  one  grade  below  that  of  their  father. 
There  were  various  ways,  however,  by 
which  a  man  could  raise  himself  from 
one  grade  to  another  at  least  as  far  as  the 
middle  grade  of  nobles.  While  the  com 
moners  consisted  partially  of  subject 
tribes,  the  great  majority  appear  to  have 
been  as  pure  Natchez  as  the  nobility. 
In  spite  of  great  lexical  divergence,  there 
is  little  doubt  that  the  Natchez  language 
is  a  Muskhogean  dialect, 

Consult  Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,i, 
1884;  Mooney,  (1)  Siouan  Tribes  of  the 
East,  Bull.  B.  A.  E.,  1894,  (2)  in  Am. 
Anthrop.,  n.  s.,  i,  no.  3,  1899,  (3)  in  19th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  1900,  and  the  authorities 
cited  below.  For  the  archeology  of  the 
old  Natchez  country,  see  Bull.  Free  Mus. 
ITniv.  Pa.,  n,  no.  3,\Ian.  1900. 

(H.  w.  n.     .1.  K.  s. ) 

Ani'-Na'tsI.— Mooney  in  19th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  509, 
1900  (Cherokee  name,  abbreviated  Anitittf;  sing. 
A-Xa'txl).  Chelouels.— Iberville  (1699)  in  Margry, 
D6c.,  iv,  269,  1880.  Innatchas.— Doc.  en.  1721, 
ibid.,  vr,  230,  1886.  Nacha.— -Iberville,  op.  c-it., 
255.  Nachee.— Adair,  Am.  Inds.,  225,  1775.  Na- 
ches.— Tonti  (1686)  in  Margry.  Dec.,  in,  556,  1878. 
Nachez.— Schermerhorn  (1812)  in  Mass.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s.,  n,  IS,  1*11.  Nachis.— Barcia, 
Ensayo,  24(5,  1723.  Nachvlke.—  Brinton  in  Am. 
I'hilos.  Soe.  Proc.,  xnr,  483,  1S73.  Nachy.— Tonti 
(1684)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  I,  609,  1875.  Nadches.— 
Ibervifte  (1700), "ibid.,  iv,  404,  1880.  Nadeches.— 
Ibid.,  (S02.  Nadezes.— Ibid.,  402.  Nahchee.— 
Adair,  Am.  Inds.,  353,  1775.  Nahy.— Tonti  (1(584) 
in  Margry,  Dee.,  I,  603,  1875.  Naichoas.— Mc- 
Kenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  81,  1854 
(possibly  identical).  Naktche. — Gatsehet,  Creek 
Migr.  Leg.,  i,  34,  1884.  Natche.— LaSalle  (1682)  in 
Margry,  Dee.,  I,  558, 1875.  Natchee.— S.  C.  Gazette 
(1734)  quoted  by  Rivers,  Hist.  S.  Car.,  38,  1856. 
Natches. — Proees  verbal  (1682)  in  French,  Hist. 
Coll.  La.,  I,  47, 1846.  Natchese.— Hervas,  Idea  dell' 
Uni  verso,  xvn,  90,  1784.  Natchets.— Bacqueville 
de  la  Potherie,  Hist,  de  1'Ain.,  i,  239,  1753. 
Natchez.  -Penicant  (1700)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll. 
La.,  n.  s.,  i,  57, 1869.  Nattechez. — Bart  ram,  Voy.,  I, 
map,  1799.  Nauchee. — Hawkins  (1799),  Creek 
Country, 42, 1848.  Netches. — Woodward,  Rein.,  79, 
1859.  Nitches. — Ibid.  ,16.  Noatches. — Domenech, 
Deserts  X.  Am.,  I,  442,  1860.  Notchees.— Doc.  of 
1751  quoted  by  Gregg,  Hist.  Old  Cheraws,  10, 1867. 
Notches.—  Glen  (1751)  quoted  by  Gregg,  ibid.,  14. 
Pine  Indians. —Mooney  in  19th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  509, 
1900  (given  as  incorrect  rendering  of  Ani'-Na'  teT, 

>p.  fit. ).     Sunset  Indian 

(1795)  in  School- 

craft,  Ind.  Tribes,  v,  260, 1855.  Techloel.— Iberville 
(1699)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  155,  1880.  Telhoel.— 
rbid.,121.  Theloei.— Ibid.,  179.  Theloelles.— Ibid., 
409.  Tpelois.— Iberville  (1700)  in  French,  Hist. 
Coll.  La.,  11.  s.,  26,  1869. 

BtTLL.  301 


Natchez.  The  principal  village  of  the 
Natchez,  probably  situated  on  St  Cath 
erine's  cr.,  near  the  Liberty  road  bridge, 
about  3  m.  from  the  present  city  of  Natchez. 
Miss.  Later  this  name  was  given  to  a 
town  of  the  refugee  Natchez  among  the 
Upper  Creeks. 

Natchitoch  (Caddo  form,  Na-sh i'tosli) . 
.A  tribe  of  the  Caddo  confederacy  which 
spoke  a  dialect  similar  to  that  of  the  Ya- 
tasi  but  different  from  that  of  the  Kado- 
hadacho  and  its  closely  affiliated  tribes. 
Their  villages  were  in  the  neighborhood 
of  the  present  city  of,  near 
those  of  another  tribe  called  Doustioni 
(q.  v.).  Whether  the  army  of  De  Soto 
encountered  them  is  unknown,  but  after 
La  Salle's  tragic  death  among  the  Hasinai 
his  companions  traversed  their  country, 
and  Douay  speaks  of  them  as  a  ''power 
ful  nation/'  In  1690Tonti  reached  them 
from  the  Mississippi  and  made  an  alli 
ance;  and  in  1699  Iberville  learned  of 
them  through  a  Taensa  Indian,  but  did 
not  visit  them  in  person.  Next  year, 
however,  he  sent  is  brother  Bienville 
across  to  them  from  the  Taensa  villages. 
From  that  time  and  throughout  the 
many  vicissitudes  of  the  18th  century  the 
tribe' never  broke  faith  with  the  French. 
In  1705  they  came  to  St  Denis,  comman 
dant  of  the  first  French  fort  on  the  M  issis- 
sippi,  and  asked  to  be  settled  in  someplace 
where  they  might  obtain  provisions,  as 
their  corn  had  been  ruined.  They  were 
placed  near  the  Acolapissa,  and  remained 
there  until  1712  when  St  Denis  took  them 
back  to  their  old  country  to  assist  him  in 
establishing  a  new  post  as  a  protection 
against  Spanish  encroachments,  and  also 
in  the  hope  of  opening  up  commercial  re 
lations.  This  post,  to  which  a  garrison  was 
added  in  1714,  remained  an  important 
center  for  trade  and  travel  toward  the  S. 
W.  formore  than  a  century.  St  Denis  sent 
messages  to  the  tribes  living  in  the  vicin 
ity,  urging  them  to  abandon  their  village's 
and  come  to  settle  near  the  post,  assuring 
them  that  he  would  never  forsake  them. 
Some  of  the  tribes  yielded  to  his  persua 
sions,  hoping  to  rind  safety  during  the 
disturbances  of  the  period,  but  the  move 
ment  only  accelerated  the  disintegration 
already  begun.  In  1731,  St  Denis,  at  the 
head  of  the  Natchitoch  and  other  In 
dians,  besides  a  few  Spaniards,  inflicted 
severe  defeat  on  a  strong  party  of  Natchez 
under  the  Flour  chief,  killing  about  SO  of 
them.  The  Natchez,  after  their  wars 
against  the  French,  had  tied  to  Red  r.  and 
were  living  not  far  from  the  trading  post 
and  fort.  The  importance  of  this  estab- 
lishmentandthefriendlinessof  the  Natch 
itoch  made  the  latter  so  conspicuous  in  the 
affairs  of  the  time  that  during  the  first 

or  Natchitoch.  DuPratz  states  that  about 
1730  their  village  near  the  French  p<>st 
numbered  200  cabins.  Owing  to  wars  in 
which  they  were  forced  to  take  part,  to 
the  introduction  of  new  diseases,  particu 
larly  smallpox  and  measles,  thep<  >pnluti<  >n 
of  the  tribe  rapidly  declined.  In  his  re 
port  to  President  Jefferson,  in  180"),  Sibley 
gives  their  number  as  only  50,  and  adds, 
"The  French  inhabitants  have  a  great 
respect  for  these  natives,  and  a  number 
of  families  have  a  mixture  of  their  blood 
in  them."  Shortly  afterward  they  ceased 
to  exist  as  a  distinct  tribe,  having  been 
completely  amalgamated  with  the  other 
tribes  of  the  Caddo  confederacy  (<|.  v.), 
from  whom  they  differed  in  no' essential 
of  custom,  or  of  ceremonial  or  social 
organization.  (A.  c.  F.  .1.  K.  s. ) 

Na9acahoz.—  Gentl.  of  Elvas  (1557)  in  French, 
Hist.  Coll.  La.,  n,  199,  1850.  Na-ce-doc.™  .1  () 
Dorsey,  Caddo  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  18M.  Nachito 
ches.— Tonti  (1690)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  i, 
72,  1840.  Nachitock,— Coxe,  Carolana,  K),  1711. 
Nachitooches. — Kingslcy,  Stand.  Nat.  Hist.,  pt.  vi, 
173,  1885.  Nachitos.— Joutel  (1(187)  in  French, 
Hist.  Coll.  La.,  i.  108. 1840.  Nachittoos.— Yoakum, 
Hist.  Texas,  i,  392.  1855.  Nachittcs.  — Ibid., 
380.  Nachtichoukas.—  JerYerys,  French  Dom..  pt. 
1,104,1701.  Nacitos.— Linares  (1710)  in  Martrry, 
Dee.,  vi,  217. 1880.  Nactchitoches.— Du  Prat/.  Hist. 
La.,  n.  242,  1758.  Nactythos.— Iberville  (1099)  in 
Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  178,  1880.  Nadchito.— Bienville 
(1700),'  ibid.,  431.  Nadchitoches.  — Ibid.,  435. 
Nadchitoe.  —  Iberville  (1700),  ibid..  409.  Nagua- 
daco.— Tex.  State  Archives.  Sept.  10,  179(1.  Na- 
guateeres. — Coxe,  Carolana.  10. 17  11.  Naketoe's. — 
ten  Kate,  Keixen  in  N.A.,371,  lss5.  Naketosh.— 
(Jatsehet,  Caddo  and  Yatassi  MS..  77,  B.  A.  E. 
Nakitoches.— Andn/.e  (after  1*25 1  in  Ann.  de  I'rop. 
de  la  Foi,  III,  501-509,  Napgitache.—  McKcnney 
and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in.  82.  1*54.  Napgitoches.— 
Coxe,  Carolana,  map,  1711.  Naquitoches. — Belle 
Isle  (1721)  in  Margry.  Dec.,  VI,  311,  1880.  Nashe- 
dosh,— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  i,  43.  1884. 
Nashi'tosh.— Mooney  in  1 1th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  1092, 
1890  (proper  Caddo  form).  Nasitti. — .Joiitel  (1087) 
in  Margry,  Dec.,  m,  409.  1S7S.  Nassitoches. — 
P6nicaut  (1705),  ibid.,  v,  459,  1883.  Natchetes.— 
Hennepin'  Ne\v  Discov.,  II,  43,  109S.  Natchi 
dosh—  (iatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I,  43,  iss|. 
Natchiloches.— Doinenech,  Deserts  N.  A..  I.  442, 
180.0.  Natchites.— Donay  (1087)  quoted  by  Shea. 
Discov  Miss  218.  1852.  Natchitoch.—  lira  vier 
(1701)  quoted  by  Shea,  Early  Voy.,  149,  1801. 
Natchitoches.— Bienville  (1700)  in  Margry.  Dec., 
IV,  437,  1880.  Natchitochis. — Porter  i!829i  in 
Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in.  590,  1853.  Natchi- 
totches.— Lewis  and  Clark.  .Journal.  143,  1; 
Natchitto.— Jontel  (1087)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  m,  409, 
1878  Natschitos.— Ibid  ,  408.  Natsitoches.— .k't- 
fervs  Vin.  Atlas,  map  5,  1770.  Natsshostanno.- 
Joutcl,  op.  eit.,  409.  Natsytos.— Iberville  (1099 
ibid  IV  178  1880  Nazacahoz. — (ientl.  of  Klvas 
(1557)  quoted  by  Shea,  Karly  Voy..  1 19.  isc.l.  Ne- 

half  of  the  18th  century  Red  r.  was  known 
Natchitock,  a  variant  of  Nashitosh 

as  the 

guadoch.—  Gtissefeld.  Cliarte  v< 
1797.  Nepgitoches.-Barcia.  Ki'.sivo.  2  i.  1/23. 
Notchitoches.— Carver,  Travels,  map.  1778.  Yat- 
chitcohea.— Lewis  and  Clark,. Journal,  1 

Nateekin.  An  Alent  village  on  Natee- 
kiu  bay,  Unalaska,  Aleutian  ids.,  Alaska, 
with  15  inhabitants  in  two  houses  in 

I  S.SO. 

Nateekenakoi. -Elliott,   Cond.     Afl.  Alaska,   2'. 
1875.    Natieka.-Sarichef  (1792)  quoted  by  Baker, 
Ccoff     Diet      Maska.   290,    1901.       Natiekmskoe.— 
vlSfamlnof  (1830)  quoted  by  Baker,  ibid..  1900. 
Natuikinsk.-l'etrotY  in  10th  .Census.  Alaska    3 
1881     Natykinakoe.— Veniaminof,  Zapiski,     ,2 
mo!     Natykinskoje.-Holmberg,  Ethnog.  Ski/x. 
142,  map,  1855. 


[B.  A.  B. 

Natesa  (from  <th:inyli,  black,'  Mark,' 
hence  'dark  people') .  One  of  the  three 
classes  or  castes  into  which  the  Kutcha- 
kutchin  are  divided,  the  others  being  the 
Chitsa  and  the  Tangesatsa,  q.  v. 
Nah  fsingh.-Hardisty  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1866, 
3l.\  I8?2tnameoftheif country)-  Nate-sa. -Kirby, 
ihi<l  1st!  I  41S.  1S<;.">;  Hardisty,  ibid.,  IStiti,  31f>, 
1872.'  Nat  sah-i.—  Jones  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1S66, 
326,  1872.  Nat  singh.  —  Hardisty,  op.  cit. 

Natick  ('the  place  of  (our)  search. '- 
Tooker).  A  village  founded  by  Indian 
converts,  mainly  Massachuset,  under  the 
supervision  of  the  noted  missionary  John 
Kliot,  in  1H50,  near  the  present  Natick, 
Mass.  Soon  after  its  establishment  it 
numbered  about  150  inhabitants,  who 
were  given  a  reserve  of  (>,000  acres^  It 
increased  in  population  and  after  King 
Philip's  war  was  the  principal  Indian  vil 
lage  in  that  region.  In  1749  there  .were 
Kit)  Indians  connected  with  the  settle 
ment.  <  )n  the  breaking  out  of  the  French 
and  Indian  war  in  1754  many  of  the  Natick 
Indiansenlistedagainstthe French.  Some 
never  returned,  and  the  others  brought 
back  an  infectious  disease  which  rapidly 
reduced  the  population.  In  17H4  there 
were  37  in  the  village  and  some  others 
connected  with  it.  In  1792  the  whole 
body  numbered  but  25  or  30,  and  soon 
thereafter  they  had  become  so  mixed  with 
negroes  and  whites  as  to  be  no  longer  dis 
tinguishable.  It  was  reported  in  Dec. 
1821,  that  Hannah  Dexter,  7(>  years  of 
age.  "the  last  of  the  Xaticks,"  had  been 
murdered  by  her  grandson  at  Natick. 
For  :\  discussion  of  the  name,  consult 
Tooker,  A Ignnqiiian  Series,  x,  1901.  See 
Minions.  (J.M.) 

Mawyk.— Salisbury  (1678)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.. 
.Mil,  52H,  issl  i  misprint ).  Na-cheek.  —  Plat  of  1(177 
cited  by  Touker,  Al^oiX).  Ser.,  X,  IS,  1901.  Na- 
chick.— Deel.  of  1677.  ibid.  Naitticke.— Salisbury 
(  Iil7si,.,p.cit..52l.  Natick.— Wilson  (1(151)  in  Mass. 
Hist.  Soe.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  iv,  177,  1S34.  Natics.— Bar 
ton.  New  Views,  Iviii,  1798.  Natik.  — Kliot  (1(151)  in 
Mass.  Hist.  Soe.  Coll..  3d  s..  TV,  172, 1834.  Natique.— 
Kliot  (  HITS),  ibid.,  1th  s.,  vin,  377,  IStiS.  Nattick.— 
Brorkholst  dr,7s)  in  N.  Y.  Doe.  Col.  Hist.,  xin. 
5:{<i.  issl.  Natuck.— Ibid.,  524.  Nittauke. — Perry 
quoted  by  Tooker.  Al^oiKj.  Ser.,  x.  9,  1901  (given 
as  Indian  name  i. 

Nation,  The.  A  term  formerly  applied 
to  several  of  the  larger  and  more  impor 
tant  tribes  and  confederacies  in  the  Gulf 
states,  particularly  the  Creeks,  but  also  to 
the  Cherokee,  Catawba,  Choctaw,  and 
Chickasaw.  At  present  it  is  an  ollicial 
term  applied  to  each  of  the  Five  Civil i/ed 
Tribes  (q.  v.  )  in  <  )klahoma,  vi/.,  the  ( 'her- 
okee,  Creeks,  Choctaw,  Chickasaw,  and 
Seminole.  The  term  7/rx  \utiun*  was 
used  by  Canadian  French  writers  of  the 
17th  and  isth  centuries  (and  occasion 
ally  in  Knglish  wi  it  ings)  to  designate  the 
heathen  tribes,  who  were  distinguished 
into  Les  grandes  Nations  and  Les  petites 
Nations.  The  Iliviere  des  petites  Na 
tions  in  the  province  of  (Quebec  preserves 
this  designation.  Spe.cilically  Le  petit 
Nation  was  the  Weskarini,  q.  v. 

(u.  \v.  H.     A.  F.  r.) 

National  Indian  Association.  A  society 
for  improving  the  condition  of  the  Indians. 
It  originated  in  Philadelphia  in  1879  with 
a  memorial  circulated  by  Mary  L.  Bon- 
ney  and  Amelia  Stone  Quinton  petition 
ing  the  Government  to  prevent  the 
encroachments  of  white  settlers  on  Indian 
territory  and  to  guard  the  Indians  in  the 
enjoyment  of  all  the  rights  guaranteed  to 
them  on  the  faith  of  the  Nation.  A  sec 
ond  memorial  in  1880  obtained  50,000 
signatures,  and  a  third  in  1881,  signed  by 
100,000  persons,  asked  for  all  Indians 
common  school  and  industrial  teaching, 
land  in  severalfy,  and  the  full  status  of 
citizens.  The  association,  formally  con 
stituted  in  1880,  and  taking  the  name  the 
National  Indian  Association  in  1882, 
changing  it  to  the  Women's  National 
Indian  Association  in  1883,  was  the  first 
body  of  friends  of  the  Indians  to  demand 
for  them  citizenship  and  lands  in  sever- 
alty.  For  these  objects  it  labored  till 
1884,  when  missionary  work  was  added, 
and  since  then  it  has  established  for  50 
tribes  or  tribal  remnants  Christian  mis 
sions,  erecting  more  than  50  buildings, 
which  when  well  established  were  given 
to  the  various  permanent  denominational 
missionary  societies.  A  home  building 
and  loan  department,  a  young  people's 
department,  libraries,  special  education 
for  bright  Indians,  and  hospital  work 
were  added  later.  The  National  Indian 
Association,  which  resumed  its  earlier 
name  in  1901,  has  asked  for  more  schools, 
an  increase  in  the  number  of  field 
matrons,  the  righting  of  various  wrongs, 
and  protection  and  justice  to  many  tribes, 
and  has  constantly  advocated  the  appli 
cation  of  civil  service  reform  principles  to 
the  entire  Indian  service,  the  gradual 
abolition  of  Indian  agencies,  the  payment 
of  debts  due  Indians  from  the  Govern 
ment,  and  other  measures  needed  to  pre 
pare  Indians  for  civilized  self-support 
and  good  citi/enship.  Since  1888  the 
Association  has  published  a  periodical 
called  The  Indian's  Friend.  (A.  s.  Q.  ) 

Natkelptetenk  (N'atqf'lptE'tEnk,  'yellow- 
pine  little  slope  ' ).  A  village  of  the  Lyt 
ton  band  of  Ntlakyapamuk,  on  the  w. 
side  of  Fraser  r.,  about  a  mile  above 
Lytton,  Brit.  Col. — Teit  in  Mem.  Am. 
M'ns.  Nat.  Hist.,  n,  172,  1900. 

Natkhwunche  (Nat-qirnn'-tct'}.  A  for 
mer  village  of  the  Chastacosta  on  Rogue  r., 
Oreg.—  Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
in,  234,  1890. 

Natleh  ( 'it  [the  salmon]  comes  again  ' ). 
A  Natliatin  village  at  the  discharge  of 
Fraser  lake  into  Wat  1  eh  r. ,  .Brit.  Col.; 
pop.  53  in  1902,  (U  in  190(5. 
Frazer's  Lake  Village.—  Can.  Ind.  Afl'.,  pt.  '2,  78, 
H«M;.  Natle.— Morieo  in  Trans.  Rov.  Soc.  Can. 
IS92,  sec.  2,  109.  1S9I5.  Hatleh.— Morice,  Notes  on 
W.  Denes,  '25.  1893. 

Natliatin.  A  Takulli  sept  inhabiting 
the  villages  Natleh  and  Stella,  one  at  each 


end  of  Fraser  lake,  Brit,  Col.     Pop.  13b» 
in  1892;  122  in  1906. 

Chinloes.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  July  19,  18(52. 
Nantley  Tine. — Hamilton  in  Jour.  Anthrop.  Inst. 
Gt.  Br.,  vil, 206, 1878.  Natilantin.— McDonald,  Brit, 
Columbia,  126,  1862.  Natleh-hwo  'tenne.— Morico, 
Notes  on  W.  Den6s,25, 1893  (  = 'people  of  Natleh'). 
Natliantins. — Domenech,  Deserts  N.  Am.,  n,  62, 
1860.  Natliautin.— Hale,  Ethnog.  and  Philol.,  202, 
1846.  Natlo'tenne.— Morice,  Notes  on  W.  Denes,  25, 
1893.  Nau-tle-atin. — Dawsoii  in  Can.  Geol.  Surv. 
1879-80,  30B,  1881.  (Etsoenhwotenne.— Morice,  MS. 
letter,  1890  (='people  of  another  kind':  Niko/li- 
autin  name). 

Natootzuzn  ( '  point  of  mountain ' ) .  A  n 
Apache  clan  or  band  at  San  Carlos  agency 
and  Ft  Apache,  Ariz.,  in  1881 ;  correlative 
with  the  Nagosugn  clan  of  the  Final  Co- 
yoteros  and  the  Nadohotzosn  of  the  Chi- 

Nar-ode-so-sin. — Wliite,  Apache  Names  of  Ind. 
Tribes,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.  Nato-o-tzuzn.— Bourke  in 
Jour.  Am.  Folklore,  in,  112,  1890. 

Natora.  A  former  pueblo  of  the  Jova  in 
w.  Chihuahua,  Mexico,  near  the  mission 
of  Teopari,  of  which  it  was  a  visita  prior  to 
its  abandonment  in  17-48.  The  inhabi 
tants  moved  to  within  half  a  league  of 
Arivechi  and  later  settled  in  the  pueblo 
of  Ponida. 

Natorase.— Doc.  of  18th  cent,  quoted  by  Bandolier 
in  Arch.  Inst.  Papers,  iv,  511,  1892. 

Natowasepe  ( '  Huron  river ' ) .  A  former 
Potawatomi  village -on  St  Joseph  r. ,  about 
the  present  Mendon,  St  Joseph  co.,  s.  w. 
Mich.,  on  a  reservation  sold  in  1833. 
In  addition  to  the  references  cited 
belowT,  see  Coffinberry  in  Mich.  Pion. 
Coll.,  ir,  489,  1880. 

Na-to-wa-se-pe.— Treaty  of  1832  in  U.  S.  Ind.  Treat., 
153,  1873.  Notawasepe.— Treaty  of  1833.  ibid.,  176. 
Notawasepe's  Village.— Royce in  18th  Rep.  B.  A.E., 
Mich,  map,  1900.  Wotawassippi.— Council  of  1839 
in  Mich.  Pion.  ('oil.,  x,  170,  1886.  Nottawa  Sape.— 
Treaty  of  1827  in  U.S.  Ind.  Treat.,  op.  fit.,  675. 
Nottawasippi.— Douglass  (1840)  in  H.  R.  Doc.  143, 
27th  Cong.,  2dsess.,3,1842.  Notta-we-sipa.— Treaty 
of  1832  in  U.  S.  Ind.  Treat.,  701.  1873. 

Natsitkutchin  ('strong  people').  A  Ku- 
tchin  tribe  inhabiting  the  country  from 
Porcupine  r.  northward  to  the  Roman/of 
mts.,  Alaska.  Gibbs  (Notes  on  Ross, 
Tinne  MS.,  B.  A.  E. )  said  that  their  habitat 
began  in  a  mountainous  region  from  50 
to  '100  in.  N.  of  Ft  Yukon.  They  hunt 
the  caribou  as  far  as  the  seacoast,  being 
a  shifting  people.  They  are  chiefly 
known  from  their  trading  with  the  Kang- 
maligmiut  Eskimo,  and  for  the  strong 
babiche  that  they  make.  They  resemble 
the  Kutchakutchin  in  physique  and 
manners.  Richardson  gave  their  number 
as  40  men  in  1850;  Gibbs  (op.  cit. )  stated 
that  they  had  20  hunters;  Petroff  in  1880 
gave  the  total  population  as  120.  The 
Teahinkutchin  probably  belonged  to  this 

Gens  de  Large.— Petroff,  Rep.  Alaska,  62,  188!. 
Gens  du  Large. — Ross,  MS.  Notes  on  Tinne,  H.  A.  K. 
Natche'-Kutchin.— Dall,  Alaska,  430, 1870.  Na-tsik- 
ku-chin.— Hardisty  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1866,  197. 
1872.  Natsik-kutchin.— Dall  in  Cont.  N.  A. 
Ethnol.,  I.  30,  1*77.  Natsit-kutchin.—  Jones  in 
Smithson.  Rep.  1866,321.1872.  Na'-ts'itkutch'-in.— 
Ross,  MS.  Notes  on  Tinne,  B.  A.  K.  (='outer- 
country  .people').  Neyetse-kutchi.— Richardson, 
Arct.  Exped.,  i,  399,  1851  (  =  'peopleof  the  open 


"  Ka^Sl  ^  w  places  on  the  reservati< >n,  awav 
Nat,    Racesp- Borders  of  the  Rio  San  Juan' 
tchm.— Petitot.  Autour  du  lal-W*ru.t,,,l    i,,,*  ,i 
1891  (  =  •  people  who  dwell  far  from  the/Malt  .'I' m' 

Natsshostanno.     An  unidentified  village"" 
or  tribe    mentioned    to  Joutel   in    ll>87 
(Margry,  Dec.,  in,  409, 1878)  by  the  chief 
of  the  Kadohadacho  on  Red  r.  of  Louisi 
ana  as  being  among  his  enemies. 

Natsushltatunne  (  Na' -ts&d-ta' -itm-nt-' 
'  people  dwelling  where  they  play 
shinny ' ).  A  former  village  of  the  Misli- 
ikhwutmetunne  on  Coquille  r.,  Oreg.— 
Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore  in  232 

Nattahattawants.  A  Xipmur  chief 
of  Musketaquid,  the  present  Concord, 
Mass.,  in  ](i42.  At  this  time  he  sold  to 
Simon  Willard,  in  behalf  of  (iov.  Win- 
throp  and  others,  a  large  tract  of  land  on 
both  sides  of  Concord  r.,  in  consideration 
of  which  he  received  "six  fadoin  of 
waoinpampege,  one  wastcot,  and  one 
breeches"  (Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  54,  188:5). 
Nattahattawants  was  a  supporter  and 
propagator  of  Christianity  among  his 
people,  and  an  honest  and  upright  man. 
His  son,  John,  usually  known  as  .John 
Tahattawan,  lived  at  Xashobah,  Mass., 
where  he  was  the  chief  ruler  of  the  Pray 
ing  Indians.  His  daughter  became  the 
wife  of  the  celebrated  Waban  (q.  v. ). 

Natthutunne  ( '  people  on  the  level 
prairie').  A  former  Tututni  village  on 
the  s.  side  of  Rogue  r. ,  Oreg. 
Na-t'gu'  ;unne'. — Dorsey  in  Jour]  Am.  Folk-lore, 
m,236"  1890.  Na-t'qio' lunng.— Dorsey,  Tutu  MS. 
vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1884  (Tututni  and  Naltunnetunne 

Natuhli  ( Na'dult',  of  unknown  mean 
ing).  A  former  Cherokee  settlement  on 
Xottely  r.,  a  branch  of  Hiwassee  r.,  at  or 
near  the  si  te  of  t  he  present  vi  1  lage  of  Rang 
er,  Cherokee  co.  ,s.w.  S.  Car.  (.1.  M.) 
Na'du'H'.— Mooney  in  19th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,526,  1900. 
Nantalee.—  Royce'in  nth  Rep.  B.  A.  K..  map,  1S87. 
Notley.— Doc.  of  1799  quoted  by  Royce,  ibid..  141. 
Nottely  town.— Mooney,  op.  cit..  332. 

Natutshltunne.     A  former  village  of  the 
Tututni  on  the  coast  of  Oregon,  between 
Coquille  r.  and  Flores  cr. 
Na-tcul'-tun.— Dorsey  iu   Jour.  Am.  Folk-Ion-,  m, 
233,1890.     Na-tcutfl'  ^unne'. — Ibid. 

Natuwanpika  (Nn-tu-wcfii-pi-kct).  One 
of  the  traditionary  stopping  places  of  the 
Hear  clan  of  the  Hopi,  situated  near  (he 
present  Oraibi,  Arix. 

Naugatuck.  A  former  village,  subject 
to  the  Paugusset,  at  the  falls  of  Nauga 
tuck  r.,  near  Derby,  Conn.  (Trumbull,  . 
Conn.,  i,  42,  1818).  The  name  refers  to 
a  tree,  which  probably  served  as  a  land 
mark,  said  to  have  stood  near  Rock  Rim- 
mon,  in  what  is  now  Seymour,  Conn. 
(Trumbull,  Ind.  Xames  Conn. ,36,  1881). 

Nauhaught.  A  Massachusetts  Indian, 
called  Klisha  and  also  Joseph,  a  deacon 
in  175S  or  17HO  of  an  Indian  church  that 
stood  on  the  N.  side  of  Swan's  pond,  at 
Yarmouth,  Mass.  He  was  a  conscien 
tious  man  and  the  hero  of  Whittier's 



"Xauhaught  the  Deacon,"  in  which  tin 
poet  alludes  to  his  bravery  in 
temptation.     See   n\<^    " 
Coll.,  uts 
..     -  -,  v,  -><>,  1S16. 

Naujan.  A  summer  settlement  of  the 
Aivilirmiut  Eskimo  on  Repulse  bay  x 
end  of  Hudson  bay.— Boas  in  6th  Rep.' 
B.  A.  K.,  446,  1SSS. 

Naujateling.  An  autumn  settlement  of 
Talirpingmiut  Okomiut  Eskimo  on  an 
island  near  thes.  w.  coast  of  Cumberland 

sd.,  near  the  entrance;  pop.  20  in  188'3 

Boas  in  6th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  map,  1888.    ' 

Nauklak.  A  Kaniagmiut  Eskimo  vil- 
age  lo  ....  K.  of  Xaknek  lake,  Alaska 
penin.,  Alaska. 

Naouchlagamut.— SpuiTaml  Post  mint, -<1  l,v  n  ,i-  „. 
".-.jr.  Diet.  Alaska  1902.  Naukla'k.-BakVr.lbkL 
Naumkeag  ('lishing  place,'  from  nu- 
init'tx  'hsh,'  /•/  'place,'  -(,(/  'at')  V 
tribe  or  band,  probably  belonging  to  the 
lennacook  confederacy,  which  formerly 
'ccupied  the  site  of  Salem,  Mass  It  ap 
pears  hmveyer,  that  thenatives  had  aban 
doned  he  locality  before  the  English 
reached  it,  as  there  is  no  record  that  the 

:!  (;>;J-li;i"-".'tiH-spot.  it 

Naamhok.  — Ma 

-  -vnter  (Coll.  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.,  Ists.,  vin 
159,  1802)    says:    "The  Indians   in  the 
county  of  Barnstable  were  a  distinct  peo 
ple,  but  they  were  subject  in  some  respects 
to  the  chief  sac-hem  of  the  Wampanoags." 
They  probably  came  in  contact  with  the 
whites  at  an  early  date,  as  the  cape  was 
frequently  visited  by  navigators.     Erom 
this  tribe  Hunt  in  1614  carried  off  7  natives 
and  sold  them  into  slavery  with  20  In 
dians  of  Patuxet.     Cham  plain  had  an  en 
counter  with  the  Xauset  immediately  be 
fore  returning  to  Europe.     They  seem  to 
have  escaped  the  great  pestilence  which 
prevailed  along  the  New  England  coast 
in  1617.     Although  disposed  to  attack  the 
colonists  at  their  first  meeting,  they  be 
came  their   fast  friends,    and    with    few 




Nauquanabee.     Sec 
Nause.     A    former 


NAUSET    WOMAN    OF    MASHPEE,    MASS.         (F.    G.   SPECK,   PHOTO-) 

('.xceptions_  remained     faithful    to    them 
through  King  Philip's  war,  even  in  some 
is  ances  lending  assistance.  Mostof  them 
ad    been  Christianized  before  this  war 
broke  out     Their  estimated  population  in 
1621  was  500,  but  this  is  probably  below 
their  real   strength  at  that  time,  as  they 
«;em  to  have  numbered  as  many  80  rears 
afterward.      About   1710,  by  which  ~ti,ne 
K'.V  were  all   organixed  into  churches 
XT   ost  a  great  many  by  fever.      In  1  764 
they  had  decreased  to  106,  living  mainly 
at  1  otanumaquut,  but  in  1802  only4  were 
Haul    o  remain.     Their  principal  village, 
-viuset,   \vas  near  the   present    Eastham. 
'lough    their    location    indicates    that 
nsn  lurnished  their  chief  sustenance,  the 
Nausetwere  evidently  cultivators  of  the 
supplies  of  corn  and  beans  were 



obtained  from  them  by  the  famishing 
Plymouth  colonists  in  1622. 

The  following  villages  were  probably 
Nauset:  Aquetnet,  Ashimuit,  Cataumut, 
Coatuit,  Cummaquid,  Manamoyik,  Man- 
ornet,  Mashpee,  Mattakeset,  Meeshawn, 
Namskaket,  Nauset,  Nobscusset,  Pamet, 
Pawpoesit,  Pispogutt,  Poponesset,  Pota- 
numaquut,  Punonakanit,  Satucket,  Satuit, 
Skauton,  Succonesset,  Waquoit,  and  Wees- 
quobs.  (j.  M.  c.  T.  ) 

Cape  Indians.— Hubbard  (1680)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  2d  s.,  V,  33,  1815.  Namset.— Josselyn  (1675), 
ibid.,  3d  s.,  in,  317,  1833  (misprint).  Nasi'tt.— Hub- 
bard  (1680),  ibid.,  2d  s.,  v,  54,  1815.  Nauset.— 
Monrt(1622)  quoted  by  Drake,  Bk.lnds.,  bk.  2,  29, 
1848.  Nausit.— Smith  (1616)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  3d  s.,  vi,  119,  1837.  Nausites.  — Mourt  (1622), 
ibid.,  1st  s.,  vin,  226,  1802.  Nawsel.— Dermer 
(1620),  ibid.,  4th  s.,  in,  97,  1856  (misprint).  Naw- 
•et.— Smith  (1616),  ibid.,  3d  s.,  vi,  108,  1837. 
Nawsits.— Dee  in  Smith  (1629),  Va.,  n,  225  repr 

Nauvasa.  The  northernmost  of  the 
Catawba  towns  formerly  on  San  tee  r., 
S.  Car.— Byrd  (1728),  Hist.  Dividing 
Line,  181,  1866. 

Nauwanatats  (Nau-wan'-a-tats}.  A  Pai- 
ute  band  formerly  living  in  or  near  Moapa 
valley,  s.  E.  Nev. ;  pop.  60  in  1873. — Pow 
ell  inlnd.  Aff.  Rep.  1873,  50,  1874. 

Navaho  (pron.  Na'-rn-ho,  from  Tewa 
Naiwhi'i;  the  name  referring  to  a  large 
area  of  cultivated  lands;  applied  to  a 
former  Tewa  pueblo,  and,  by  extension, 
to  the  Navaho,  known  to  the  Spaniards 
of  the  1 7th  century  as  Apaches  de  Navajo, 
who  intruded  on  the  Tewa  domain  or  who 
lived  in  the  vicinity,  to  distinguish  them 
from  other  ''Apache"  bands. — Hewett  in 
Am.  Anthrop., vin,  193, 1906.  Fray  Alonso 
Benavides,  in  his  Memorial  of  1630,  gives 
the  earliest  translation  of  the  tribal 
name,  in  the  form  Nanajo,  'semenferas 
grand es' — 'great  seed-sowings',  or  'great 
fields'.  The  Navaho  themselves  do  not 
use  this  name,  except  when  trying  to 
speak  English.  All  do  not  know  it,  and 
none  of  the  older  generation  pronounce 
it  correctly,  as  v  is  a  sound  unknown  in 
their  language.  They  call  themselves 
/>tne ',  which  means  simply  '  j  >eople' .  This 
word,  in  various  forms,  is  used  as  a  tribal 
name  by  nearly  every  people  of  the  Atha 
pascan  stock) . 

An  important  Athapascan  tribe  occu 
pying  a  reservation  of  9,503,763  acn-.  ':. 
N.  E.  Arizona,  N.  w.  New  Mexico,  and  s.  E. 
Utah.  Here  they  are  supposed  to  re 
main,  but  many  isolated  families  live  be 
yond  the  reservation  boundaries  in  all 
directions.  Their  land  has  an  average 
elevation  of  about  6,000  ft  above  sea  level. 
The  highest  point  in  it  is  Pastora  peak, 
in  the  Carrizo  nits.,  9,420  ft  high.  It  is 
an  arid  region  and  not  well  adapted 
to  agriculture,  but  it  affords  fair  pastur 
age.  For  this  reason  the  Navaho  have 
devoted  their  attention  less  to  agriculture 
than  to  stock  raising.  There  were  for 

merly  few  places  on  the  reservation,  away 
troin  the  borders  of  the  Rio  San  Juan, 
where  the  soil  could  beirrigated,  hut  t  here 
were  many  spots,  apparently  desert,  where 
water  gathered  close  to  the  surface  and 
where  by  deep  planting  crops  of  corn, 
beans,  squashes,  and  melons  were  raised. 
Within  the  last  few  years  the  Govern 
ment  has  built  storage  reservoirs  on  the 
reservation  and  increased  the  facilities 
for  irrigation. 

It  may  be  that  under  the  loosely  applied 
name  Apache  there  is  a  record  of  the 
Navaho  by  Ofiate  as  early  as  1598,  but 
the  first  to  mention  them  by  name  was 
Zarate-Salmeron,  about  1629.  They  had 
Christian  missionaries  among  them  in 
the  middle  of  the  18th  century  (see  ('*>- 
bolleta,  Ericinal),  but  their  teachings  did 
not  prevail  against  paganism.  For  many 
years  previous  to  the  occupancy  of  their 
country  by  the  Tinted  States  they  kept 
up  an  almost  constant  predatory  war 
with  the  Pueblos  and  the  white  settlers 
of  New  Mexico,  in  which  they  were  usu 
ally  the  victors.  When  the  Tinted  States 
took  possession  of  New  Mexico  in  1849 
these  depredations  were  at  their  height. 
The  first  military  expedition  into  their 
country  was  that  of  Col.  Alex.  W.  Doni- 
phan,  of  the  First  Missouri  Volunteers,  in 
the  fall  of  1846.  ( hi  behalf  of  the  United 
States,  Doniphanmade  the  first  treaty  of 
peace  with  the  Navaho  Nov.  22  of  that 
year,  but  the  peace  was  not  lasting.  In 
1849,  another  military  force,  under  the 
command  of  Col.  .John  M.  Washington, 
penetrated  the  Navaho  land  as  far  as 
CheWy  canyon,  and  made  another  treaty 
of  peace  on  Sept.  9,  but  this  treaty  was  also 
soon  broken.  To  put  a  stop  to  their  wars, 
Col.  "Kit"  Carson  invaded  their  territory 
in  1863,  killed  so  many  of  their  sheep  as 
to  leave  them  without  means  of  support, 
and  took  the  greater  part  of  the  tribe 
prisoners  to  Ft  Simmer  at  the  Host  j  ue 
Kedondo  on  the  Rio  Pecos,  N.  Mex. 
Here  they  were  kept  in  captivity  until 
1867,  when  they  were  restored  to  their 
original  country  and  given  a  new  supply 
of  sheep.  Since  that  time  they  have  re 
mained  at  peace  and  greatly  prospered. 

There   is   no   doubt   that  the    Navaho 
have  Vncrea  -rvVm  ^m-nV.^!  wince  they  first 
became  known  to  the  Uiiited^tateH^and 
are  still  increasing.     In  1867,  whit' 'ney 
were  still  prisoners  and  could  bccourU'1' 
accurately,   7,300  of  them    were  held  in 
captivity  at  one  time;  but,  owing  to  es 
capes  and  additional  surrenders,  the  num 
ber  varied.     All  were   not   captured  by 
Carson.     Perhaps  the  most  accurate  cen 
sus  was  taken  in  1869,  when  the  Govern 
ment  called    them   to   receive   a  gift   of 
30, 000  sheep  and  2,000  goats.    The  Indians 
were  put  in  a  large  corral  and  counted  as 
they  went  in;  only  a  few  herders  were 


[B.  A.  H. 

absent.  The  result  showed  that  there 
were  somewhat  fewer  than  9,000,  making 
dm-  allowance  lor  absentees.  According 
to  the  census  of  ISDD,  which  was  taken  on 
a  faultv  system,  the  tribe  numbered 
1 7,20 1.  '  Tlie  census  of  1900  places  the 
population  at  more  than  20,000,  and  in 
H»0»>  they  were  roughly  estimated  by  the 
Indian  Office  to  number  28,500. 

According  to  the  best  recorded  version 
of  their  origin  legend,  the  first  or  nuclear 
clan  of  the  Xavaho  was  created  bv  the 
gods  in  Ari/ona  or  Utah  about  500  years 
ago.  People  had  lived  on  the  earth  be 
fore  this,  but  most  of  them  had  been  de 
stroyed  bv  giants  or  demons.  When  the 

Aryan;  consequently,  the  Navaho  are  a 
very  composite  people.  A  notable  acces 
sion  was  made  to  their  numbers,  proba 
bly  in  the  16th  century,  when  the  Thkha- 
paha-dinnay  joined  them.  These  were 
a  people  of  another  linguistic  stock — 
Hodge  says  "doubtless  Tanoan  " — for 
they  wrought  a  change  in  the  Navaho  lan 
guage.  A  later  very  numerous  accession 
of  several  clans  came  from  the  Pacific 

myth  says  thai  the  gods  created  the  first 
pairot  this  clan,  it  is  equivalent  to  saving 
that  they  knew -it"'—  they  came 
and  had  no  antecedent  tradition  of  them- 
selvea.  It  is  thus  with  many  other  Nav 
aho  ,.|:ms.  The  story  gives  the  impres- 
HOII  that  these  Indians  wandered  into 
New  Mexico  and  Ari/ona  in  small  groups, 
probably  in  single  families.  Inthecourse 
"I  time  other  groups  joined  them  until,  in 
the  17th  century,  they  felt  strong  enough 
t"  go  to  war.  Some  of  the  accessions 
werv  evidently  of  Athapascan  origin  as 
is  most  ot  the  tribe,  but  others  were  de- 
ved  trom  different  stocks,  including  Ke- 
resan,  Shoshonean,  Tanoan,  Yuman,  and 


coast;  these  were  Athapascan.  Some1  of 
the  various  clans  joined  the  Navaho  will 
ingly,  others  are  the  descendants  of  cap 
tives.  Hodge  has  shown  that  this  Nav 
aho  origin  legend,  omitting  a  few  obvi 
ously  mythic  elements,  can  be  substan 
tiated  by  recorded  history,  but  he  places 
the  beginning  at  less  than  500  years. 

The  Navaho  are  classed  as  belonging  to 
the    widespread     Athapascan    linguistic 

BULL.  30] 



family,  and  a  vocabulary  of    their   lan 
guage  shows  that  the  majority  of  their 
words  have  counterparts  in  dialects  of 
Alaska,  British  America,  and  California. 
?he  grammatical  structure  is  like  that  of 
ithapascan  tongues  in  general,  but  many 
fords  have  been  inherited  from  other 
mrces.    The  grammar  is  intricate  and  the 
roeabulary    copious,    abounding  especi- 
illy  in  local  names. 

The  appearance  of  the  Navaho  strength 
ens  the  traditional  evidence  of  their  very 
composite  origin.  It  is  impossible  to  de 
scribe  a  prevailing  type;  they  vary  in  size 
from  stalwart  men  of  6  ft  or  more  to  some 
who  are  diminutive  in  stature.  In  fea 
ture  they  vary  from  the  strong  faces  with 
aquiline  noses  and  prominent  chins  com 
mon  with  the  Dakota  and  other  northern 
tribes  to  the  subdued  features  of  the 

Pueblos.  Their  faces  are  a  little  more 
hirsute  than  those  of  Indians  farther  E. 
Many  have  occiputs  so  flattened  that  the 
skulls  are  brachycephalic  or  hyper- 
brachycephalic,  a  feature  resulting'from 
the  hard  cradle-board  on  which  the  head 
rests  in  infancy.  According  to  Ilrdlicka 
(Am.  Anthrop.,  n,  339,  1900)  they  ap 
proach  the  Pueblos  physically  much  more 
closely  than  the  Apache,  notwithstanding 
their  linguistic  connection  with  the  latter. 
In  general  their  faces  are  intelligent  and 
pleasing.  Hughes  (Doniphan's  Kxped., 

1846)  saysof  them:  "They  are  celebrated 
for  intelligence  and  good  order  . 
noblest  of  American  ahoriginen.'1 
is  nothing  somber  or  stoic  in  their  charac 
ter.     Among  themselves  they  are  merry 
and  jovial,  much  given  to  jest  and  banter. 
Thev  are  very  industrious,  and  the  proud 
est  among  them  scorn  no  remunerative 
labor.     They  do  not  bear  pain  with  the 
fortitude  displayed    among  the  militant 
tribes  of  the  N.,  nor  do  they  inflict  upon 
themselves  equal  tortures.     They  are,  < 
the  whole,  a  progressive  people. 

The  tribe  is  divided  into  a  number  of 



[B.  A.  E. 

dans,  -M  dan  name?  haying  been  recorded, 

hut  tin-  number  df  existing  dans  may  be 
somewhat  more  or  less.  Two  of  these  are 
said  to  be  extinct,  and  others  nearly  ^so. 
The  dans  are  grouped  in  phratries. 
Some  authorities  give  8  of  these,  others 
11,  with  :»  independent  dans;  but  ^  the 
phratry  does  not  seem  to  bea  well-defined 
irroup  among  the  Navaho.  Descent  is  in 
the  female  'line;  a  man  belongs  to  the 
dan  of  his  mother,  and  when  he  marries 
must  take  a  woman  of  some  other  dan. 
The  social  position  of  the  women  is  high 
and  their  influence  great.  They  often, 
possess  much  property  in  theirown  right, 
which  marriage  does'  not  alienate  from 
them.  The  clans,  so  far  as  known,  are  as 

Aatsosni,  Narrow  gorge;  Ashihi,  Salt; 
Bithani,  Folded  arms;  Dsihlnaothihlni, 
Kncirded  mountain;  Dsihlthani,  Brow  of 
the  mountain;  Dsihltlani,  P>ase  of  the 
mountain;  Kai,  \\ 'illows;  Kanani,  Living 
arrous;  Khaltso,  Yellow  bodies;  Khash- 
hli/hiii,  Mud;  Khaskankhatso,  Much 
yucca;  Khoghanhlani,  Many  huts;  Khon- 
agani,  Place  of  walking;  Kinaani,  High 
standing  house;  Kinhlitshi,  Red  house 
(of  >toue);  Klogi,  Name  of  an  old  pue 
blo;  Loka,  Reeds  (phragmites) ;  Mai- 
theshki/h,  ( 'oyote  pass  (.Jemex) ;  Maitho, 
Coyote  spring;  Naai,  Monocline;  Nakai, 
White  stranger  (Mexican);  Nakhopani, 
Brown  streak,  horizontal  on  the  ground; 
Nanashthe/hin,  Black  hori/ontal  stripe 
aliens  i/uni);  Notha,  I'te;  Pinbitho,  Deer 
spring;  Theshtshini,  Red  streak;  Thild- 
xhehi;  Thkhane/a,  Among  the  scattered 
(hillsi;  Thkhapaha,  Among  the  waters; 
Thkhatshini,  Among  the  Red  (  waters  or 
banks);  Thoba/hnaazh,  Two  come  for 
water;  Thochalsithaya,  Water  under  the 
sitting  t'roi:;  Thoditshini,  Bitter  water; 
Thokhani,  Beside  the,  water;  Thodho- 
kontr/hi,  Saline  wat  T;  Thotsoni,  (ireat 
water;  Thoyetlini,  .Imictionof  the  rivers; 
Tlastshini,  Red  flat;  Tli/ihlani,  Manx- 
goats;  Tsayiskithni,  Sagebrush  hill; 
Tse/hinkini,  House  of  the  black  cliffs; 
Tsenahapihlni,  Overhanging  rocks;  Tse- 
theshki/hni,  Rocky  pass;  Tsethkhani, 
Aiming  the  rocks;  Tsetlani,  Bend  in  a 
canyon:  Tseyanathoni,  Hori/ontal  water 
under  cliffs;  Tseyikehe,  Rocks  standing 
near  one  another;  Tse/hint hiai,  Trap 
dyke;  Tsina/hini,  Black  hori/ontal  forest; 
Tsinsakathni,  l.oneiree;  Yoo,  Beads. 

The  ordinary  Xavaho  duelling,  or 
hot/i'm.  is  a  very  simple  struct  lire,  although 
erected  with  much  ceremony  (see  Min- 
ddeff  in  17th  Rep.  B.  A.  K  ,  fs<)x).  It,  is 
usually  conical  in  form,  built  of  sticks  set 
on  end,  covered  with  branches,  grass, 
and  earth,  and  often  so  low  t  hat  a  mail 
of  ordinary  stature  can  not  stand  erect  in 
it.  <  )ne  mn.-t  stoop  to  enter  the  doorway, 
which  is  usually  provided  with  a  short 

passage  or  storm  door.  There  is  no  chim 
ney;  a  hole  in  the  apex  lets  out  the 
smoke.  Some  hogans  are  rude  polygo 
nal  structures  of  logs  laid  horizontally; 
others  are  partly  of  stone1.  In  summer, 
'"lean-to"  sheds  and  small  inclosures  of 
brandies  are  often  used  for  habitations. 
Sweat  houses  are  small,  conical  hogans 
without  the  hole  in  the  apex,  for  fires  are 
not  lighted  in  them;  temperature  is  in 
creased  by  means  of  stones  heated  in  fires 
outside.  'Medicine  lodges,  when  built  in 
localities  where  trees  of  sufficient  size 
grow,  are  conical  structures  like  the  ordi 
nary  hogans,  but  much  larger.  When 
built  in  regions  of  low-sized  trees,  they 
have  flat  roofs.  ( )f  late,  substantial  stone 
structures  with  doors,  windows,  and 
chimneys  are  replacing  the  rude  hogans. 
One  reason  they  built  such  houses  was 
that  custom  and'  superstition  constrained 
them  to  destroy  or  desert  a  house  in 
which  death  had  occurred.  Such  a  place 
was  called  c1ii'U<li-lt(>(/«n,  meaning  'devil- 
house'.  Those  who  now  occupy  good 
stone  houses  carry  out  the  dying  and  let 
them  expire  outside,  thus  saving  their 
dwellings,  and  indeed  the  same  custom  is 
sometimes  practised  in  connection  with 
the  hogan.  No  people  have  greater  dread 
of  ghosts  and  mortuary  remains. 

The  most  important  art  of  the  Navaho 
is  that  of  weaving.  They  are  especially 
celebrated  for  their  blankets,  which  are 
in  high  demand  among  me  white  people 
on  account  of  their  beauty  and  utility; 
but  they  also  weave  belts,  garters,  and 
saddlegirths — all  with  rude,  simple  looms. 
Their  legends  declare  that  in  the  early 
days  they  knew  not  the  art  of  weaving 
by  means  of  a  loom.  The  use  of  the 
loom  was  probably  taught  to  them  by 
the  Pueblo  women  who  were  incorpo 
rated  into  the  tribe.  They  dressed  in 
skins  and  rude  mats  constructed  by  hand., 
of  cedar  bark  and  other  vegetal  fibers. 
The  few  basket  makers  among  them 
are  said  to  be  Tte  or  Paiute  girls  or  their 
•descendants,  and  these  do  not  do  much 
work.  What  they  make,  though  of  ex 
cellent  quality,  is  confined  almost  exclu 
sively  to  two  forms  required  forceremonial 
purposes.  The  Navaho  make  very  little 
potterv,  and  this  of  a  very  ordinary  vari 
ety,  being  designed  merely  for  cooking 
purposes;  but  formerly  they  made  a  tine 
red  ware  decorated  in  black  with  charac 
teristic  designs.  They  grind  corn  and 
other  grains  by  band  oil  the  met  ate.  For 
ceremonial  purposes  they  still  bake  food  in 
the  ground  and  in  other  aboriginal  ways. 
For  many  years  they  have  had  among 
them  silversmiths  who  fabricate  hand 
some  ornaments  with  very  rude  appli 
ances,  and  who  undoubtedly  learned  their 
art  from  1  he  Mexicans,  adapting  it  to  their 
own  environment.  Of  late  years  many 

BULL.  30] 



of  those  who  have  been  taught  in  training 
schools  have  learned  civilized  trades  and 
civilized  methods  of  cooking. 

Investigations  conducted  within  the 
last  25  years  show  that  the  Navaho,  con 
trary  to  early  published  beliefs,  are  a 
highly  religious  people  having  many  well- 
defined  divinities  (nature  gods,  animal 
tgods,  and  local  gods),  a  vast  mythic  and 
legendary  lore,  and  thousands  of  signifi 
cant  formulated  songs  and  prayers  which 
must  be  learned  and  repeated  in  the  most 
exact  manner.  They  also  have  hundreds 
of  musical  compositions  which  experts 
have  succeeded  in  noting  and  have  pro 
nounced  similar  to  our  own  music.  The 
so-called  dances  are  ceremonies  which  last 
for  9  nights  and  parts  of  10  days,  and  the 
medicine-men  spend  many  years  of  study 
in  learning  to  conduct  a  single  one  prop 
erly.  One  important  feat  lire  of  these  cere 
monies  is  the  pictures  painted  in  dry  pow 
ders  on  the  floor  of  the  medicine  lodge 
(see  Dry-painting}.  All  this  cultus  is  of 
undoubted  antiquity. 

The  most  revered  of  their  many  deities 
is  a  goddess  named  Estsanatlehi,  or 
'Woman  Who  Changes',  'Woman 
Who  Rejuvenates  Herself,  because  she 
is  said  never  to  stay  in  one  condition,  but 
to  grow  old  and  become  young  again  at 
will.  She  is  probably  Mother  Nature,  an 
apotheosis  of  the  changing  year. 

By  treaty  of  Canyon  de  Chelly,  Ari/., 
Sept.  9,  1849,  the  Navaho  acknowledged 
the  sovereignty  of  the  United  States.  By 
treaty  of  Fort  Smnner,  N.  Mex.,  June  1, 
1868,  a  reservation  was  set  apart  for  them 
in  Arizona  and  New  Mexico,  and  they 
ceded  to  the  United  States  their  claim  to 
other  lands.  Their  reservation  has  been 
modified  by  subsequent  Executive  orders. 

For  the  literature  pertaining  to  this 
tribe  see  Matthews,  (1)  Navaho  Legends, 
1897,  and  the  bibliography  therein;  (2) 
Night  Chant,  1902.  (w.  M.) 

Apache  Indians  of  Nabajii. — Zarate-Salmeron 
fca.1629)  trans,  in  Land  of  Sunshine,  183,  Feb.  1900. 
Apaches  deNabajoa.— Turner  in  Pac.  R.R.  Rep.,  in, 
pt.  8, 83, 1856  (so  called  by  Spanish  writers).  Apa- 
chesde  Nabaju.— Zarate-Salmeron  (ca.lti29)  quoted 
by  Bandelier  in  Arch.  Inst.  Papers,  iv,  294,  1892. 
Apaches  deNauajb.—Bena  vides,  Memorial, 56, 1630. 
Apaches  de  navaio.— De  1'Isle,  map  Am.  Septeut., 
1700.  Apaches  de  Navajo. — Liiischoten,  Deser. 
1'Amerique,  map  1.  1638.  Apaches  de  Navajox.— 
Sanson,  L'Amerique,  map,  27.  1657.  Apaches  de 
Navayo.—  Jefferys,  Am.  Atlas,  map  5  (1763),  1776. 
Apaches  NabajaL  —  Garces  (1776),  Diary,  369.  1900. 
A'patchu. — Cushing,inf'n  ('enemy' :  Znniname). 
A'patsjoe.—  ten  Kate.  Reizen  in  N.  A.,  291, 1885  (or 
Patsjoe;  Zuni  name).  Bagowits.—  ten  Kate,  Syn 
onymic,  8,  1884  (Southern  Ute  name).  Daca- 
bimo.—  Stephen  in  8th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  35, 1891  (Hopi 
name).  Dava\o.— Gatschet,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  188-1 
(Kiowa  Apache  name).  Mine'.— Matthews,  Nav 
aho  Leg.,  210,  1897  (own  name.  sig.  'people'). 
Djene.— Hodge,  field  notes.  B.  A.  E.,  1895 
(Laguna  name).  I'hl-dene.—  Ibid.  (Jicarilla 
name).  Iyutagjen-ne.— Escudero,  Not.  Estad.  Chi 
huahua.  212, 1834  (own  name).  Messen-Apaches. — 
ten  Kate,  Reizen  in  N.  A.,  241,  1885  (='  Knife 
Apaches',  supposedly  from  Span,  navdja. 
'knife').  Moshome.— Bandelier,  Delight  Makers, 

17.),  1890  ( Keresau name).     Nabaho.— Malte-Brui 
Geog.,    v,    326,    1826.     Nabahoes. -Pattie     Per" 
Narr.,  98,    1833.    Nabaj6.-Alegre     Hist    Com 
Jesus,   i,  336,   1841.     nibajoa.-Humboldt 

s.— Bent(1846)in  II.  R.  Kx.  ]),„•'  7,1  ':;i')il]"r,,n'" 
sess.,  11,  184S.  Nabojo.-Davis.  Span  Conn  V 
'?'  T-  Nahjo.-Pike,  Kxpcd,  3d  n,ap; 
.  Namakaus.-Schermerhorn  in  Mass.  Hist 
hoc.  Coll.,  2d  s.,  ir,  29,  ISM.  Nanaha.— Halbi  \tl 
Ethnog.,  737,  1*26.  Nanahaws.— Pike  Kxped"  pt' 
Jirapp  9,1810.  Napao.r-Garees(1776),Diary;'351 
1900.  Nauajb.—Bena vides,  Memorial  57'  1630 
=  sementeras  grandes').  Nauajoa.  —  Alcedo 
Die  Geog.,  in,  295,  1/ss.  Navago. -Butler  Wild 
North  Land,  127,  1*73.  Navahoe!— Mollhausen 
Pacific,  n,  77,  1*58.  Navahoes.— Parker  Jour 
nal,  32,  1S40.  Navajai.— Garces  (1775)  (.noted 
by  Orozco  y  Berra,  Geog..  3.50,  1*64  Nava- 
jhoes.— Emory,  Recon.,  27, 1S4S.  Navajo.  —  Blaeii 
Atlas,  xn,  62,  1667.  Navajoas.— Orozco  v  Berra' 
Geog.,  59,  l«r,4.  Navajoes.— Rivera.  DiaYio,  leg.' 
818,  1736.  Navajoos.  —  Villa-Sefior,  Theatro  Am., 
pt.  2,  412.  1748.  Navajoses, —  Kiixton,  Adventures' 
193,  184X.  Navaosos.— Latham,  Nat.  Hist.  Man' 
350,  1S50.  Navejb.— Conklin,  Arizona,  211,  1*7* 
Navijoes.— Morgan  in  N.  Am.  Rev.,  58  .Ian  1*70 
Navijos.— Gailatin  in  Nouv.  Ann  Vuv  rub  s.' 
xxvii,  310,  1851.  Navoasos.— Boliaert'  in  .lour' 
Ethnol.  Soe.  Lond.,  n,  276, 1*50.  Nevajoes  —Mow 
ry  in  Jour.  Am.  Ueog.  Soc.,  i,  71,  1*59.  Nodehs.— 
Deniker,  Races  of  Man,  525,  1900.  Novajos  — 
dishing  in  The  Millstone,  ix,  94.  June  1*81. 
Nwasabe. — ten  Kate,  Synonymic,  8,  1*84  (Tesuqiie 
name).  Oohp.— ten  Kate,  Reizen  in  X.  A.,  160, 1*85 
(I'ima  name).  Oop. —  Ibid.  Pagowitch. —  ten 
Kate,  Synonymic,  8,  1*84  (Southern  Tte  name). 
Page-wit's.— Ibid.  Pagu-uits.— Gatschet,  Yunia- 
Spr.,  i,  371.  1883  (Tte  name).  Pa'-gu-wets.— 
Powell,  Rep.  on  Colo.  River,  26,  1874  (='reed 
knives':  Ute  name).  Patsjoe. — ten  Kate.  Rei/en 
in  N.  A.,  291, 1885  (or  A'patsjoe;  Znfii  name).  Ta- 
cab-ci-nyu-muh.— Fewkes  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
V,  33,  1892  (Hopi  name).  Ta'hli'mnin.— Hodge, 
field  notes.  B.  A.  E:,  1895  (Sandia  name).  Ta- 
samewe. — ten  Kate,  Rei/en  in  N.  A.,  259,  1*85 
(— '  bastards':  Hopi  name).  Ta-sha-va-ma. — 
Bourke,  Moquis  of  Ari/.,  118,  1884  (Hopi  name). 
Te'liemnim.— Gatschet,  MS.,  B.  A.  F.,1884  ('with 
out  pity':  Isletaname).  Ten-nai. — Katon,  Navajo 
MS  vocal).,  B.  A.  E.  (own  name).  Tenuai. — Katon 
in  Schoolcnift,  Ind.  Tribes,  iv,  218.  1S51.  Tenye.— 
ten  Kate,  Synonymic,  7,  1884  (Laguna  name). 
Wilde  Coyotes. — ten  Kate.  Rei/en  in  N.  A.,  2*2, 
1885  (Zufii  nickname  translated).  Yabipais  Naba- 
jay._Garcesi  1776),  Diary, 457, 1900.  Yatilatlavi.— 
(iatschet,  Yuma-Spr.,  I,  409.  18*3  (Tonto  name). 
Yavipai-navajoi. — ()ro/co  y  Berra,  Geog.,  59,  1864. 
Yavipais-Navajai.—  Garces  (1775-76)  quoted  by 
BaudeliiT  in  Arch.  Inst.  Papers,  in,  114.  1*90. 
Yoetaha.— ten  Kate,  Rei/en  in  N.  A.,  197,  1*85 
(=' those  who  live  on  the  border  of  the  I'tcs': 
Apache  name).  Yu-i'-ta.— Henshaw,  Ka' itch 
MS.  vocab..  B.  A.  K..  18S3  (Panamint  name). 
Yutacjen-ne. — Oro/co  y  Berra,  Geog..  59.  1*64. 
Yutaha. -Gatschet, Yuma-Spr.. i,  370.  18*3 (Apache 
name).  Yu-tah-kah.— Katon,  Navajo  MS.  vocab.. 
B  A  E  (Apache  name).  Yutajen-ne.— Oro/co  y 
Berra,  Geog.,  41,  76.  1864.  Yu-tar-har',— White. 
Apache  Names  of  Ind.  Tribes,  MS..  B.  A.  K..  2, 
ni.  d.l  (trans,  'far  oft":  Apache  name).  Yutila 
na.— Gatschet  Yuma-Spr.,  in,  *6.  188(!  (Yavapai 
name)  Yutilatlawi.-Ibid.,  i,  370,  1**3  i  Tonto 

Navahu  (Na-w-lni',  referring  to 'large 
area  of  cultivated  lands ' ) .  A  former  Tewa 
jmeblo  situated  in  the  second  valley  s.  ot 
the  great  pueblo  and  cliff  village  of  Puye, 
w.  of  Santa  Clara  pueblo,  in  the  Pajarito 
Park,  X.  Mex.  The  name  refers  to  the 
large'  areas  of  cultivated  lands  in  the 
vicinity,  and  by  extension  was  applied  to 


[B.  A.  E. 

the  Navaho  (o.  v.).  Consult  Hewett(l) 
in  \m  Anthrop.,vm,  lltt,  1906;  (2)  Bull. 
:il>,  B.  A.  K.,  Hi,  1906. 

Navasink  Cat  the  promontory  ).  A 
tribe  of  the  I'luuni  branch  of  the  Dela- 
wares  formerly  living  in  the  highlands 
of  Nave-sink.  X.  ,1.,  claiming  the  laud 
from  Barnegat  to  the  Raritan.  Hudson, 
who  encountered  them  immediately  after 
(•uterine  the  bay  of  New  York,  describes 
them  as  "clothed  in  mantles  of  feathers 
ami  robes  of  fur,  the  women  clothed  in 
hemp;  red  copper  pipes,  and  other  things 
of  copper  they  did  wear  about  their 
necks."  They'appear  to  have  passed  out 
of  history  soon  after  their  lands  were  sold. 
Na-ussins.—  Xelson,  Inds.  N.  J.,  101.  1894  (early 
form)  Navecinx.—  Tom  (1071)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
Hist  xit  493.  1x77.  Navesand.—  Needham  (1665), 
ibid.','  xm.  39S,  ISM.  Navesinck.—  Winlield,  Hud 
son  Co  -II.  1871.  Navesinks.  —  Xelson,  op.  eit. 
Navisinks.—  Scboolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  VI,  100,  1857. 
Navison.—  Ruttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R.,  159,  i87'2. 
Neuwesink.—  Stnyvesant  (1660)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
Hist.,  xm,  163/1881.  Neversincks.—  Ruttenber, 
Tribes  Hudson  K.,  89,  1872.  Neversinghs.  —  X.  Y. 
Doc  Col.  Hist.,  xm.  99,  1881.  Neversink.—  Van  der 

k  (1656) 

.     ,         . 
oted  by  Ruttenber,  Tribes  Hud 


son  K..  51,  1X72.  Nevesin.—  Beekman  (1660)  in 
N  Y  Poc.  Col.  Hist.,  xil,  30X,  1X77.  Nevesinck.— 
Van  Werekhoveii  (1651),  ibid.,  xm,  29,  IXXl. 
Neve  Sincks.  —  Van  der  Donck  (1656)  quoted  by 
Ruttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R.,  72,  1X72.  Neve- 
sings.— Doc.  of  1674  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  n, 
691.  is:.8.  Nevesinks.— Doc.  of  1659,  ibid.,  XIII, 
W  l^sl  Nevisans.— Lovelace  (1669),  ibid.,  423. 
Newasons.—  Ugilby  (1671)  quoted  by  Xelson, 
Inds.  X.  .1.,  lol.  1X91.  Newesinghs.  —  Doe.  of  1659 
in  X.  Y.  Doe.  Col.  Hist.,  xm,  100,  IXXl.  Newe- 
sink.— Stnyvesant  (1658),  ibid..  84.  Nieuesinck.— 
Doc.  of  16n2,  ibid.,  34.  Nieuwesinck. — Ibid.,  XIV. 
1<>S1SS3.  Novisans.— Lovelace  (1665)  quoted  by 
Ruttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R.,  6x,  1X72. 

NavawK  Xn-m-ir!',  '  place  of  the  bunting 
trap''.  A  group  of  ancient  Tewa  ruins 
\v.  of  the  Kio  <irande,  situated  between 
the  Kilo  de  los  Frijoles  and  Santa  Clara 
canyon,  s.  \v.  of  San  Ildefonso,  N.  Mex. 
They  consist  of  two  large  buildings  about 
'JOO  yds.  apart,  several  clan  houses  on  the 
mesa  near  by,  and  a  cliff  village  of  con 
siderable  extent  in  the  base  of  the  low 
mesa  to  the  s.  and  w.  The  ruin  takes  its 
name  from  a  pitfall  (iiara)  on  the  narrow 
neck  of  mesa  about  800  yds.  w.  of  the 
pueblo  ruin,  at  the  convergence  of  four 

Navakwi.  — Ib-wtt  in  Am.  Antbrop.,  vi,  645,  1904. 
Navawi.  — llewett  in  Bull.  32.  I'..  A.  K.,  22,  1906. 
Navt-kwi  — He\\  ett  in  Am.  Antbrop.,  op.  eit.',  map. 

Navialik  ('place  of  the  long-tailed 
duck  ' ) .  An  Ita  Mskimo  village  on  Smith 
sd..  N.  <  ireenland. 

Navialik.  -Kane,  Arctic  Kxpli.r.,  n,  lU'l,  1X56. 
Nerdla'rin. — Stein  in  I'etermanns  Mitt,  no  9  mat) 

Navigation.      Sec  I!otitx,   Trarel. 

Navisok.  A  former  Aleut  village  on 
Agattu  id.,  Alaska,  one  of  the  Near  id. 
group  of  the  Aleutians,  now  uninhabited. 

Navojoa  ('prickly-pear  house';  from 
iHilta  'prickly  pear,'  ftona  'house.' — 
Buelna).  One  of  the  principal  settle 
ments  of  the  Mayo  on  Rio  Mayo,  s.  w. 

Sonora,  Mexico.  Of  a  total  population 
of  8,500  in  1900,  744  were  Cahita  (Mayo), 
69  "Cahuillo,"  and  28  Yaqui. 
Nabojoa.— Kino  map  (1702)  in  Stocklein,  Neue 
Welt-Bott,  1726.  Natividad  Navajoa.—  Orozco  y 
Berra,  (ieog.,  356, 1864.  Navahoa.— Hardy,  Travels 
in  Mexico,  438,  1829.  Navohoua.— Orozco  y  Berra, 
op.  cit.  Navojoa. — Censo  de  Sonora,  91, 1901  (pres 
ent  official  designation). 

Nawaas.  An  unidentified  tribe  or  band 
occupying  a  stockaded  village,  under  a* 
chief  named  Morahieck,  on  the  E.  side 
of  Connecticut  r.  between  the  Scantic 
and  the  Podunk,  near  the  mouth  of  the 
latter,  in  Hartford  co.,  Conn.,  in  the  17th 

Nawaas.*— Map  of  1616  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  I, 
13,  1856.  Nawas.— Macauley,  XT.  Y.,  II,  162,  1829. 
Nawes.— De  Laet  (1(533)  in  X.  Y.  Hist.  Boc.  Coll.,. 
2d  s..  I,  307,  1841.  Newashe.— Trumbull  lud. 
Names  Conn. ,38,  1881.  _ 

Nawacaten.  A  village  of  the  Powhatan 
confederacy  in  1608,  on  the  x.  bank  of  the 
Rappahannock,  in  Richmond  co.,  Va. — 
Smith  (H>29),  Va.,  i,  map,  repr.  1S19. 

Nawake.  A  place  marked  as  an  Indian 
fort  on  Lattre's  map  of  1784,  on  the  upper 
Scioto,  in  Ohio.  It  may  have  belonged 
to  the  Shawnee. 

Nawat  ('Left-band').  The  principal 
chief  of  the  Southern  Arapaho  since  the 
death  of  Little  Raven  (q.  v.)  in  1889.  He 
was  born  about  1840,  and  became  noted 
as  a  warrior  and  buffalo  hunter,  taking 
active  part  in  the  western  border  wars 
until  the  treaty  of  Medicine  Lodge  in 
1867,  since  which  time  his  people,  as  a 
tribe,  have  remained  at  peace  with  the 
•  whites.  In  1890  be  took  the  lead  in  sign 
ing  the  allotment  agreement  opening  the 
reservation  to  white  settlement,  notwith 
standing  the  Cheyenne,  in  open  council, 
had  threatened  death  to  anyone  who 
signed.  He  several  times  visited  Wash 
ington  in  the  interest  of  his  tribe.  Having 
become  blind,  he  has  recently  resigned 
his  authority  to  a  younger  man.  (.1.  M.  ) 

Naw-gaw-nub.     See  Nagonub. 

Nawiti.  A  term  with  three  applica 
tions:  (1)  A  Kwakiutl  town  formerly  at 
C.  Commerell,  N.  coast  of  Vancouver  id.; 
(2)  a  modern  town,  properly  called  Me- 
loopa,  a  short  distance;  s.  of  the  preced 
ing,  from  which  it  received  its  name;  (3) 
by  an  extension  of  the  town  name  it  came 
to  be  a  synonym  for  the  Nakomgilisala 
and  Tlatlasikoala  collectively,'  whose 
language  constitutes  the  "Newettee  sub- 
dialect"  of  Boas.  Pop.  69  in  1906. 
Mel'oopa. — Dawson  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec.  n, 
70,18X7.  Nah-witte.— Can. Ind.Aff.,  145, 1879.  Nah- 
wittis.— Scott  in  Ind.AlV.  Rep. .316, 1868.  Nauete.— 
Boasin  Bull.  Am. Geog.Soc., 227, 1887.  Na-wee-tee.— 
Kane,  Wand,  in  N.  A.,app.,1859.  Nawiti.— Tolmie 
iindDawson.Vocabs.Brit,  Col.,  118H.1884.  Neu-wit- 
ties.— Dunn,  Oregon,  242, 1844.  Newatees.— Sproat, 
Savajje  Life,  314,  1X68.  Neweetee. — Irving,  Asto 
ria,  107, 1849.  Neweetees.— Lee  and  Frost,  Oregon, 
54,  1844.  Neweetg.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Fanner,  July 
19,  1862.  Newettee.— Dunn,  Oregon,  242.  1844. 
Newitlies.— Armstrong,  Oregon,  136,  1857.  Newit- 
tees. -Grant  in  Jonr.  Roy.  Geog.  Soc.,  293, 1857, 

BULL.  30] 



Newitti. — Brit.  Col.  map,  1872.  Niouetians. — 
Nouv.  Ann.  Voy.,  ix,  14,  1821.  Ni-wittai.— Tolmie 
and  Dawson,  Vocabs.  Brit.  Col.,  118B,  1884.  Noo- 
we-tee.— Can.Ind.  Aff.1883. 190, 1884.  Noo-we-ti.— 
Ibid.,  145,  1879.  Nouitlies.— Duflot  de  Mofras, 
Oregon,  i,  139,  1844.  Nu-witti.— Can.  Ind.  Aff. 
1894,  279,  1895.  Xumtaspe.— Boas  in  Nat,  Mus. 
Rep.  1895,379,  1897  (own  name  for  the  town). 

Nawkaw  (? 'Wood').  A  Winnebago 
chief,  known  also  as  Carryinaunee 
.('Walking  Turtle'),  because  he  was  a 
member  of  the  Walking  Turtle  family, 
the  ruling  family  of  the  tribe.  He  was 
born  in  1735,  and  died  at  the  advanced 
age  of  98  years  in  1833.  His  residence 
wan  at  Big  Green  lake,  between  Green 
Bay  and  Ft  Winnebago  (Portage),  Wis., 
and  30  in  from  the  latter.  The  earliest 
recorded  notice  of  Nawkaw  relates  to  his 
presence,  as  principal  chief  of  his  tribe, 
at  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  Canada,  Oct. 


5, 1813,  and  that  he  was  beside  Tecumseh 
when  the  latter  fell  (Wis.  Hist.  Coll.,  xiv, 
86,  1898).  If  the  statement  in  regard  to 
his  age  be  correct,  Nawkaw  was  at  that 
time  78  years  of  age.  That  he  was  active 
in  behalf  of  his  tribe  in  peaceful  meas 
ures  for  the  remaining  years  of  his  life  is 
evident  from  the  fact  that  he  was  one  of 
the  chief  agents  of  the  Winnebago  in 
making  settlements  and  treaties  on  their 
behalf.  His  name,  in  various  forms 
(Carimine,  Karry-Man-ee,  Nan-kaw,  Nau- 
kaw-kary-maume,  Karamanu,  and  Onu- 
naka),  is  attached  to  the  treaties  of  St 
Louis,  Mo.,  June  3,  1816;  Prairie  du 
Chien,  Wis.,  Aug.  19,  1825;  Butte  des 
Morts,  Wis.,  Aug.  11,1827;  Green  Bay, 
Wis.,  Aug.  25,  1828;  and  Prairie  du 
Chien,  Aug.  1,  1829.  But  his  most  im 
portant  acts  in  behalf  of  peace  were  his 

efforts  in  keeping  his  people  from  taking 
part  m  the  Black  Hawk  war  in  1 832.  '  'The 
policy  of  Nawkaw,"  say  McKenney  and 
Hall  (Ind.  Tribes,  i,  316,  1858),  '"was 
decidedly  pacific,  and  his  conduct  was 
consistent  with  his  judgment  and  profes 
sions.  To  keep  his  followers  from  temp 
tation,  as  well  as  to  place  them  under  the 
eye  of  an  agent  of  our  government,  he 
encamped  with  them  near  the  agency, 
under  the  charge  of  Mr  Kin/ie."  It  was 
chiefly  through  his  exertions  that  Ked 
Bird  and  his  accomplices  in  the  Gagnier 
murder  were  surrendered,  and  through 
his  influence  that  clemency  was  obtained 
for  them,  for  which  purpose  he  visited 
Washington  in  1S29;  but  the  pardon  for 
Red  Bird  came  after  he  died  in  prison  at 
Prairie  du  Chien.  Nawkaw  was  a  large 
man,  6  ft  tall  and  well  built,  Mrs  Kin/ie 
(Wan-Bun,  89,  1856)  says  he  was  a  stal 
wart  Indian,  with  a  broad,  pleasant  coun 
tenance,  the  great  peculiarity  of  which 
was  an  immense  under  lip,  hanging  nearly 
to  his  chin;  this  is  seen  to  some  extent 
in  his  portrait.  lie  is  described  as  a 
sagacious  man,  of  firm,  upright  charac 
ter  and  pacific  disposition,  who  filled  his 
station  with  dignity  and  commanded  re 
spect  by  his  fidelity.  One  of  his  daugh 
ters,  Flight-of-Geese,  married  Choukeka, 
or  Spoon  Dekaury  (Wis.  Hist.  Coll., 
xiu,  455,  1895).  A  descendant  of  Naw 
kaw  was  living  at  Stevens  Point,  Wis.,  in 
1887.  (c.  T.) 

Nawnautough.  A  village  of  the  Pow- 
hatan  confederacy  in  1608,  on  the  x.  bank 
of  the  Rappahannock,  in  Richmond  co., 
Va.— Smith  ( 1629),  Va.,  i,  map,  repr.  1819. 

Nawotsi.  The  Bear  clan  of  theCaddo. — 
Mooney  in  14th  Rep.  I>.  A.  E.,  1093,  1896. 

Nawunena  ('southern  men').  The 
name  by  which  the  Southern  Arapaho, 
now  associated  with  the  Southern  Chey 
enne  in  Oklahoma,  are  known  to  the 
rest  of  the  tribe.  They  numbered  885  in 


Na"wuine'na". — Kroeber  in  Bull.  Am.  Mns.  Nat. 
Hist.,  xvm,  7,  1902  (Northern  Arapaho  name). 
Nawathi'neha.— -Mooney  in  14th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  955, 
1896  ('southerners'  :archaic  form).  Na'wunena. — 
Moonev,  ibid.  Na-wuth'-i-ni-han.— Hayden,  Kth- 
nog  and  Philol.  Mo.  Val.,  321,  1S62.  Ner-mon  sin- 
nan-see.—  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  v,  4%,  1855. 
Southern  Arapahoes.— Official  reports.  Southern 
Band.—  Sehoolcraft,  op.  eit. 

Nayakaukaue.  A  former  town  on  the 
site  of  the  present  St  Helens,  Columbia 
co  ,  Oreg.  According  to  Gatschet  a  hand 
of  the  Chinookan  family  settled  there  in 
1877  and  were  called  Nayakaukau  by  the 

Nai-a-kook-wie.-Gibbs,   MS      no    248,    B.    A     h 
Nayakaukau.-Gatschet,      MS       H.    A. 
(Clackama  namei.    Ne-ah-ko-koi.-Gibbs,  op  en 
Ni-a-kow-kow.— Lyman  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soe.  Quar., 
I,  322,  1900. 

Nayakolole.  A  Willopah  village  for 
merly  situated  opposite  Bay  Center, 
Pacific  co.,  Wash.  • 



[B.  A.  E. 

Kwulkwul  — (libbs  Chinook  vocal*..  H.  A.  H.,  23 
(Chehali-namo.  Naya'q6161e.— Boa/,  infn,  1905. 
Quer'quelin.— Swan.  N.  \V.  Coast.  211.  1*57.  Q'.we - 
qolr.n.  -Boas  op.  eit. 

Nayonsay's  Village.  A  former  settle 
ment,  probably  of  the  Potawatomi,  named 
after  a  chief,  situated  in  the  x.  K.  part  of 
Kendall  co.,  111.  P>\  treaty  of  July  29, 
1829,  a  tract  of  9(10  acres  at  this  village 
was  ceded  to  \Yaishkeshaw.  a  Potawatomi 
woman,  and  her  child. 

Nay-on-say's  Village.— Royee  in  istli  Rep-  »•  A. 
K  pt  2  Hi.  map  1.  190U.  Nay-ou-Say.— Treaty  ol 
IKWin  r.s.  In. 1.  Treat..  Kapplered.,  n,  214. 1903. 

Nayuharuke  i  'where  the  grass  stalk  or 
weed  is  forked.'-  Hewitt).  A  palisaded 
town  occupied  by  the  hostile  Tuscarora  in 
17b">,  near  Snowhill,  Greene  co.,  N.  Car. 
They  were  defeated  here  by  the  colonists 
\vitli  great  loss  and  SOO  prisoners  taken. 
Nahardakha.— Jour.  Va.  Council  (1713)  in  N.  C. 
Col.  Rec.,  n.  36,  1**6.  Naharuke.— Williamson, 
HiM.  N.  C.,  i.  201.  1812.  Nahasuke.  — Pollock 
(1713  •  in  N.C.  Col.  Rec..  II.  3*.  1*86.  Naherook. — 
Hoinann  Heirs'  map.  1756.  Nahucke. — Martin, 
N.C. .[.261,  1*29.  Nayuharuke. — (iatscliet,  Tusca 
rora  MS..  H.  A.  K..  1**5  (Tuscarora  form).  No- 
ho-ro-co.— Moore  (1713)  in  N.  C.  Col.  Rec..  11.27, 
!**•;.  Nooherolu.— War  map  (1711-15)  in  Winsor, 
HiM.  Am..  V,  316,  ISS7.  Wahasuke.  — Pollock, 
op.  eit. 

Nayuhi  (Xii-yu'-hl,  'sand  place').  A 
former  Cherokee  settlement  on  theK.  bank 
of  Tugaloo  r.,  S.  Car.,  nearly  opposite  the 
mouth  of  Pant  her  cr. 

Nayowee.  -l>oe.  of  1755  quoted  by  Royce  in  5th 
Rep.  I'..  A.  K..  112.  1*87.  Noyoee.— Royce,  ibid., 
map.  Noyohee.— l>oc.  of  1799.  ihid.,144.  Nuyu'hi.— 
Mooney  in  I'.Hh  Rep.  15.  A.  K.,  ftfl).  1900. 

Nayuuns-haidagai  (\<i  ui~i/.\it*  j'd/l- 
</.!>/"-',  'people  of  the  great  house').  A 
subdivision  of  the  ( iitins  of  the  Ilaida  of 
Skidegate,  P>rit.  Col.,  so  named  from  a 
larire  house  that  the  family  owned  at 
Illnahet,  an  old  town  near  Skidegate. 
The  town  chief  of  Skidegate  belonged  to 
this  division.  (.1.  K.  s. ) 

Na  yu'ans  qa'edra.  —  BOJIS  iji  12th  Ren.  N'.  W.  Tribes 
Can..  21.  25.  1*9*.  Na  yu'ans  qa'etqa. — Hoas  in 
5th  Rep.,  ibid.,  26.  1**9.  Na  yu'.xns  xa'-id,\ga-i.— 
Swanton,  ('out.  Ilaida.  273.  19(15. 

Naywaunaukauraunah  ('they  are  sur 
rounded  by  bark  or  wood.'' — Hewitt). 
The  Tuscarora  name  of  a  reputed  people 
'viicamped  mi  the  Pake  Krie"  at  the 
lime  of  the  war  between  the  Iroquois 
and  the  Krie,  about  ln."U. 

Nay  Waunaukauraunah  Cu-ick  (|8-J5i  in  School- 
cnilt.  Ind.  Tribes,  v.  .14:;.  1855.  Waranakarana.— 
Schoolcralt,  ibid.,  iv.  2d(t.  1*51. 

Nazan.  The  present  village  of  the  Aleut 
on  Atka  id.,  Alaska.  The  natives  speak  a 
distinct  dialect,  and  are  not  only  the 
best  otter  hunters,  but  surpass  all  others 
in  making  baskets  out  of  grasses.  Pop. 
2.'!'i  in  Isso;  i:;i_>  jn  |s«»o. 

Atkha.     Sclnvatka.    .Nlil.    Recon.    in    Alaska.     115, 
**"'.     Nazan.— Pet  roll  in  10th  Census.  Alaska,  \(\, 

Nazas.  A  tribe,  probably  Coahuiltecan 
or  Tarnaulipan,  at  Reinosa,  Mexico,  near 
the  l\io<  irande,  in  17.r)7.  They  were  with 
the  Narices,  ( 'oinecrudos,  aiid  Tejones. 
The  Naxasand  Narices  had  been  bapti/ed 
at.  Villa  del  1'ilon,  Xueva  Peon  (Joseph 

Tienda  de  Cuervo,  Informe,  1757,  MS.  in 
Archive    General,  Historia,  LVI,   Orozco 
y  Berra,  Geog.,  294,  1S()4).      (n.  E.  K.) 
Nasas. — Tienda  di- Cuervo,  op.  cit.,  1757. 

Nazas.  A  former  Tepehtiane  pueblo  on 
Rio  de  Nazas,  E.  central  Durango,  Mexico. 
It  was  the  seat  of  the  mission  of  Santa 

Santa  Cruz  de  Nazas.— Orozco  y  Berra,  Ueog.,  318, 

Nchekchekokenk  ( Ntc& qtcEqqdMnk,  or 
Ntceqtceqkdkinnk,  'the  red  little  side  hill 
or  slope' ).  A  village  of  the  Lytton  band 
of  the  Xtlakyapamnk  on  the  w.  side  of 
Fraser  r.,  15  m.  above  Lytton,  Brit. 
Col.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist., 
n,  172,  1900. 

Nchekus  ('red  rising  ground  or  emi 
nence  ' ).  A  village  of  the  Nicola  band  of 
the  Ntlakyapamuk,  about  a  mile  back  in 
the  mountains  from  Kwilchana,  Brit.  Col. 
Ntce'kus.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n, 
174,  1900.  Stce'kus.— Ibid.  S'tcukosh.— Hill-Tout 
in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv.  Can.,  4,  1899. 

Ndeyao  ( 'dog';  probably  akin  to  Chip- 
pewa  nTn.d<ii,  'my  pet,'  'my  domestic 
animate  possession,  a  term  applied  to 
dogs,  horses,  and  the  like.  —  \V.  J.).  A  clan 
of  the  Mahican,  <|.  v. 

N-de-ya'-o. — Moruan.  Anc.  Soc.,  174,  1877. 

Neacoxy.  The  principal  winter  village 
of  the  Clatsop,  formerly  at  the  mouth  of 
Neacoxie  cr.,  at  the  site  of  Seaside,  Clat 
sop  co.,  Greg. 

Neacoxa. — Trans.  Oregon  Pioneer  Assn..  8(5,  1887. 
Neacoxy.— Lee  and  Frost,  Oregon,  283,  1844.  Ne- 
ah-coxie.—  Lyman  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soc.  Quar.,  1,321, 
1900.  Nia'xaqce.— Boas,  Chinook  Texts,  92,  1894 
(correct  name). 

Neagwaih  ('bear').  A  clan  of  the 
Seneca,  q.  v. 

Atinionguin. — French  writer  (1660)  in  X.  Y.  Doc. 
Col.  Hist.,  ix,  47,  1855.  Ne-e-ar-gu-ye. — Morgan, 
League  Iroq.,  46,  80,  1851  (Seneca  form).  Ne- 
e-ar-guy'-ee. — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  15:5,  1877. 

Neah.  A  permanent  town  of  the  Ma- 
kah  on  the  site  of  the  old  Spanish  fort, 
Port  Nunez  Gaona,  Neah  bay,  Wash. 
Neah.— Treaty  of  Neah  Bay,  1855,'  in  V.  S.  Ind. 
Treaties,  461,  1873.  Neeah.— Swan  in  Smithson. 
Cont.,  xvi,  2.  1870. 

Neahkeluk.  An  important  Clatsop  vil 
lage  formerly  at  Point  Adams,  Clatsop 
co.,  Oreg. 

Klakhelnk.— (iairdner,  after  Framboise  (1835),  in 
.lour.  Geog.  Soc.  Loud.,  xi,  255, 1841.  Neahkeluk.— 
Lyman  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soc.  Quar.,  i.  321.  1900. 
Tia'k;elake.— Hoas,  Chinook  Texts,  277,  1894  (na 
tive  name). 

Neahkstowt.  A  former  village  of  the 
Clatsop  near  the  present  Hammond,  Clat 
sop  co.,  ( )reg. 

Naya'qctaowe.— Boas,  Chinook  Texts,  233,  1894. 
Ne-ahk-stow. — Lyman  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soc.  Quar., 
1,321,  1900. 

Neahumtuk.  A  former  village  of  the  Al- 
seaNj.  v.)  at  the  mouth  of  Alsear.,  Oregon. 

Neamathla.  (  Iimi'la  is  a  war  and  busk 
title,  corresponding  nearly  to  'disciplina 
rian').  A  Seminole  chief  who  acquired 
considerable  note  during  the  Indian  hos 
tilities  of  1824-36.  Pie  was  by  birth  a 
Creek,  and  had  come  into  notice  before  the 
war  of  1812,  but  is  not  mentioned  as  a 

BULL.  .30] 


chief  until  1820.  He  is  spoken  of  by  Guv. 
Duval,  of  Florida,  as  a  man  of  uncom 
mon  ability,  a  noted  orator,  with  great 
influence  among  his  people,  and  in  1824 
as  desirous  of  being  on  terms  of  amity 
with  the  United  States.  Neamathla  was 
one  of  the  signers  of  the  treaty  of  Camp 
Moultrie,  Sept.  18,  1823,  by  which  about 
5,000,000  acres  of  land  were  ceded  to  the 
United  States.  This  treaty,  which  was 
repudiated  by  a  large  portion  of  the 
tribe,  led  by  Osceola,  was  the  primary 
cause  of  the  war  which  shortly  followed. 
His  settlement,  known  also  as  Ft  Town 
and  Nehe  Marthla's  Town  (Woodward, 
Reminis.,  153,  1859)  was  situated  s.  of 
Flint  r.,  Ga.,  and  was  destroyed  in  the 
war  of  1816-17.  Because  of  his  treat 
ment  by  the  Florida  authorities  he  re 
turned  to  the  Creek  Nation,  where  he 
was  well  received,  and  became  an  influ 
ential  member  of  the  general  council  held 
at  Tukabatchi.  The  name  Neah  Emarthla 
is  signed  on  behalf  of  the  Hitchiti  towns 
to  the  Creek  treaty  of  Nov.  15,  1827. 
See  McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  i, 
77,  1858. 

Neapope.     See  Nahpope. 

Nebaunaubay  (Ntbanaba,  'sleeping  per 
son').  A  mythic  character  whose  home 
is  said  to  be  on  the  floor  of  the  sea;  the 
term  is  also  applied  to  an  under-water 
bear.  Hence  the  "Merman"  gens  of 
the  Chippewa  (Warren,  Ojibways,  44, 
1885.)  (w.  .T.) 

Neblazhetama  ('blue  river  village',  from 
nablezan,  the  Kansa  name  for  Mississippi 
r.,  and  tanman,  'village').  An  ancient 
Kansa  village  on  the  w.  bank  of  the  Mis 
sissippi  a  few  miles  above  the  mouth  of 
Missouri  r.  in  the  present  Missouri.  The 
territory  was  later  occupied  by  the  Sank 
and  Foxes. 
Ne-bla-zhe-ta'-ma.— Morgan  in  X.Am.  Rev., 45,1870. 

Nechacokee.  A  division  of  the  Chi- 
nookan  family  found  in  1806  by  Lewis 
and  Clark  on  the  s.  bank  of  Columbia  r. ,  a 
few  miles  below  Quicksand  (Sandy)  r., 
Oreg.  Their  estimated  number  was  100. 
Nechacohee.— Lewis  and  Clark  Expert.,  n,  217, 
1814.  Nechacoke.— Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  ix.  1848.  Ne 
chacokee.— Lewis  and  Clark,  op.  eit.,  472.  Ne-cha- 
co-lee.— Orig.  Jour.  Lewis  and  Clark,  iv,  236,  1905. 
Nechecolee.— Lewis  and  Clark  Exped.,  n,  222, 
1814.  Neechaokee.— Ibid.,  4(59. 

Nechanicok.  A  village  of  the  Powhatan 
confederacy  in  1608,  on  the  s.  bank  of  the 
Chickahominy  in  the  lower  part  of  Hen- 
rico  co.,  Va.— Smith  (1629),  \7a.,  i,  map, 
repr.  1819. 

Nechaui.  One  of  the  nine^  tribes  men 
tioned  by  Francisco  de  Jesus  Maria  as 
constituting  the  Hasinai,  or  southern 
Caddo  confederacy.  He  described  its 
location  as  s.  E.  of  the  Nabedache  tribe, 
and  half  .a  league  from  the  Nacono  ( Re- 
lacion,  1691,  MS.).  In  1721  Peiia,  in  his 
diary,  stated  that  the  Indians  of  el  Ma- 
cono  lived  5  leagues  from  the  crossing  of 

3456— Bull.  30,  pt  2—07 4 

the  Neches  at  the  Neche  village  (Diario, 
Mem.  de  Nueva  Espafia,  AXVIII,  3(>,  MS. )! 
The  Nechaui  apparently  are.  not  men 
tioned  thereafter;  they  were  probably 
absorbed  by  their  neighbors,  perhaps  the 
Nabedache.  (n.  K.  B.  ) 

Neche.  A  Hasinai  tribe  that,  on  the 
coming  of  the  Europeans  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  17th  century,  lived  on  Neches 
r.  in  E.  Texas.  Their  main  village  was 
a  league  or  more  E.  of  that  stream, 
nearly  w.  of  the  present  city  of  Nacog- 
doches  and  near  the  mounds  s.  w.  of 
Alto,  Cherokee  co.  This  village  was 
visited  by  La  Salle's  party,  and  it  was  par 
ticularly  to  it  and  the  Nabedache  tribe 
across  the  stream  that  Joutel  (Margry, 
Dec.,  in,  336  et  seq.,  1878)  applied  the 
name  of  "Cenis,"  his  rendering  of  the  In 
dian  group  name  Ilasittai.  This  Neche 
tribe  was  closely  allied  by  language  and 
culture  with  about  a  do/en  southern  Cad- 
doan  tribes,  includingthe  well-known  Na 
bedache,  Nacogdoche,  Hainai,andNas<  ni. 
There  are  strong  indications  that  these 
southern  tribes,  under  the  headship  of 
the  Hainai,  formed  a  subconfederacy 
fairly  distinct  from  the  northern  group 
of  Caddoan  tribes,  which  were  under  the 
headship  of  the  Kadohadacho. 

The  enemies  of  the  Neche  were  the 
common  enemies  of  this  southern  Cad 
doan  group.  In  1687  some  members  of 
La  Salle's  party  went  with  them  in  a  suc 
cessful  campaign  against  the  "Canoha- 
tinno."  The  Yojuanes  sometimes  invaded 
the  country  of  the  Neche  and  their  neigh 
bors;  relations  with  the  Bidai  and  Eyeish 
seem  to  have  been  ordinarily  unfriendly; 
but  chief  of  all  the  enemies  were  the 

Between  the  Neche  and  Nacachau  the 
Queretaran  friars,  in  1716,  established 
San  Francisco  de  los  Neches  mission,  and 
at  the  same  time  Ramon  stationed  a  gar 
rison  there.  In  1719  the  missionaries, 
fearing  a  French  attack  incident  to  the 
outbreak  of  war  between  France  and 
Spain,  deserted  this  as  well  as  the  other 
E.  Texas  missions,  and  left  it  to  be  plun 
dered  by  the  Indians.  In  1721  Gov. 
Aguayo  rebuilt  the  mission;  but  in  1731 
it  was  removed  to  San  Antonio,  where 
it  was  known  as  San  Francisco  de  la 
Espada  (Ramon,  Derrotero;  Repre 
sentation  by  the  Missionary  Fathers, 
1716,  MS.;  Peiia,  Diario;  Espmosa, 
Chronica  Apostolica,  418,  153,  et  seqA 

The  Neche  tribe,  like  all  of  its  neigh 
bors,  was  insignificant  in  numbers.  In 
1721  Aguayo,  while  at  the  mam  .Necne 
village,  made  present*  to  188  men, 
women,  and  children,  which  was  con 
sidered  an  unusually  "general  distribu 
tion"  of  gifts  (Peiia,  Diary  of  Aguayo  s 
expedition,  1721,  MS.).  The  aggregate 
of  Indians  of  this  and  the  neighboring 



[B.  A.  E. 

tribes  dependent  on  the  Net-lies  mission 
ipn>l>ably  including  the  Nabedache,  Na- 
eono,  Xechaui,  and  Xacaehan)  was  esti 
mated  by  Kspinosa,  former  president  of 
the  missions,  at  about  one  thousand  (see 
Francisco  de  Jesus  Mari'a,  Relacion;  Ra 
mon,  I  >errotero;Kspinosa,Chronica  Apos 
tolica,  4:51* ).  This  estimate  must  have  had 
a  good  foundation,  for  the  missionaries 
kept  lists  <>f  all  the  hamlets  and  house 
holds.  If  Rivera  be  correct,  it  would 
seem  that  by  1727  part  of  the  Net-lie  tribe 
had  moved  across  the  Rio  Neches  and 
occupied  the  Nabedache  site  of  San  Pedro 
( Rivera,  Diario,  leg.  2140,  1736).  Before 
the  end  of  the  ISth  century  the  tribe 
apparently  became  merged  with  the 
Nabedache  and  Ilainai  tribes,  for  in  the 
reports  of  Soli's  (1707),  Barrios.  (1771), 
Me/.ieres  (177S-7U),  and  others,  it  was 
not  separately  distinguished. 

In  its  main  features  the  social  organiza 
tion  of  this  tribe  was  similar  to  that  of  all 
the  tribes  of  the  group.  They  lived  in 
agricultural  hamlets  or  single  house 
holds  scattered  around  a  main  village. 
A  household  consisted  of  several  families 
living  in  a  large  conical  grass  lodge.  The 
scmicommunal  households  seem  to  have 
been  organized  on  the  basis  of  paternal 
right;  but  an  elder  woman  served  as  the 
economic  head.  An  exogamous  clan  or 
ganization  existed,  thedetailsof  which  are 
not  evident.  The  outlines  of  the  tribal 
organization  are  clear.  There  was  an 
hereditary  civil  chief  (caddi  wciiiVdi}  who 
also  had  priestly  functions.  lie  ruled 
through  a  council  composed  largely  <tf 
elder  and  distinguished  men,  and 'was 
assisted  by  several  grades  of  administra 
tive  functionaries  or  'public  servants,  such 
as  the  rtintih<tK  and  the  tttiinii«n.  The  lat 
ter  were  messengers  and  overseers,  and 
inflicted  the  lesser  corporal  punishments. 

The  confederate  relations  of  this  tribe 
with  its  neighbors  were  more  religious 
than  governmental.  The  caddi  of  the 
Ilainai  tribe  ranked  as  head  chief  of  the 
group,  but  of  greater  authority  than  any 
caddi  was  the  head-  priest,  called  r/,fm,sv, 
or  shimi,  who  kept  the  central  lire 
temple,  situated  on  the  edge  of  the 
Ilainai  domain.  From  this  temple  all 
tin-  households  of  the  surrounding 
tribes  kindle,!  their  lires,  directly  or 
indirectly.  For  lesser  religions  and  social 
functions  the  Xecheandthe  Ilainai  tribes 
(together  with  the  Nabedache,  perhaps) 
formed  one  group,  while  the  Nasoni  and 
the  Nacogdoche  were  the  leading  tribes  of 
another  subgroup  for  religions  purposes 
(see  1-ranciscodr  Jesus  Maria,  Relacion, 
;  Tenin,  Description  \  Diaria 
I  emarcacion,  HUH,  MS.;  Kspinosa, 
(  hromca  Apostolica,  421,  4:',0,  1746). 

Agriculture,  semicom, ,|U, K,l  j,,  method 
was  an   important   source  of  food  supply. 

The  chief  crops  raised  were  corn,  beans, 
sunflowers,  melons,  calabashes,  and  to 
bacco.  Besides  hunting  the  deer  and 
small  game  abounding  in  the  vicinity,  the 
Neche  hunted  buffalo  in  season  beyond 
the  Brazos,  and  bear  in  the  forests  toward 
the  N.  (Francisco  de  Jesus  Marfa,  Rela 
cion;  Joutel,  Relation,  inMargry,  Dec.,  in, 
311,  1878;  Pena,  Diario,  1721,  MS.;  Espi- 
nosa,  Chron.  Apostolica,  422).  (ir.  E.  15. ) 
Naches. — Linares  (1710)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  vi,  217, 
1886.  Naicha.— Espinosa,  Chronica  Apostolica, 
430,174(5.  Naicha s.— I  bid.,  424, 425, 430.  Nascha.— 
Representation  of  Missionary  Fathers,  1716,  MS. 
Necha. — Francisco  de  Jesris  Maria,  Relacion,  MS. 
Nechas. — Ibid.;  Rivera,  Diario,  leg.  2140,  1736; 
Rivera,  Proyecto,  1728,  MS.;  Pena,  Diario  of 
Aguayo's  entrada,  1721.  Neita. — Francisco  dc 
Jesus  Maria,  op.  eit.  (probably  identical). 

Nechimuasath  (NEtcimu'asath).  A  sept 
of  the  Seshart,  a  Nootka  tribe. — Boas  in 
6th  Re]).  X.  YV.  Tribes  Can.,  32,  1890. 

Necoes.  A  town,  perhaps  of  the  Cape 
Fear  Indians,  in  1(563,  about  20  m.  up  Cape 
Fearr.,  probably  in  the  present  Brunswick 
co.,  X.  C. 

Nachees. — La \vson,  Voy.,  115,  repr.  18(iO.  Necoes  — 
Long  et  al.  (1663)  in  N.  C.  Col.  Rec.,  1,68,  1886; 
Martin,  Hist.  N.  C.,  I,  131,  1829. 

Neconga.  A  former  village,  probably 
of  the  Miami,  in  Miami  co.,  I'nd. — Hough 
in  Ind.  Geol.  Rep.,  map,  1883. 

Necootimeigh.  A  tribe  formerly  living 
at  the  Dalles  of  the  Columbia  in  Oregon 
(Ross,  Fur  Hunters,  i,  186,  1855).  It  was 
probably  Chinookan,  as  it  was  within 
Chinookan  territory;  but  the  name  may 
have  been  that  of  a  temporary  village  of 
a  neighboring  Shahaptian  tribe. 

Necotat.  A  former  Clatsop  village  at 
the  site  of  Seaside,  Clatsop  co.,  Greg. 

Nakotla't.— Boas,  Chinook  Texts,  140,  1894.  Ne- 
co-tat.— Lyman  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soc.  Quar.,  i,  321, 

N-ecpacha.  The  tribal  name  assigned 
to  an  Indian  baptized  at  mission  San 
Antonio  de  Valero,  Tex.,  Apr.  12,  1728 
(Valero  Bantismos,  partida  221,  MS.  in 
the  custody  of  the  Bishop  of  San  Antonio). 
He  died  shortly  after,  and  the  burial 
record  gives  his  tribal  name  as  Nacpacha. 
The  name  may  mean  Apache;  but  this 
latter  form  was  quite  well  known  at  San 
Antonio  at  the  date  named,  (ir.  E.  B.) 
Nacpacha.— Fray  Salva  de  Amaya  in  Valero  En- 
tierros,  partida  79,  MS.  in  the  custody  of  the 
Bishop  of  San  Antonio. 

Nedlung.  A  Talirpingmiut  fall  village 
of  the  Okomiut  Eskimo  tribe  near  the  s.  E. 
extremity  of  L.  Netilling,  Bailin  land. — 
Boas  in  6th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  map,  1888. 

Neecoweegee.     An  unidentified  Dakota 
band,  possibly  of  the  Mhmeconjou. 
Nee-cow-ee-gee.—  Catlin,  X.  Am.  Inds.,  i,  222,  1841. 

Needles.  The  true  needle  with  an  eye 
was  extremely  rare  among  the  Indians, 
the  awl  (<).  v. )  being  the  universal  imple 
ment  for  sewing.  The  needle  and  needle 
case  came  to  be  generally  employed  only 
after  the  advent  'of  the  whites,  although 
bone  needles  3  to  5  in.  long  are  common  in 
Ontarioand  the  Iroquoisareaof  New  York. 

BULL.  30] 



The  few  needles  that  have  been  found  in 
western  archeological  sites  are  large  and 
clumsy  and  could  have  been  employed 
only  in  coarse  work,  such  as  the  mats  of 
the  Quinaielt,  who  in  making  them  use  a 
wooden  needle  to  tie  the  rushes  together 
with  cord.  A  similar  needle  is  used  in 
house  building  by  the  Papago.  The  Es 
kimo,  however,  possessed  fine  needles  of 
ivory,  suitable  for  many  of  the  uses  to 
which  the  steel  needle  is  put,  and  the 
metal  thimble  was  imitated  in  ivory. 
Among  them  the  needle  case,  artistically 
and  in  other  respects,  reached  its  highest 
development, like  all  the  objects  that  were 
subjected  to  the  ingenuity  of  this  people. 
Eskimo  needle  cases  were  usually  carved 
of  ivory  or  formed  from  hollow  bones 
(Nelson  in  18th  Rep.  P>.  A.  E.,  1899).  In 
the  S.  W.  the  sharp  spine  of  the  yucca  fur 
nished  a  natural  needle,  the  thread  being 
formed  of  the  attached  fiber.  Wooden 
knitting  needles  were  used  among  the 
Pueblos.  The  N.  W.  coast  tribes  some 
times  made  needle  cases  of  copper  and 
later  of  iron.  (w.  n.) 

Neerchokioon.  A  Chinookan  tribe,  said 
to  number  1,340,  found  by  Lewis  and  Clark 
in  1806  on  the  s.  side  of  Columbia  r.,  a  few 
miles  above  Sauvies  id.,  Oreg.  A  division 
of  Lewis  and  Clark's  "Shahala  nation." 
Ne-er-che-ki-oo. — Grig.  Jour.  Lewis  and  Clark,  iv, 
236, 1905.  Neerchokioo.— Lewis  and  Clark  Exped., 
11,217,  238,  1814. 

Neeskotting.  Thegaffing  of  fish  in  shal 
low  water  at  night  with  the  aid  of  a  lan 
tern.  A  long  pole  with  a  hook  at  the  end 
is  used  (Starr,  Amer.  Ind.,  51,  1899). 
The  -ing  is  the  English  suffix,  and  neeskot 
is  probably  the  equivalent  in  the  Mas- 
sachuset  dialect  of  Algonquian  of  the 
Micmac  nigog,  'harpoon'  (Ferland,  Foy. 
Canad.,  Ill,  1865),  which  appears  as 
nigogue  in  Canadian  French.  (A.  v.  c. ) 

Neeslous.  Given  as  a  division  of  Tsim- 
shian  on  Laredo  canal,  x.  w.  coast  of 
British  Columbia.  The  Haida  speak  of 
Ni'slas  as  a  Tsimshian  chief  living  in  this 

Neecelowes. — Gibbs  after  Anderson  in  Hist.  Mag., 
74,  1862.    Neecelows. — Cones  and  Kingsley,  Stand. 
Nat.    Hist.,    pt.    6,   136,    1885.    Nees-lous'.— Kane,  . 
Wand,  in  N.  A.,  app.,  1859. 

Negabamat,  Noel.  A  converted  Mon- 
tagnais  chief,  who  lived  at  Sillery, 
Quebec;  born  about  the  beginning  of  the 
17th  century.  He  was  baptized,  with  his 
wife  Marie  and  his  son  Charles,  in  1639. 
Although  generally  peaceful  after  embrac 
ing  Christianity,  he  frequently  engaged 
in  war  with  the  Iroquois,  always  enemies 
of  the  Montagnais.  In  1652  he  was  a 
member  of  a  delegation  sent  by  his  tribe 
to  solicit  aid  from  Gov.  .Dudley,  of  New 
England,  against  the  Iroquois.  He  also 
appeared  in  behalf  of  his  people  and 
acted  on  the  part  of  the  French  during  the 
convention  at  Three  Rivers,  Quebec,  in 
1645,  where  a  treaty  of  peace  was  made 

with  the  Iroquois  and  other  tribes.  He 
was  selected  by  Pere  Druillettes  to  ac 
company  him  on  his  visit  to  the  Abnaki 
in  1651,  at  which  time  he  was  alluded  to 
by  the  French  as  "Captain  Sillery."  It 
was  through  his  efforts  that  peace  was 
made  by  the  French  with  one  of  the  tribes 
on  the  coasts,  of  Quebec,  neighbors  of  the 
Abnaki,  seemingly  the  Malecite  or  Nor- 
ridgewock.  On  his  death,  Mar.  19,1666, 
his  war  chief,  Negaskouat,  became  his 
successor.  Negabamat  was  a  firm  friend 
of  the  French,  and  after  his  conversion 
was  their  chief  counsellor  in  regard  to 
their  movements  on  the  lower  St  Law 
rence.  (c.  T.) 

Negahnquet,  Albert.  A  Potawatomi,  the 
first  full-blood  Indian  of  the  United  States 
to  be  ordained  a  Roman  Catholic  priest. 
Born  near  St  Marys,  Kans  ,  in  1874,  he 
moved  with  his  parents  to  the  Potawatomi 
res.  (nowPottawatomieco.,  Okla. ),  where 
he  entered  the  Catholic  mission  school 
conducted  by  the  Benedictine  monks  at 
Sacred  Heart  Mission,  making  rapid  prog 
ress  in  his  studies  and  gaining  the  friend 
ship  of  his  teachers  by  his  tractable  char 
acter.  Later  he  entered  the  College  of  the 
Propaganda  Fide  in  Rome,  and  was  there 
ordained  a  priest  in  1903.  The  same  year 
he  returned  to  America  and  has  since 
engaged  in  active  religious  work  among 
the  Indians. 

Negaouichiriniouek  ('people  of  the  fine 
sandy  beach.' — A.  F.  C. ).  A  tribe  or  band 
living  in  1658  in  the  vicinity  of  the  mis 
sion  of  St  Michel  near  the  head  of  Green 
bay,  Wis. ;  probably  a  part  of  the  Ottawa 
tribe,  possibly  the  Nassauaketon.  They 
are  located  by  the  Jesuit  Relation  of  1648 
on  the  s.  side  of  L.  Huron  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  Ottawa.  In  1658,  fleeing  before 
the  Iroquois,  they  came  to  the  country  of 
the  Potawatomi  "at  Green  bay  precisely 
as  the  Ottawa  did  and  at  the  same  time. 
Negaouich.— Tailhan  in  1'errot,  Mem.,  221,  1861 
( '  'les  I  llinois  Negaouich " ) .  Negaouichiriniouek. — 
Jes.  Rel.  1658,21,  1858.  Negaouichirinouek.— IVrrot 
(ca.  1720),  Mem.,  221,  1861.  Nigouaouichirinik.— 
Jes.  Rel.  1648,62,  1858. 

Negas.     A  former  Abnaki  village  in  Pe- 

nobscot  co. ,  Me. 

Negas  —Willis  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  IV,  108,  1856. 

Nique.  —  Alcedo,      Die.     Geog.,    m,     335,     1788 


Negro  and  Indian.  The  first  negro 
slaves  were  introduced  into  the  New 
World  (1501-03)  ostensibly  to  labor  in 
the  place  of  the  Indians,  who  showed 
themselves  ill-suited  to  enforced  tasks 
and,  moreover,  were  being  exterminated 
in  the  Spanish  colonies.  The  Indian- 
negro  intermixture  has  proceeded  on  a 
larger  scale  in  South  America,  but  not  a 
little  has  also  taken  place  in  various  parts 
of  the  northern  continent.  Wood  (New 
England's  Prospect,  77,  16.34)  tells  how 
some  Indians  of  Massachusetts  in  1< 
coming  across  a  negro  in  the  top  of  a  tree, 


were  frightened,  surmising  that  "he  was 
Abamaeho,  «»r  tlu' devil."  Nevertheless, 
iiiterinixture  of  Indians  and  negroes  has 
occurred  in  New  Kngland.  About  the 
middle  of  the  ISth  century  the  Indians  of 
Marthas  Vineyard  began  to  intermarry 
with  negroes,  the  result  being  that  "the 
mixed  race  increased  in  numbers  and  im 
proved  in  temperance  and  industry."  A 
like  intermixture  with  similar^  results  is 
reported  about  the  same  time  from  parts 
of  C.  Cod.  Among  the  Mashpee  in  1802 
very  few  pure  Indians  were  left,  there  be 
ing' a  number  of  mulattoes  (Mass.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  i,  2(H>;  iv,  200;  ibid.,  2ds.,  in, 
4:  cf.  Prince  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  ix,  no. 
3,  1907).  Robert  Rantoul  in  1833  (Hist. 
Coll.  Kssex  Just.,  xxiv,  81)  states  that 
"the  Indians  are  said  to  be  improved  by 
the  mixture."  In  1890,  W.  H.  Clark 
(Johns  Hopk.  I'niv.  Circ.,  x,  no.  84,  28) 
says  of  the  (Jay  Head  Indians:  "Although 
(die  observes  much  that  betokens  the 
Indian  type,  the  admixture  of  negro  and 
white  blood  has  materially  changed 
them.''  The  deportation  of  the  Pequot 
to  the  Bermudas  after  the  defeat  of  1638 
may  have  led  to  admixture  there.  The 
Pequot  of  Proton,  Conn.,  who  in  1832 
numbered  but  40,  were  reported  as  con 
siderably  mixed  with  white  and  negro 
blood,  and  the  condition  of  the  few  rep 
resentatives  of  the  Paugusset  of  Milford 
in  1849  was  about  the  same  (De  For 
est,  Hist.  Inds.  Conn.,  356,  1853).  Of 
the  Indians  in  Led  yard  we  read  (ibid., 
445):  "None  of  the  pure  Pequot  race  are 
left,  all  being  mixed  with  Indians  of 
other  tribes  or  with  whites  and  negroes." 
Long  Island  presents  another  point  of 
Indian-negro  admixture.  Of  theShinne- 
cock  <  in  t  lie  s.  shore,  ( Jatschet  in  1889  ( Am. 
Antiq.,  xi,  390,  1SS9)  observes:  "There 
are  150  individuals  now  going  under  this 
name,  but  they  are  nearly  all  mixed  with 
negro  blood,  dating  from  the  times  of 
slavery  in  the  Northern  states."  Still 
later  M.  K.  Harrington  (Jour.  Am. 
Folk-Ion1,  xvi,  37,  1903)  notes  the  occur 
rence  in  many  individuals  of  both  Indian 
and  neirro  somatic  characters.  These 
Shinnecock  evidently  have  not  been  so 
completely  Africani/ed  as  some  authori 
ties  believe.  The  remnant  of  the  Mon- 
tauk  in  Kast  Hampton  are  reported  by 
W.  \V.  Tookcr  (  Ind.  Place-names,  iv, 
1SS9)  to  I.e  mixed  \vitli  negroes,  though 
still  recogni/able  by  their  aboriginal  fea- 
The  region'  of  Chesapeake  bay 
furnishes  evidences  of  Indian-negro  inter 
mixture.  The  fact,  pointed  out  by  Hrin- 
ton  i  Am.  Antiq.,  i\,  352,  1887),  that  the 
-t  of  the  numerals  1-lOgiven  as  Nanti- 
coke  in  u  manuscript  of  Pyrheus,  the 
missionary  to  the  Mohawk,  dating  from 
17SO,  is  really  Mandingo  or  a  closely 
related  African  language,  indicates  con 

tact  or  intermixture.  Of  the  Pamunkey 
and  Mattapony  of  Virginia,  Col.  Aylett 
(Rep.  Ind.,  r/S.  Census  1890,  602)  states 
that  there  has  been  a  considerable  mix 
ture  of  white  and  negro  blood,  principally 
the  former.  Traces  of  Indian  blood  are 
noticeable,  according  to  G.  A.  Townsend 
(Scribner's  Mag.,  no.  72,  518,  1871),  in 
many  of  the  freeborn  negroes  of  the  E. 
shore  of  Maryland.  According  to  Mooney 
(Am.  Anthrop.,  in,  132,  1890),  "there 
is  not  now  a  native  full-blood  Indian 
speaking  his  own  language  from  Dela 
ware  bay  to  Pamlico  sound,"  those  who 
claim  to  he  Indians  having  much  negro 
blood.  We  rind  not  only  Indian-negro 
intermixture,  but  also  the  practice  of 
negro  slavery  among  the  Indians  of  the 
s.  Atlantic  and  Gulf  states.  The  Melun- 
geons  of  Hancock  co.,  Tenn.,  but  form 
erly  resident  in  North  Carolina,  are  said 
to  be  "  a  mixture  of  white,  Indian,  and 
negro"  (Am.  Anthrop.,  n,  347,  1889). 
The  so-called  Croatan  (q.  v. )  of  North 
Carolina  and  Redbones  of  South  Carolina 
seem  to  be  of  the  same  mixture.  The 
holding  of  negro  slaves  by  the  tribes  of 
the  Carolinas  led  to  considerable  inter 
marriage.  There  has  been  much  negro 
admixture  among  the  Seminole  from  an 
early  period,  although  the  remnant  still 
living  in  Florida  is  of  comparatively  pure 
Indian  blood.  Of  the  other  Indians  of 
Muskhogean  stock  the  Creeks  seem  to  have 
most  miscegenation,  fully  one-third  of  the 
tribe  having  perceptible  negro  admixture. 
In  the  time  of  De  Soto  a  "queen"  of 
the  Yuchi  ran  away  with  one  of  his 
negro  slaves.  Estevanico,  the  famous 
companion  of  Cabe/a  de  Vaca,  the  ex 
plorer,  in  1 528-36,  was  a  negro,  and  the  im 
portance  of  negro  companions  of  Spanish 
explorers  has  been  discussed  by  Wright 
(Am.  Anthrop.,  iv,  217-28,  1902).  Of 
Algonquian  peoples  the  Shawnee,  and 
the  Chippewa  of  Minnesota,  etc.,  furnish 
some  cases  of  Indian-negro  intermar 
riage — the  fathers  negro,  the  mothers 
Indian.  The  Canadian  Tuscarora  of  the 
Iroquoian  stock  are  said  to  have  some 
little  negro  blood  amongthem,  and  Grin- 
nell  reports  a  few  persons  of  evident  negro 
blood  among  the  Piegan  and  Kainah. 
Some  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  plains 
and  the  far  \V.  have  taken  a  dislike  to  the 
negro,  and  he  often  figures  to  disadvantage 
in  their  myths  and  legends.  Marcy,  in 
'  1853,  reports  this  of  the  Conianche,  and 
in  1891  the  present  writer  found  it  true4 
to  a  certain  extent  of  the  Kutenai  of 
s.  K.  British  Columbia.  Nevertheless, 
a  few  cases  of  intermarriage  are  reported 
from  this  region.  The  Caddo,  former 
residents  of  Louisiana  and  E.  Texas,  ap 
pear  to  have  much  negro  blood,  and  on 
the  other  hand  it  is  probable  that  many 
of  the  negroes  of  the  whole  lower  Atlantic 

BULL.  30] 



and  Gulf  region  have  much  of  Indian 
blood.  Lewis  and  Clark  reported  that 
some  of  the  N.  W.  Indians,  for  mysterious 
reasons,  got  their  negro  servant  to  consort 
with  the  Indian  women,  so  much  were 
they  taken  writh  him.  According  to 
Swanton  the  richest  man  among  the  Skid- 
egate  Haida  is  a  negro.  In  the  Indian- 
negro  half-breed,  as  a  rule,  the  negro 
type  of  features  seems  to  predominate. 
The  relation  of  the  folklore  of  the  negroes 
in  America  to  that  of  the  American  abo 
rigines  has  been  the  subject  of  not  a  little 
discussion.  In  regard  to  the  "Uncle 
Remus"  stories,  Crane  (Pop.  Sci.  Mo., 
xvm,  324-33,  1881)  and  Gerber  (Jour. 
Am.  Folk-lore,  yi,  245-57,  1893)  assume 
the  African  origin  of  practically  all  these 
myths,  and  hold  that  such  borrowing  as 
has  taken  place  has  been  from  the  negroes 
by  the  Indians.  Powell  (  Harris,  Uncle 
Remus,  introd.,  1895)  and  Mooney  (19th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  232-34,  1900)  entertain 
the  opinion  that  a  considerable  portion 
of  the  myths  in  question  are  indigenous 
with  the  Indians  of  s.  E.  United  States. 
The  latter  points  out  that  "in  all  the 
southern  colonies  Indian  slaves  were 
bought  and  sold  and  kept  in  servitude 
and  worked  in  the  fields  side  by  side 
with  negroes  up  to  the  time  of  the  Revo 
lution."  The  conservatism  of  the  In 
dian  and  his  dislike  or  contempt  for  the 
negro  must  have  prevented  his  borrowing 
much,  \vhile  the  imitativeness  of  the  lat 
ter  and  his  love  for  comic  stories  led  him, 
Mooney  thinks,  to  absorb  a  good  deal  from 
the  Indian.  lie  also  holds  that  the  idea 
that  such  stories  are  necessarily  of  negro 
origin  is  due  largely  to  the  common  but 
mistaken  notion  that  the  Indian  has  no 
sense  of  humor. 

In  addition  to  the  writings  cited,  con 
sult  a  special  study  by  Chamberlain  in 
Science,  xvn,  85-90,  1891.  See  Mixed 
bloods,  Race  n<imes,  Slavery.  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Negro  Town.  A  village  mentioned  in 
1836  as  near  Withlacoochee  r.,  Fla.,  and 
burned  in  that  year  by  the  Americans 
(Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  4,  135,  1848).  It 
was  probably  occupied  by  runaway  slaves 
and  Seminole. 

Negusset.  A  former  village,  probably 
of  the  Abnaki,  about  the  site  of  Wool 
wich,  Me.  The  site  was  sold  in  1639. 
Nassaque.— Smith  (1(51(5)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soe.  Coll., 
3d  s.,  in,  22, 1833.  Nauseag.— Sewall  (1*33)  in  Me. 
Hist.  Soe.  Coll.,  II,  207,  1847.  Neguascag.— Sewall 
(1833),  ibid.,  190  (misprint.)  Neguaseag.— Willis, 
ibid.,  233.  Neguasseag.— Deed  of  1648  quoted  by 
Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  3  100,  1848.  Neguasset.— 
Bewail  (1833)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  II,  207,  1847. 
Negusset. — Deed  of  1648  quoted  by  Drake,  Bk. 
Inds.,  bk.  3,  100,  1848. 

Negwagon.  A  chief  of  the  Ottawa  of  the 
Michilimackinac  region  of  Michigan,  com 
monly  known  as  Little  Wing,  or  Wing, 
and  also  called  Xingweegon.  Although 
the  United  States  had  declined  the  proffer 

of  Indian  services  in  the  war  with  Great 
Britain  in  1812,  Xegwagon  espoused  the 
American  cause  and  lost  a  son  in  battle, 
whereupon  he  adopted  Austin  K.  Wing' 
When  the  British  took  possession  of 
Michilimackinac,  Xegwagon  retired  with 
his  people  to  their  hunting  grounds,  hoist 
ing  the  American  flag  over  his  Vamp. 
Happening  to  be  alone,  he  was  visited  by 
British  soldiers,  who  ordered  him  to 
strike  his  flag.  Obeying  the  command, 
he  wound  the  emblem  around  his  arm, 
and,  drawing  his  tomahawk,  said  to  the 
officer,  "  Englishmen,  Negwagon  is  the 
friend  of  the  Americans.  He  has  but  one 
flag  and  one  heart;  if  you  take  one  you 
shall  take  the  other!"  "  Then  sounding  a 
war  cry  he  assembled  his  warriors  and 
was  allowed  to  remain  in  peace  and  to 
hoist  the  flag  again.  After  the  close  of 
the  war  he  annually  visited  Detroit  with 
his  family  in  two  large  birchbark  canoes 
with  an  American  flag  flying  from  the 
stern  of  each.  Lewis  Cass,  then  stationed 
at  Detroit,  never  failed  to  reward  him  on 
the  occasion  of  these  visits  with  two  new 
flags.  By  treaty  of  Mar.  28,  1836,  he  was 
granted  an  annuity  of  $100,  payable  in 
money  or  goods.  Xegwagon  is  described 
as  having  been  very  large  in  stature.  A 
county  of  Michigan  was  named  in  his 
honor,  but  the  name  was  subsequently 
changed.  Consult  Wis.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
in,  1S57.  (c.  T.) 

Nehadi  ( Xe.r.Vd/,  '  people  of  Nex ' ) .  A 
Tlingit  division  living  at  Sanya,  Alaska, 
peculiar  as  being  outside  of  both  Tlingit 
phratries  and  able  to  marry  into  any 
other  group.  It  is  said  to  be  of  Tsim- 
shian  origin.  (.T.  u.  s.) 

Nehalem.  ASalish  tribe  formerly  living 
on  ornearXehalemr. ,  in  x.  w.  Oregon,  but, 
now  on  Grande  Ronde  res.  Pop.  28in  1871. 

Naalem.— Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  39,  32d  Cong..  1st  sess.,  2, 
1852.  Na6lim. — Framboise  quoted  by  Gairdner 
(1835)  in  Jour.  Geog.  Soc.  Loud.,  M,  255.  l,s41. 
Na-e'-lum  — Dorsey,  Naltunnetunne  MS.  voeab., 
B.A.K.,1884.  Nahelem.— DuflotdeMofras, Oregon, 
n  104,1844.  Nehalems.—PalmerinH.R.Kx.Doc. 
93  34th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  Ill,  1S5C,.  Nehalim.— 
Victor  in  Overland  Mo.,  VII,  346, 1S71.  Nehalins.— 
Geary  in  Ind.  ArT.  Rep.,  171.  18(10.  Ne-i'lem.— 
Gatschet,  MS..B.A.K.  (Nestueca  name.  ) 

Nehaltmoken.  A  body  of  Salish  under 
the  Fraser  superintendency,  British  Co 
lumbia.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  79,  1S7S. 

Nehemathla.     See  Neamathla. 

Nehjao  (Ne-lV-jit-o,  'wolf')-  A  clan^of 
the  Mahican.— Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  174, 

Nehogatawonahs.  A  band  of  the  Dakota 
near  St  Croix  r.,  in  Minnesota  or  Wis 
cousin,  in  1778.  It  was  one  of  the  three 

river  bands. 

Nehogatawonaher.-Balbi,  Atlas  Kthnog 

<i  774,  1S20.     Nehogatawonahs.— Carver,    I  rav.,  f.O. 


Neholohawee.  Given  by  Hay  wood 
(  Hist.  Tenn.,  270,  1828)  as  the  name  <>t  u 



[B.  A.  E. 

Cherokee  clan,  signifying  'blind  sa 
vanna*.  No  such  clan  name  or  meaning 
exists  in  the  tribe,  and  the  name  is  evi 
dently  a  bad  eorruption  either  of  Ani'- 
kilahi  or  of  AniMiatagewi,  Cherokee  clan 
names,  the  latter  having  a  slight  resem 
blance  to  the  word  for  'swamp'  or  'sa 
vanna  '.  (•'•  M- ) 

Nehowmean  (  X.i-'oml'n,  meaning  doubt 
ful).  A  village  of  the  Lytton  band  of 
Ntlakyapamuk,  on  the  w.  side  of  Fraser 
r.,  H  in.  above  Lytton,  Brit.  (1ol. 

Nehowmean.— Can.  Ind.  AIT.,  79,  1*78.  N'homi'n.— 
Hill-Tout  in  Kep.  Kthnol.  Snrv.  Can.,  4,  1899. 
Nhumeen.-ran.  I  ml.  A  IT.  1892,  1512.  1893. 
Nohomeen.— Brit.  Col.  Map,  Ind.  AfT.,  Victoria, 
1^72.  Nx'omi'n. — Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mas.  Nat. 
Hist.,  II.  172,  1900. 

Neihahat.  An  unidentified  village  or 
tribe  mentioned  by  Jontel  in  1689  (Mar- 
gry.  Dee.,  m,  409/1878)  as  an  ally  of  the 

Neiuningaitua.  A  settlement  of  the 
Aivilirmiut  Fskimoon  an  island  x.  of  the 
entrance  to  I, yon  inlet,  at  the  s.  end  of 
Melville  penin.,  (1anada. 

Neyuning  Eit-dua. — Parry,  Second  Voy.,  1H2,  1824. 
Winter  Island.— Ibid. 

Nekah  (Xfka,  'goose').  A  gens  of  the 

Nekah.— Warren,  Hist.  Ojibways,  45,  1885. 
Ni'ka.— Win.  Jones,  inf'n,  1906. 

Nekoubaniste.  A  tribe,  probably  Mon- 
tagnais,  formerly  living  x.  w.  of  L.  St  John, 

Neconbavistes. — Lattre,  map,  1784  (misprint). 
Nekoubanistes.  — Bellin,  map,  175");  Ah-edo,  Die. 
<n-og.,  in,  2S  290:  IV,  210,  178S.  Neloubanistes.— 
Ksnaiits  and  Rapilly,  map,  1777  (misprint). 

Nekunsisnis  ('round  isle').  A  former 
Chitimacha  village  opposite  lie  anx  Ois- 
eaux,  in  Lac  de  la  Fausse  Pointe,  La. 

Ne'kun  si'snis.— (iatschet  in  Trans.  Anthrop.  Roe. 
Wa-h.,  ii,  K>2,  1*S3. 

Nekun-stustai  (\rkii/n  xt.-ixta'-l,  'the 
Stustas  of  Naikun').  A  subdivision  of 
the  Stustas,  a  family  of  the  Eagle  elan  of 
the  Haida  (q.  v. ).  As  their  name  implies, 
they  lived  near  the  great  sand  point  called 
Naikun,  or  Hose  spit.  (.1.  R.  s. ) 

Naeku'n  stastaai'.  — Boas  in  12th  Kep.  X.  W.  Tribes 
Can.,  'j:5,  1S98.  Neku'n  st.\sta'-i. — Swanton,  Cont. 
I  la  id  a,  27»i.  1905. 

Nelcelchumnee.  (liven  as  one  of  the 
tribes  on  Fresno  res.,  Cal.,  in  1861,  num 
bering  sr>  (In,l.  Aff.  Rep.,  219,  1861). 
Apparently  the  only  mention  of  the  tribe, 
which  is  presumablv  Moquelumnan. 

Nellagottine  ('people  at  the  end  of  the 
world' ).  A  division  of  the  Kawcho- 
dinne,  occupying  the  country  on  L.  Simp 
son  and  along  Anderson  r. /Canada,  next 
to  the  Fskimo.  Anderson  and  others 
(Hind,  Labrador  Penin.,  n,  2(10,  1X63) 
called  them  half  Kawchodinne  and  half 
Kutrhin.  Macfarlane(  ibid., 259) said  they 
erect  lodges  of  turf  on  poles.  Ross  said 
in  1859  that  the  Kawchodinne  residing  in 
the  country  around  Ft  <  iood  Hope  ex 
tended  beyond  the  Arctic  circle  on  Mac- 
ken/ie  r..  coming  into  contact  with  the 
Kutrhin,  with  whom,  by  intermarriage, 

they  have  formed  the  tribe  Bastard 

Batard  Loueheux.— Hind,  Labrador  Penin.,  n.260, 
18(13.  Batards-Loucheux, — Petitot,  Diet.  Dene-Din- 
djie,  xx, 187(1.  Loucheux-Batards.—  lioss,  MH.,B.  A. 
E.,  1859.  Nne-la-gottine.  —  Petitot  in  Bui.  Soc. 
Geoff.  Paris,  eliart,  1875.  Nne  lla-Gottine.— Petitot, 
Autour  dn  lae  des  Esclaves,  3(12, 1891.  Tpa-pa-Got- 
tine.— Ibid.  (='ocean  people ' ).  Vieux  de  la  Mer.— 

Nellmole.  A.  rancheria  belonging  to  the 
former  Dominican  mission  of  San  Miguel 
de  la  Frontera,  w.  coast  of  Lower  Cali 
fornia,  about  30  m.  s.  of  San  Diego,  Cal. 
Its  inhabitants  spoke  a  Diegueno  dia 
lect.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Fanner,  May  18, 

Neluste  (Ne-lus-te,  'the  hollow  leaf). 
Given  by  Hay  wood  (Tenn.,  276,  1823)  as 
a  clan  of  the  Cherokee.  No  such  clan 
now  exists,  but  there  is  some  evidence  of 
the  former  existence  of  a  Cherokee  clan 
taking  its  name  from  the  holly  (usftstl)', 
the  clan  name  would  probably  have  been  (.1.  M.) 

Nemah.  A  former  Chinook  village  on 
the  site  of  the  present  town  of  the  same 
name,  on  the  E.  side  of  Shoalwater  bay, 

Mar 'hoo.— Swan,  X.  W.  Coast,  211,  1857.  Max.— 
Boas, inf'n,  1905  (Chehalisname).  Ne'ma.— Ibid, 
(own  name).  TctEma'x.— Ibid.  (Chehalis  name 
for  the  villagers). 

Nemalquinner.  A  Chinookan  tribe,  be 
longing  to  the  Cushook  division  (q.  v. )  of 
Lewis  and  Clark,  which  lived  in  1806  at 
the  falls  of  the  Willamette,  in  Oregon,  but 
also  had  a  temporary  house  on  the  N.  end 
of  San  vies  id.,  where  they  went  occasion 
ally  to  collect  wappatoo.  They  num 
bered  200,  in  4  houses. — Lewis  and  Clark 
Exped.,  n,  219,  1814. 

Nemalquinner. — Lewis  and  Clark  Exped.,  II,  219, 
181 1.  Ne-mal-quin-ner's.— Orig.  Jour.  Lewis  and 
Clark,  vi,  11G,  1905. 

Nemoy.  Noted  as  a  Snake  band  at  the 
head  of  Madison  r.,  Mont.,  one  of  the 
head  forks  of  the  Missouri.  This  would 
place  the  band  in  Tukuarika  territory, 
though  the  name  is  not  identified  with 
any  known  division. 
Ne-moy. — Lewis  and  Clark  Exped.,  I,  map,  1814. 

Nenabozho.     See  Nanabozho. 

Nenekunat.     See  Ninigret. 

Nenelkyenok  (Ne/nelk/''enox,  'people 
from  the  headwaters  of  the  river').  A 
gens  of  the  Nimkish,  a  Kwakiutl  tribe. — 
Boas  in  Kep.  Nat.  Mtis.  1S95,  331,  1897. 

Nenelpae  (Xc/ni''lp(i(^  'those  on  the  up 
per  end  of  the  river').  A  gens  of  the 
Koeksotenok,  a  Kwakiutl  tribe.  —  Boas  in 
Rep.  Nat.  Mus.  181)5,  330,  1897. 

Nennequi.  A  former  village  connected 
with  San  Carlos  mission,  Cal.,  and  said 
to  have  been  Ksselen.  —  Taylor  in  Cal. 
Farmer,  Apr.  20,  1860. 

Nenohuttahe.     See  I'alJi  Killer. 

Nenoothlect  ( Xc-iiooDi-lect}.  A  former 
Chinookan  tribe  living  28  in.  from  The 
Dalles,  on  Columbia  r.,  Oreg. — Lee  and 
Frost,  Oregon,  176,  1844. 

BULL.  30] 


Neodakheat  (Ne-o' -dak-he' -at,  'head  of 
the  lake ' ) .  Given  by  Morgan  as  a  former 
Cayuga  village  at  the  head  of  Cayuga  lake, 
on  "the  site  of  Ithaca,  N .  Y.  In  1750,  Carn- 
merhoff,  Zeisberger's  companion,  called 
the  lake  there  Ganiataregechiat,  with  the 
same  meaning.  In  1 766  Zeisberger  again 
visited  the  place  and  said  a  Delaware  vil 
lage  existed  at  the  end  of  the  lake.  Three1 
or  4  in.  off  was  a  Tutelo  village  with  a 
Cayuga  chief.  The  Tutelo  had  been 
placed  there  by  the  Iroquois.  (w.  M.  B.  ) 
Ne-6-'dak-he-at. — Morgan,  League  Iroq.,  470,  1851. 
Oeyendehit.— Pouchot  map  (1758)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
Hist.,  X,  694,1858  (possibly  identical).  O-nya'-de- 
a'-ka»'-hyat.— Hewitt,  inf'n,  1886  (Seneca  form). 

Neokautah.  (Four  Legs).  The  Meno- 
minee  name  of  a  Winnebago  chief  whose 
village,  commonly  known  as  Four  Legs 
Village,  was  situated  at  the  point  where 
Fox  r.  leaves  L.  Winnebago,  on  the  site 
of  the  present  Neenah,  Winnebago  co., 
Wis.  According  to  Draper  (Win.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  x,  114,  1888) ,  while  living  here 
Neokautah  for  a  time  claimed  tribute  from 
Americans  who  passed  his  village.  With 
Dekaury  and  other  Winnebago  chiefs  he 
joined  in  the  war  against  the  United 
States  in  1812-13,  reaching  the  seat  of 
hostilities  in  time  to  join  Tecumseh  in 
the  fighting  at  Ft  Meigs,  Ohio,  and  later 
engaged  in  the  attack  on  Ft  Sandusky, 
so  ably  defended  by  Croghan  (Grignon's 
Recolfections  in  \Vis.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  in, 
269,  1857).  Neokautah  was  one  of  the 
representatives  of  his  people  at  the  peace 
conference  at  Mackinaw,  Mich.,  June  3, 
1815,  and  was  a  signer  of  the  treaty  of 
Prairie  du  Chien,  Wis. ,  Aug.  1 9, 1 825,  under 
the  French  name  "  Les  quatres  jambes," 
as  leading  representative  of  his  tribe. 
His  Winnebago  name  is  given  as  Hoot- 
shoapkau,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  sel 
dom  used.  (c.  T.  ) 

Neolithic  age.  A  term,  signifying  'new 
stone  age,'  applied  originally  in  Europe  to 
the  culture  period  that  folio  wed  the  Paleo 
lithic  ('old  stone')  age  and  preceded  the 
Bronze  or  Metal  age,  the  separation,  as 
the  name  implies,  being  chronologic.  In 
northern  America  at  the  period  of  dis 
covery  the  native  culture  was  that  of  the 
Stone  age  in  general,  all  stages  of  stone 
art  being  represented  at  one  and  the  same 
time.  It  is  thus  not  possible  to  separate 
the  culture  as  a  whole  on  a  time  basis, 
and  the  terms  Neolithic  and  Paleolithic 
are  not  applicable  save  in  a  theoretical 
sense,  i.  e.,  on  the  assumption  that  each 
tribe  or  group  of  tribes  that  had  achieved 
the  higher  stone  culture  had  necessarily 
at  an  earlier  period  passed  tli rough  the 
lower.  See  Antiquity.  (w.  n.  IT.) 

Neomaitaneo  (neoina*,  'sand  piled  in 
hills';  heta'neo,  'men,  people':  'sand-hill 
people').  A  band  of  the  Heviqsnipahis 
division  of  the  Cheyenne,  so  called  from 
having  formerly  ranged  chiefly  in  the 

"sand-hill  country"  of  x.  E.  Colorado. 
Not  identical  with  the  Cheyenne  tribe  as 
a  whole,  as  has  been  stated.  (.1.  M.) 

Neomai-taneo.— Mooney,  Cheyenne  MS.,  B  A    K 
1906.     Sand-hill    people.—  Grinnell     in     Internal! 
Cong.  Americanists,  AIM,  139,  1905. 

Neomonni  ( Rain-cloud).  Anlowachief, 
of  inferior  grade,  during  the  early  half  of 
the  19th  century.  He  claimed  to  have 
taken  scalps  from  Kansa,  Omaha,  Mis 
souri,  Sioux,  Osage,  and  Sank  Indians, 
and  Catliii  (Fourteen  Iowa  Indians,  3,  (i, 
1844),  who  writes  his  name  "New- 
mon-ya,  Walking  rain,"  says  he  was 
much  more  distinguished  as  a  warrior 
than  White  Cloud  (under  whom  he  was 
third  chief),  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
and  celebrated  men  of  the  Iowa  tribe. 
CatHn  gives  Neomonni's  age,  about  1843, 
as  54  years,  and  describes  him  as  nearly 
6£  ft  tall.  He  was  one  of  the  14  Iowa 
who  visited  England  with  Melody  in 
1843,  Catlin,  who  painted  his  portrait, 
acting  as  interpreter.  His  name  appears 
among  the  signers  to  the  treaties  of  Prairie 
du  Chien,  Wis.,  July  15,  1830,  as  "  Niayoo 
Manie,  Walking  rain";  Ft  Leaven  worth, 
Kans.,  Sept.  17,  183(5,  as  "Ne-o-mo-na, 
Raining  cloud";  and  St  Louis,  Mo.,  Nov. 
23,  1837,  as  Ne-o-mon-ni.  His  portrait 
was  also  painted  in  Washington  for  the 
War  Department  by  C.  B.  King,  and  is 
reproduced  in  McKenneyand  Hall,  Ind. 
Tribes,  n,  1858. 

Nepanet,  Tom.  A  Christian  Nipmuc, 
the  faithful  and  valued  friend  of  the 
Massachusetts  colonists  during  the  King 
Philip  war  in  the  17th  century.  The 
English,  desirous  of  negotiating  with  the 
enemy  for  the  release  of  certain  white 
captives,  chose  Nepanet  as  their  emissary, 
and  although  confined  with  others  on  an 
island  in  Boston  harbor,  he  consented  to 
undertake  the  mission.  He  started  for 
the  Indian  camp,  Apr.  12,  1076,  and 
although  unsuccessful  m  the  first  attempt, 
it  was  chiefly  through  his  initiative  and 
subsequent  efforts  that  the  family  of  Mr 
Rowlandson  and  other  prisoners  were 
finally  released.  It  was  also  through  his 
aid  that  a  party  of  Englishmen  under 
(•apt.  Henchman  were  enabled  to  sur 
prise  a'body  of  the  enemy  at  Weshakom 
ponds,  near  Lancaster,  Mass.,  in  May, 
1676.  ("•) 

Nepawtacum.    A  village  of  the  Powhatan 
confederacy  in    1608,  situated  on   the  x 
bank  of  the  Rappahannock,  in  Lancaster 
(.()tj  Va.— Smith  (1629),  Va.,  i,  map,  repr. 


Nephrite.  This  semiprecious  stone, 
called  also  jade,  was  employed  by  the 
native  tribes  of  British  Columbia  and 
Alaska  in  the  manufacture  of  implements. 
Deposits  of  the  stone  were  found  in  1<V 
by  Lieut.  Stoney  in  what  is  now  called 
the  Jade  in ts.,  which  lie  N.  of  Kowak 
r  Alaska,  150  m.  above  its  mouth;  and 



bowlders  and  erratic  fragments  have  been 
discovered    in   lower  Fraser   valley   and 
at  other  points  in  British  Columbia  and 
Alaska — facts  indicating  a  wide  distribu 
tion  of  the  material.     Nephrite  has  not 
been  found,  however,  so  far  as  known, 
within    the  area   of    the   United    States 
proper,  with  the  exception  of  an  erratic 
bowlder    of    mottled    leek-green    color, 
weighing  47  Ibs.,  obtained  by  a  prospector 
in  auriferous  gravels  in  s.  Oregon,  and  a 
small  pebble  from  the  shores  of  I'uget  sd. 
(Terry).     It  is   usually  found  associated 
with  metamorphic  rocks,  but  the   exact 
manner  of   its  occurrence  is  not  under 
stood.     It  is  not  quite  as  hard  as  quart/, 
but  on   account    of   its   compact,  fibrous 
structure  it  is  extremely  tough  and  there 
fore  makes  very  serviceable  implements. 
Though  not  always  fine-grained,  nephrite 
takes  a  high  polish  and  presents  a  very 
handsome  appearance.    The  colors  range 
through  various  shades  of  gray,  grayish, 
and  olive  greens,  bright  greens,  to  brown- 
ishand  blackish  hues.    It  is  of  ten  streaked 
and  mottled,  and  is  sometimes  more  or  less 
translucent.     Before  the  introduction  of 
iron  in  theN.  W.  nephrite-  was  much  em 
ployed  for  hammers,  adzes,  drills,  knives, 
whetstones,  etc.,   but  it  seems  rarely  to 
have  been  used  for  ornaments;  and  there 
is  no  reason  for  believing  that,  as  in  the 
S.,  it  had  any  special  or  mythologic  sig- 
uncance      As  the  stone  is  too  tough  to 
lily  shaped   by  fracturing,  it  was 
divided  by  sawing— usually,  it  is  believed, 
with  strips  of  w,,,,d  used  'in  conjunction 
with  sharp  sand.    Many  of  the  specimens 
mir  museums  show  traces  of  such  treat- 
nt      I  lu.  implements  were  finished  by 
Tim  ing,    and     sometimes    were    highly 
polished.    Specimens  have  been  obtained 
mainly  Iron,    the    coast    tribes  between 
u<retsd.  m  the  s.  and  Point  Barrow  in 
j  »>ut  many  are  not  fully  identified 
as  nephrite,  and  aconsiderablenumber  are 
'••'''ablypectolite^.v.).     Thesourcesof 
nephrite  and  related  minerals  found  in  use 
he  natives  has  been  much  discussed 
since  unt,    recently  no  deposits  had  been 
<  '--ve-   d  n,  \merica,  and  it  was  surmised 
it  the  northern  specimens  might  have 
•light  Irom  Siberia,  and  theMexi- 
entra    American   from  China; 
" J    th.s    view  is    now  practically  aban- 
1  "•      Analysis  ol   the  northern  n<>.->i, 

in  Science,  Jan.  3,  1890;  Wilson  in  Rep 
Nat.  Mus.  1896,  1898.  (w.  H.  H.  ) 

Neponset.  A  former  important  Massa- 
chuset  village  on  Neponset  r.  about  the 
present  Stoughton,  Norfolk  co.,  Mass. 
John  Eliot  labored  there  as  a  missionary 
in  1646,  and  it  was  one  of  several  tem 
porary  residences  of  Chickataubut,  chief 
of  the  Massachuset. 

Chickatawbut.— Hoyt,  Antiq.  Researches  32  1824 
(sachem's  name).  Naponsett.— Mas*.  Hist/Soc 
Coll  4th  s.,  m,  325,  note,  1856.  Narponset. -Hub- 
bard  (1680)  ibid.,  2d  s.,  v,  32,  1815.  Neponcett  1 
Holmes,  ibid.,  1st  s.,  vii,  9,  1801  Neponset  — 
Pineheon  (1633),  ibid.,  2d  s.,  vm  '>39  1819  N> 
ponsitt.—  Gookin  (1674),  ibid.,  1st  s.,  1/148,  1806. 

Nererahhe.     A  civil  or  peace  chief  of 

that  part  of  the  Shawnee  living  on  the 
Scioto  in  Ohio,  present  at  the  conference 
between  Sir  Win.  Johnson  and  the  repre 
sentatives  of  the  Six  Nations  at  Johnson's 

Hall,  N.  Y.,  in  Apr.,  1774.  He  appears 
to  have  possessed  considerable  oratorical 
power,  and  at  this  conference  made  a 
strong  appeal  to  the  Miami  representa 
tives  to  follow7  Johnson's  advice  and  re 
main  friendly  to  the  English.  Kuttenber 

Tribes  Hudson  K.,  306,  1872)  mentions 
him  as  one  of  the  two  or  three  more 
prominent  chiefs  of  the  Shawnee  at  that 
period.  Sowanowane,  who,  Kuttenber 
thinks,  was  Cornstalk,  was  head  or  war 
chief  of  the  Shawnee,  and  when  a  belt 
was  given  to  Nererahhe  in  1774,  he  sent 
it  to  Sowanowane.  (c  T  \ 

Neron.  The  "captain  general  "'of 'the 
iroquois,  taken  near  Montreal  in  1663 
and  so  called  by  the  French  because  of 
his  great  cruelty.  In  memory  of  his 
brother  he  had  burned  80  captives,  be 
sides  killing  60  men  with  his  own  hand 
( Jes.  Kel.,  1656,  1663) .  He  wasan  Onon- 
(iaga  named  Aharihon,  suggesting  his 
trench  name.  (W.M.B.) 

Nesadi  (NesA'di,   'salt-water  people') 
A  division  of  the  Wolf    phratry   of  the 
Llmgit,  living  at  Kake,  Alaska,  (j.  R.  s.) 


".'"e,  H    to  14;  oxide  of  iron    5  to  8. 

ah"llin"m.Ito3;  specific  gravitv/2.9  to  3 

-        an   amount  of  the   nephrites  and 


'«"»:    Clark  and    M,rril    'in 
?/"M  *'•   '!™  =   NHHon  i 

V.t    I  U  'S<1<:  ^''"'^'' 

St.,  iv,  Anthrop.   ,n,  ]9(W:    T( 

.  living  at  Kake,  Alaska,  "(j.  R.  s.) 
Nesaquake.       (From    Neetc-saqn-auke 
land  of  the  second  outlet,'  i.  e.,  Nesa 
quake  r—  Kuttenber).     A  settlement  to 
winch  theMatinecoc  retired  after  the  war 
of  1643,  at  the  i>resent  Nisseqnague,  and 
Nesaquake  r.,  about  Smithtown,  Suffolk 
co.,  Long  id.,  N.  Y. 

Missaquogues.—  Ruttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R.  74 
LK12.  Massaquakes.—  Clark,  Onondaga,  I,  18  1849' 
Necceaquake.—  Doc.  of  1669  quoted  bv  Thompson' 
LOUR  Id.,  r,  255,  1843.  Neersaquake.-Ibid  Nesa- 

?Tl8^AllN°8  (1(i7Z)i1^-  X;Doc-  Co1'  Hist.  XI? 
<-J,  I8,s,  .  Nesaquak.—  Nicolls  (1666),  ibid.,  576 

lfirrTS%~f  J1w'  575'  Nesa^anke.  -Doc.  of 
'«'''.  ibid.,  5/6.  Nesequake.—  Doc.  of  1650  quoted 
•>  Ruttenber,  Ind.  Geotf.  Names,  93,  1906  Nes- 

nonaCno->)<K'-  'v1'?1'  ibi<1-     ^ssequauke.-Skul 

nore  (1(,7;),   m  N.    Y.    Doc.    Col.   Hist.,  xiv,  702, 

Nip-a-qua-ugs  -Macau  ley,  N.  Y.,  n,164,  1829 

Y    h  ,      •  i   frlsl"ck(lue&hacky.-Doc.  of  1645  in  N. 

Wood  n     !      l  >      \fXIV'   (i0'   lm-     Nissaquague.- 
wooa  quoted  by  Macauley    N    Y     n    Vy->   18'xi 
pson,   Loiitf  Id     i    94    184S 

"V        ,    i    '•  wNlssequogue.  -Thompson, 

Ll  i      p6Vf1813'     Wissiquack.-D<,c.    of    1704 
T'oted  by  Kuttenber,  Ind.  GCOR.  Names,  93,  1906. 

BULL.  30] 


Nescambiotiit.     See  Asaacumbuit. 

Nescopeck.  A  mixed  Iroquois,  Shaw- 
nee,  and  Delaware  village  formerly  at 
the  mouth  of  Nescopeck  r.,  in  Luzerne 
co.,  Pa.,  where  a  town  of  the  same  name 
now  stands.  It  had  been  abandoned  by 

1779.'  (.1.  N.  B.  H.) 

Neshamini.  A  Delaware  tribe  or  band 
formerly  living  on  Xeshaminy  cr.,  Bucks 
co.,  Pa. 

Neshamani. — Clay  quoted  by  Day,  Penn.,  485, 
1843.  Neshaminas.— Boudinot,  Star  in  the  West, 
127, 1816.  Ne-sham-i-nes. — Macauley,  N.  Y..II.  166, 
1829.  Neshaminies.— Proud,  Penn.,  n,  294,  1798. 
Nishamines.— Sanford,  U.  S.,  cxlvii,  1819. 

Nesh.ann.ock.  A  white-fleshed  variety 
of  potato;  from  the  name  of  the  place 
in  Pennsylvania,  where  it  was  first  pro 
duced.  Neshannockj  the  name  of  a  village 
and  stream  in  Mercer  co.,  comes  from  a 
word  in  the  Delaware  dialect  of  Algon- 
quian,  signifying  'place  of  two  rivers', 
from  nisha  '  two ' ,  -hanne  'flowing  stream ' , 
-ock  locative  suffix.  (A.  P.  c. ) 

Neshasath  (NE'c'asath}.  A  sept  of  the 
Seshart,  a  Nootka  tribe. — Boas  in  6th 
Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  32,  1890. 

Neshaw.  A  local  word  for  eel  in  Mas 
sachusetts.  Trumbull  (Natick  Diet.,  80, 
1903)  says:  "The  name  of  'neshaw  eel' 
is  yet  retained  by  the  fishermen  of  Mar 
thas  Vineyard  and  perhaps  elsewhere 
in  Massachusetts  for  the  silver  eel  (Mu- 
rsenaargentea).'"  The  derivation  is  from 
Narraganset  iieesltat'tog  'eels',  literally 
'pairers,'  from  nees  'two',  a  nog  'they  go 
to'.  This  Algonquian  name,  Trumbull 
thinks,  may  have  belonged  originally  to 
the  lamprey.  (A.  F.  c.) 

Nesheptanga.  An  ancient  ruined  puel  >lo 
situated  in  Jeditoh  valley,  in  the  Hopi 
country,  N.  E.  Arizona.  It  seemingly  was 
one  of  the  group  of  villages  built  and  oc 
cupied  by  the  Kawaika  people,  who  were 
of  Keresan  stock  from  the  Rio  Grande. 
It  was  first  described,  but  not  named,  by 
V.  Mindeleff  in  1885  as  a  ruin  between 
the  Bat  House  (Chakpahu)  and  the  Horn 
House  (Kokopnyama),  and  was  partially 
excavated  by  Dr  Walter  Hough  for  the 
National  Museum  in  1901.  See  Mindel 
eff  in  8th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  50-51,  1891; 
Fewkes  in  17th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  590,  1898; 
Hough  in  Rep.  Nat.  Mus.  1901,  333  et 
seq.,  1903. 
Neshepatanga.— Hough,  pp.  cit.,  pi.  82. 

Neshta.      An   extinct  subgens   of   the 
Wa/ha/he  gens  of  the  Ponca. 
Necta.— Dorsey  in  15th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  229,  1897 

Nesietsha.  A  Naskotin  village  at  the 
confluence  of  Blackwater  and  Fraser  rs. , 
Brit.  Col. 

Black-Water.— Morice,  Notes  on  W.  Denes,  24, 1893. 
Nasietcah.— Morice  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  109, 

Nesikeep  ( 'little  deep  hollow  or  cut' ,  ac 
cording  to  Teit;  'destroyed',  referring  to 
the  incidents  of  a  story,  according  to  Hill- 
Tout)  .  A  village  belonging  to  the  Upper 

Fraser  band  of  Xtlakyapamuk,  on  the  w. 
side  of  Fraser  r.,  38  in.  above  Lvtton 
Brit,  Col.  Pop.  12  in  1901,  the  last  time 
the  name  was  officially  reported.  Daw- 
son  gives  this  as  a  Lillooet  town. 
N'cek'p't.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.Surv  Can  4 
1899.  Nesikeep.— Can.  Ind.  AIT.,  ]>t.  n.  Hit;  him' 
Nes-i-kip.— l)a\vsou  in  Trans.  Roy  Soc  Can'  sec' 
n,  44,  1X91.  Nesykep.— Can.  Ind.  An".  ixy>'  '",1"' 
1893.  Nisucap.-Ibid.,  78,  1878.  NsE'qip.-Teit  in 
Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n,  172,  1900. 

Neskollek.  A  Nataotin  village  on  Ba- 
bine  lake,  Brit.  Col. 

Nas'qollak.— Morice  in  Trans.  Rov  Soc  Can  \ 
109,  1892. 

Nespelim.  A  Salish  tribe  on  a  creek  of 
same  name,  a  x.  tributary  of  Columbia  r., 
about  40  in.  above  Ft  Okinakane,  Wash! 
Ross  speaks  of  them  as  one  of  the  ( )kina- 
gan  tribes,  while  \Vinans  classes  them  as 
part  of  the  Saupoil.  The  hitter  two  to 
gether  numbered  <>53  on  Col vi lie  res 
Wash.,  in  1906. 

Tn-as-petsum.— Ross,  Fur  Hunters,  i,  ],s5,  ixr>5. 
In-spellum. — Ross,  Adventures,  290,  1849.  Nepee- 
lium. — Ind.  AIT.  Rep.,  253,  1877.  Nespectums.— 
Keane  in  Stanford,  Compend.,  525, 1878.  Nes-pee- 
lum.— Winans  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  22,  1870.  Nespe 
lim.— Ind.  All.  Rep.  1901,  pt.  1,  702  1902  Nespi 
lim.— Mooney  in  14th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  pi.  ss.  ls%. 
Sin-spee-lish. — Gibbsin  1'ac.  R.  R.  Rep.,  i,  414,  1*55. 

Nesquehonite.  A  variety  of  magnesium 
carbonate,  from  Xesqnehonvig,  the  place 
in  Pennsylvania  where  it  was  found,  and 
-itc,  representing  the  Creek  /roc.  Nes- 
quehoning,  the  name  of  a  stream  and  vil 
lage  in  Carbon  co.,  signifies,  in  the  Dela 
ware  dialect  of  Algonquian,  'at  the  black 
deer  lick,'  from  ni^fjue  'black',  iiin/ioni 
' deer  lick,'  -hig  locative  suffix.  (  A.  K.  c. ) 

Nestucca.  A  branch  of  the  Tillamook, 
formerly  living  on  and  near  Nestugga  r., 
N.  w.  Oreg.,  no\v  on  the  Grande  Koude 
and  Si  let/  res.  Their  popular  name  is 
derived  from  that  of  theircountry;  their 
own  name  is  Staga/ush  ('people  of 
iStaga  ').  Pop.  46  in  1881.  They  are  no 
longer  separately  enumerated. 
Apafan.— Gatschet,  Kalapnya  MS.,  H.  A.  K..  30 
(Atfalati  name  for  the  Oregon  Salish;  perhaps 
from  t<'li<ii>uj'<rn,  'on  the  coast').  Nas-tu'-km  me' 
}unne.— Dorsey,  MS.  Tutu  vocal).,  1884  (Tutntimne 
name).  Naz-tuk'-e-me'  junng.— Dorsey,  Naltunne- 
tunne  MS.  vocal).,  B.  A.  E.,  1884  (Naltunnetunne 
name).  Nestackee.— Condon  in  Ind.  AIY.  Rep. 
18C.3,  83,  1861.  Nestockies.  — Palmer  in  H.  R.  Kx. 
Doc.  93,  34th  Cong..  1st  scss..  Ill,  1S5C,.  Nestuca 
lips  — Keaiie  in  Stanford, Compend., 525,187s.  Nes- 
tucals.— H.  R.  Rep-  98,42.1  Cong.,  3d  sess.,  374. 18 
Nestuccas.— Huntington  in  Ind.  Air.  Rep.  18ti/,  71, 
186*.  Nestucka.— Ibid.,62.  Nestuckah.— Victor  in 
Overland  Mo., vn, 346, 1871.  Nestuckers.—  Ind.  AH. 
Rep  221,  1S61.  Nestuckias.— Taylor  in  Sen.  Kx. 
Doc.  4,  40th  Cong.,  spec,  sess.,  26, 1N!7.  Nextucas.- 
Keane  in  Stanford,  Compend.,  525,  isTs.  Neztruc- 
ca.— Ind.  AtY.  Rep.,  71,  1871.  NezTucca_:- 
41-'  1872  Neztucca.— Ibid.,  :?-Ki,  1*75.  Nikaas.— 
Framboise  (1835)  quoted  by  Gairdner  in  Jour. 
Geoir  Soc.  Loud..  -M,  255,1811  (probably  identi 
cal)  Nikas.-Dutlot  de  Mofras,  Kxpl.,  u,  33;.  1S44 
(probably identical).  NistokiAmpafaamim.—  < 
schet,  Lakmiut  MS.,  15.  A.  K..  105  (  Lakm.nt  uameK 
Shibalta  —  Gatschet,  Shasta  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  18/< 
(YnS  [Kikatsik]  name).  Si  ni'-te-lL-l»;.rsey, 
Coquille  MS  vocab..  B.  A.  K.,  18M  (  Hat- 
heads'-  Conuillename).  Staga'ush.-Boas.  in!  n, 
1906.  Tagahosh.-Gatschet.Nestncca  MS. 
B  A  K  1884  (own  name).  Tcqe'-k'qu.— Dorsey, 
Alsea  MS  vocab.,  B  A.  K.,  1884  (Alsea  name). 



[B.  A.  E. 

Nesutan.  Job.   One  of  the  Indians  chosen 

hv.Iohn  Eliot  to  assist  liini,  as  interpreter, 
in  translating  the  Scriptures  into  the 
Natick  language  of  Massachusetts.  Goo- 
kin  (Trans.  Am.  Antiq.  Soc.,  n,  444,  1836) 
thus  speaks  of  him:  " In  this  expedition 
[July,  l<>7-">]  one  of  our  principal  soldiers 
of  the  praying  Indians  was  slain,  a  val 
iant  and  stout  man  named  Job  Xesutan; 
lie  \\asa  very  good  linguist  in  the  English 
tongue  and  was  Mr  Eliot's  assistant  and 
interpreter  in  his  translations  of  the  Bible, 
and  other  books  of  the  Indian  language." 
Fliot  wrote,  Oct.  I'l,  1(>50:  "I  have  one 
[Indian  interpreter]  already  who  can 
write,  so  that  I  can  read  his  writing  well, 
and  with  some  pains  and  teaching,  can 
read  mine"  (Pilling,  Algonq.  Bib.,  127, 
ISiH  ). 

Neswage.  A  Delaware  chief  who,  com 
manding  a  band  of  1*3  warriors,  about 
1S-41,  was  attacked  by  the  Sioux  at  a  point 
ju.-t  N.  of  the  present  Adel,  Dallas  CO., 
la.,  while  on  their  way  to  visit  the  Sank 
and  Foxes,  then  holding  a  war  dance 
within  the  limits  of  the  site  of  J)es 
Moines.  The  Delawares  offered  a  brave 
defense,  killing  2<>  of  the  Sioux  before 
aUJmt  one  of  their  own  number  fell. 
This  survivor  bore  the  news  to  the  camp 
of  the  Sank  and  Foxes,  a  short  distance 
away,  among  whom  were  Keokuk  and 
1'ashapahs.  With  <>()()  warriors  they  fol 
lowed  the  Sioux,  inflicting  on  them  severe 
punishment.  Those  who  visited  the 
scene  of  the  attack  on  the  Delawares 
found  the  body  of  Xeswage  lying  by  a 
tree,  his  tomahawk  at  his  side  and  the 
bodies  of  four  of  his  warriors  immediately 
about  him.  Consult  Fulton,  Red  Men  of 
Iowa,  2s:;,  1SS2. 

Netawatwees.   A    Delaware  chief,    born 
about    Hi77,    died  at    Pittsburg,    Pa.,    in 
177»i.     Xetawatwees  was  one  of  the  signers 
of  the  treatyof  Conestogain  1718.     As  he 
belonged  to  the  important  I'nami,  or  Tur 
tle  division  of  the  tribe,  he  became  chief 
ol  this  division  according  to  usage  and  in 
consequence   thereof    head    chief  of   the 
tribe.      To  him   were  committed  all  the 
tokens    of   contracts,    such   as    wampum 
-,  obligatory  writings,  with  the  sign 
manual  o!  William  Perm  and  others, down 
to  the  time  that  he  and   his  people  were 
forced  to  leave  Pennsylvania  and  retire 
to  Ohio,  where  they  settled  on  (1ayuga  r. 
He  failed  to  attend  the  treaty  with  Bou- 
M'let  m   I :«;:{,  and   \vtien  this  officer  and 
'.radstreet  with   their  1  roops  approached 
his  settlement    he  attempted    to    escape 
but   was  captured  and  deposed  from  his 
•hiettancy  until  the  conclusion  of  peace 
when    he    was    reinstated    by    his   tribe' 
became  a  convert   to  Christianity  in 
later  years  and  urged  other  leaders  to 
m.H  example.      On   hjs  ,|,,at|,   lu, 
ucceeded  by  White  Eyes,      (r.  T  ) 

Netchilik.     A  spring  settlement  of  the 
Netchilirmiut  Eskimo,  on  the  w.  side  of 
Boothia  land,  Canada. 
Netchillik.— Boas  in  (5th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  map,  1888. 

Netchilirmiut  ('people  of  the  place  pos 
sessing  seal' ).  A  large  tribe  of  the  Cen 
tral  Eskimo,  occupying  Boothia  Felix, 
Canada,  and  the  adjoining  mainland,  in 
lat.  70°.  They  have  become  mixed  with 
the  Ugjulirmiut.  Their  villages  are  Ang- 
malortuk,  Netchilik,  North  Ilerndon, 
and  Sagavok.  In  recent  years  a  large 
part  of  the  tribe  has  moved  to  Hudson 
bay  and  lives  in  the  region  between  C. 
Fullerton  and  Repulse  bay. 
Boothians. — Ross,  Second  Voy.,  app.,  x,  1835. 
Nachillee.— Schwatka  quoted  in  Science,  543, 1884. 
Natsilik.— Rink,  Eskimo  Tribes,  i,  33,  1887. 
Nechjilli.— Amundse  in  Geog.  Jonr..  xxix,  505, 
May  1907.  Neitchillee.—  McClintock,  Voy.  of  Fox, 
253,1881.  Neitchilles.— Hall, Second  Arct  Kxped 
277,  1879.  Neitschillik.— Boas  in  Zt-itschr.  d.  (Jes. 
f.  Krdk.,  18S3.  Neitschillit-Eskimos.— Ibid.  Neit- 
teelik.— Hall,  Second  Arct.  Kxped.,  256,  1879. 
Netchillik.— Schwatka  in  Century  Mag.,  xxn,  76, 
1881.  Netchillirmiut.—  Boas  in  trans.  Anthrop. 
Soc.  Wash.,  nr,  101,  1885.  Netidli'wi.—  Stein  'in 
Petermanns  Mitt.,  198, 1902.  Netschilluk  Innuit.— 

Schwatka  in  Science,  iv,  543,  1884.     Net-tee-lek. 

McClintock,  Voy.  of  Fox,  1(53,  1881. 

Netlek  ('sealing  place').  An  Ita  Es 
kimo  village  on  Murchison  sd.,  x.  w. 
Greenland;  pop.  11  in  1892. 
Natilivik.— Kroeber  in  Bull.  Am.  Mns  Nat  Hist 
xii,  269,  1899.  Netchiolumi.— Heilprin,  Peary  Re 
lief  Exped.,  104,  1893.  Nejchiolumy.—  Peary,  My 
Arct.  Jour.,  30,  1893.  Netelik.— Kane  Arct  Ex- 
plor.,  n,  107,  1856.  NetidliwL  —  Stein  in  Peter- 
maims  Mitt.,  no.  9,  map,  1902  ('young  seal'). 
Netiulume.— Peary,  My  Arct.  Jour.,  129,  map, 
1893.  Netiulumi. — Peary  in  (Jeog.  Jour  n  224 
1898.  Netlek.— Markham  in  Trails.  Ethnol.  Soc. 
Lond.,  129,  1866.  Netlik.— Hayes,  Arct.  Boat 
Journ.,  130,  1860. 

Netop.  The  word  aetop,  used  by  the 
English,  according  to  Roger  Williams,  in 
saluting  the  Indians,  is  a  slight  corruption 
of  Narraganset  netoinp  (=nitaf>p  for  ni- 
ta"peti),  cognate  with  Abnaki  ni(la"b& 
and  southern  Renape  i/i(d/>cn  (nctoppew, 
Smith  ),  usually  interpreted  'my  friend,' 
but  meaning,  'literally,  'my  with-man,' 
i.  e.,  'my  companion.'  The  words  are 
contracted,  respectively,  from  nt  'my'  + 
wit  'with'  (which  loses  its  n<  in  compo 
sition)  +  -a»p(e<i)  'man';  nc  +  vid  + 
a" be;  and  nc  +  irit  +  -<1/><>u.  (Contrac 
tions  of  this  kind  an»  not  uncommon  in 
Algonquian;  for  example:  Nipissing  nil- 
sltikire,  'my  female  companion,'  lit,  'my 
co-woman',  from  ni  'my'  +  -H-itxh  'with' 
+  ikire  'woman';  Chippewa  nidji  'my 
comrade',  from  ni  +  ir'nlj  +  /,  '  my  co  as-I ' 
(or  as  myself)  ;  Delaware  nilix  'my  friend' 
or  'companion',  from  ni  +  -irit  +  y.s-;  Oee 
nitjiwdm  'my  companion,'  lit.  'my  with- 
goer.'  Cf.  Lat.  coinex,  'companion,'  lit. 
'with-goer.'  (w.  u.  G.) 

Netpinunsh  ('red  earth').  A  former 
Chitimacha  village,  2m.  \v.  of  Charenton, 
on  Bayou  Teche,  La. 

Net  Pinu'nsh.— Gatsehot  in  Trans.  Anthrop.  Soc. 
Wash.,  n,  151,  1883.     Terre  Rouge.  — Ibid. 

BULL.  30] 



Nets,  Netting,  and  Network.  In  every 
part  of  the  United  States  and  north 
ward  the  Indians  and  the  Eskimo  used 
some  kind  of  nets,  netting,  or  network. 
These  were  made  from  animal  tissues  and 
vegetal  fibers — wool  and  hair,  hide,  sine wr, 
and  intestines;  roots,  stems,  bast,  bark, 
and  leaves.  Animal  skins  were  cut  into 
long  delicate  strips,  \vhile  sinew  and 
vegetal  fibers  were  separated  into  fila 
ments  and  these  twisted,  twined,  or 
braided  and  made  into  openwork  meshes 
by  a  series  of  technical  processes  ranging 
from  the  simplest  weaving  or  coiling 
without  foundation  to  regular  knotting. 
The  woman's  hands  were  the  most  use 
ful  implements  in  net  making;  but  the 
seine  needle,  or  shuttle,  exhibits  a  variety 
of  forms  from  the  mere  stick  for  wind 
ing,  as  on  a  bobbin,  to  the  elaborately 
ornamented  needles  of  the  Eskimo.  The 
meshing  also  shows  a  variety  of  processes, 
through  more  and  more  intricate  loop- 
ings,  as  in  the  Maidu  netted  caps,  to  the 
world- wide  netting  knot  (Dixon). 

Netting  was  used  for  the  capture  of  ani 
mals,  for  the  lacings  of  snowshoes  and 
lacrosse  sticks,  for  carrying-frames  and 
wallets,  for  netted  caps,  for  the  founda 
tion  of  feather  work— in  short,  for  what 
ever  had  meshes.  Nets  for  the  capture 
of  animals  differed  with  the  creatures 
caught,  as  bird  net,  fish  net,  seal  net,  crab 
net;  with  the  form,  as  rectangular  net,  cir 
cular  net,  conical  net,  bag  net,  or  purse 
net;  with  the  function,  as  inclosing  net, 
drag  net,  casting  net,  dip  net,  gill  net,  ar 
resting  net,  drift  net,  and  hand  net. 

Beginning  at  the  far  N.  with  the  Es 
kimo,  the  question  of  tribal  distribution 
may  be  considered.  Not  all  the  Eskimo 
used  nets  for  fishing.  Boas  never  saw 
any  among  the  Central  Eskimo,  but  men 
tions  them  as  existing  in  Labrador  and 
westward  of  Hudson  bay;  while  Mur 
doch's  account  of  netting  at  Pt  Barrow, 
Alaska,  is  full.  Netting  needles  of  antler 
and  walrus  ivory,  and  mesh  sticks  of  bone 
or  antler  were  employed,  both  of  peculiar 
patterns.  The  materials  are  sinew  twine 
(generally  braided),  rawhide  thong,  and 
whalebone.  The  knot  is  the  usual  becket 
hitch.  Small  seal  are  caught  in  large 
meshed  nets  of  rawhide,  18  meshes  long 
and  12  deep,  with  length  of  mesh  14  in. 
These  nets  are  set  under  the  ice  in  winter 
and  in  shoal  water  in  summer.  Seals  are 
enticed  into  the  nets  by  whistling,  by 
scratching  on  the  ice,  or  with  rattles. 
Whitefish  are  taken  in  gill  nets  set  under 
the  ice  in  rivers.  A  specimen  in  the  Na 
tional  Museum,  made  of  fine  strips  of 
whalebone,  is  79  meshes  long  by  21  deep, 
with  meshes  3}  in.  deep.  Murdoch,  who 
figures  a  conical  dip  net,  or  fish  trap,  made 
of  twisted  sinew,  also  gives  the  spread  of 
various  kinds  of  fish  nets,  and  surmises 

that  the  American  Eskimo  learned  the 
use^of  the  net  from  the  Siberians. 

From  native  two-strand  twine  of  milk 
weed  and  wild  hemp  fiber  the  Maidu  of 
California  made  their  nets  and  netted 
caps.  Fishing  nets  varied  in  size,  shape, 
fineness  of  twine,  and  in  mesh.  The 
Maidu  of  Sacramento  r.  used  seines,  those 
<  >f  the  mountains  the  conical  dip  net.  The 
knitting  was  done  with  a  shuttle  com 
posed  of  two  slender  sticks.  The  first 
two  or  three  fingers  of  the  left  hand  served 
for  mesh  stick,  and  the  so-called  weaver's 
knot  joined  the  meshes.  Dixon  figures 
and  describes  the  several  ways  of  making 
the  Maidu  netted  caps,  the  simplest  be 
ginning  with  the  plain  coil  without  foun 
dation,  passing  through  the  same  coil 
with  a  twist  or  two  in  it,  to  the  openwork 
single  knot. 

(ioing  southward  to  the  California 
tribes  nearer  the  Mexican  bonier,  abo 
riginal  netting  is  found  in  both  clothing 
and  basketry.  In  nets  of  the  simplest 
structure  the  courses  merely  hook  into 
oneanotherand  resemble  coiled  basketry, 
if  the  foundation  be  removed.  By 
taking  additional  half  turns  and  by  vary 
ing  the  knotting,  artistic  patterns  are  pro 
duced.  From  the  simple  meshes  the 
work  becomes  more  elaborate  and  the 
knots  more  intricate. 

An  interesting  use  of  netting  has  been 
brought  to  light  by  Holmes  in  his  studies 
of  ancient  American  pottery.  In  many 
places  have  been  found  vessels  and  sherds 
that  show  net  impressions  on  the  surface. 
In  some  parts  of  the  Atlantic  slope  ves 
sels  of  clay  were  molded  in  network, 
taking  the  impressions  of  the  texture. 
In  the  description  of  ancient  garments, 
especially  those  in  which  feathers  bore  a 
conspicuous  part,  precisely  the  same 
methods  of  netting  are  described.  This 
furnishes  to  archeologists  an  excellent 
check-off  in  their  studies,  since  in  later 
times  all  other  forms  of  textile  work,  ex 
cepting  the  figure  weaving,  were  aban 

Consult  Boas  (1)  in  6th  Rep.  B.  A.  R, 
1888,  (2)  in  Bull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat,  Hist, 
xv,  1901;  Dixon  in  Hull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat. 
Hist,,  xvn,  pt.  3,  1905;  Goddard  in  I'niv. 
Cal.  Pub.,  Am.  Arch;eol.  andEthnol.,  i, 
1903;  Holmes  (1)  in  3d  Rep.  B.  A.  I-:., 
1884,  (2)  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  i\,  no.  1, 
1907;  Murdoch  in  9th  Rep.  B.  A.  R, 
1892;  Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist., 
n,  1900;  Turner  in  llth  Rep.  B.  A.  R, 
1894;  Willoughby  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  vn, 
no.  1,  1905.  (<>•  T.  M.) 

Netsekawik.      A    Kaviagmiut 
village  on  Golofnin  bay,  Alaska.— Elev 
enth  Census,  Alaska,  K>r2,  1893. 

Nettotalis.  Given  as  an  Indian  village 
between  Yale  and  Hope,  on  the  w.  hank 
of  Fraser  r.,  Brit.  Col.  (Brit.  Col.  map, 



[P..  A.  E. 

Jn.l.  Aff.,  Victoria,  is?!').  This  would 
he  in  the  country  of  the  Cowichan. 

Neusiok.  An  unclassified  tribe,  per 
haps  of  Iroquoian  stock,  found  in  1">84 
occupying  the  country  on  the  s.  side  of 
lower  Neuse  r..  within  the  present  Craven 
andCarteretcos.,  Y.  (1.  They  were  at  war 
with  the  more  southerly  coasttrihes.  In 
the  later  colonial  period  the  Indians  of 
the  same  region  were  commonly  known 
as  Neuse  Indians  and  had  dwindled  by 
the  year  1700  to  lo  warriors  in  two  towns, 
Chat  tooka  and  Rouconk.  They  probably 
disappeared  by  incorporation  with  the 
Tuscarora.  (.r.  M.  ) 

Neuses.  — Martin,  Hist.  X.  Car..  1'JT.  1829.  Neus 
Indians.  —  La \vson,  Hist.  Car.  1711,  SSl,  repr.  I860. 
Neusiok  —Mooiiry.  Sioimn  Tribes  of  the  East,  7, 
l.v.M.  Neuusiooc.  — De  Hry  map  in  Harlot.  Brief 
and  True  Hep..  1  .">'.»<>.  Nusiok.  — Ainadas  (l.riS4)  in 
Smith's  Works,  Arlx-r  ed.,  ;•>(•«.»,  1SS4.  Nustoc.— I)e 
Hry  map  i  1~>W  >,  ihid..  ;'.(•_'  (misprint.  ) 

Neutrals.  An  important  confederation 
of  Iroquoian  tribes  living  in  the  17th  cen 
tury  N.  of  L.  Frie  in  Ontario,  having  four 
villages  K.  of  Niagara  r.  on  territory  ex 
tending  to  the  (ienesee  watershed;  the 
western  hounds  of  these  tribes  were  in 
definitely  w.  of  Detroit  r.  and  L.  St  (.'lair. 
They  were  called  Neutrals  by  the  French 
because  thev  were  neutral  in  the  known 
wars  between  the  Iroquois  and  the  Hu 
mus.  The  1  lurons  called  them  Attiwan- 
daronk,  denoting  'they  are  those  whose 
lam.rua'_re  is  awry',  and  this  name  was 
also  applied  by  the  Neutrals  in  turn  to 
the  I  lurons.  The  Iroquois  called  them 
Atirhagenrat  ( Atirhaguenrek)  and  Rha- 
gcnratka.  The  Aondironon,  the  AVen- 
rehronon,  and  the  Ongniaahraronon  are 
names  of  some  of  the  constituent  tribes 
of  the  Neutrals.  Champlain,  reporting 
what  he  saw  in  161(5,  wrote  that  the  "Na 
tion  Nentre"  had  4,000  warriors  and  in 
habited  a  country  that  extended  SO  or  100 
leagues  K.  and  \v..  situated  westward  from 
the  lake  of  the  Seneca;  they  aided  the 
Ottawa  (Cheueiix  releuex. )  against  the 
Maseoutens  or  ''Small  Prairie  people," 
and  rai-ed  a  great  <|uantity  of  good  to 
bacco,  the  surplus  of  which  was  traded 
for  skin<.  furs,  and  porcupine  quills  and 
quillwork  with  the  northern  Alironquian 
peoples.  This  writer  said  that  the  In 
dians  cleared  ih,.  |;,iid  "with  great  pains, 
though  thev  had  no  proper  instruments 
to  do  this.  They  trimmed  all  the  limbs 
trom  the  trees,  which  they  burned  at  the 
toot  of  tint  trees  to  cause  them  to  die. 
Then  they  thoroughly  prepared  the 
ground  between  the  trees  ami  planted 
their  grain  from  step  to  step,  putting  in 
each  hill  about  10  grain-,  and  so  contin 
ued  planting  until  they  had  enough  for 
.'!  or  }  years'  provisions,  lest  a  bad  vear 
sterile  and  fruitless,  befall  them."  ' 

The  Rrv.  Father  .Joseph  de  la  Roche 
Daillon,  a  Recollect,  spent  the  winter  of 
H )'-'•>  among  this  people  for  the  purpose 

of  teaching  them  Christianity.  The  first 
village,  Kandoucho,  or  All  Saints,  wel 
comed  him.  He  then  went  through  four 
other  villages,  meeting  with  a  friendly 
reception,  and  finally  reached  the  sixth, 
where  he  had  been  told  to  establish-  him 
self,  lie  had  the  villagers  call  a  council 
of  the  tribe  for  the  purpose  of  declaring 
to  them  his  mission.  He  was  adopted 
by  the  tribe,  being  given  to  Tsohahissen 
(Souharissen?),  the  presiding  chief. 
Daillon  says  of  the  Neutrals:  "They 
are  inviolable  observers  of  what  they 
have  once  concluded  and  decreed." 
His  "father  and  host,"  Tsohahissen,  had 
ever  traveled  among  all  neighboring 
tribes,  for  he  was  chief  not  only  of  his 
own  village,  but  even  of  those  of  the 
whole  tribe,  composed  of  about  28  vil 
lage's,  villas,  and  towns,  constructed  like 
those  of  the  Hurons,  besides  many  ham 
lets  of  7  or  8  lodges  for  fishing,  hunting, 
or  for  the  cultivation  of  the  soil.  Daillon 
said  that  there  was  then  no  known  in 
stance  of  a  chief  so  absolute;  that  Tso 
hahissen  had  acquired  his  position  and 
power  by  his  courage  and  from  having 
been  at  war  many  times  against  17  tribes, 
and  bad  brought  back  heads  (scalps?) 
and  prisoners  from  all.  Their  arms  were 
only  the  war  club  and  the  bow  and  arrow, 
but  tb,ey  were  skilful  in  their  use.  Dail 
lon  also  remarked  that  he  had  not  found 
in  all  the  countries  visited  by  him  among 
the  Indians  a  hunchback,  one-eyed,  or 
deformed  person. 

l>nt  the  Hurons,  having  learned  that 
Father  Daillon  contemplated  conducting 
the  Neutrals  to  the  trading  place  in  the 
harbor  of  C.  Victory  in  L.  St  Peter  of  St 
Lawrence  r.,  approximately  50  m.  below 
Montreal,  spread  false  reports  about  him, 
declaring  to  the  Neutrals  that  he  was  a 
great  magician,  capable  of  tilling  the  air 
of  the  country  with  pestilence,  and  that 
he  had  then  already  taken  off  many  Hu 
rons  by  poison,  thus  set 'king  to  compass 
his  death  by  fomenting  suspicions  against 
him.  The  bearing  of  the  accusation  may 
be  judged  when  it  is  known  that  sorcerers 
were  regarded  as  public  enemies  and  out 
laws  and  were  remorselessly  slain  on 
the  slightest  pretext. 

The  father  declared  that  there  were  an 
incredible  number  of  deer  in  the  country, 
which  they  did  not  take  one  by  one;  but 
by  making  a  triangular  "drive,"  com 
posed  of  two  convergent  hedges  leading 
to  a  narrow  opening,  with  a  third  hedge 
placed  athwart  the  opening  but  admitting 
of  egress  at  each  end  of  the  last  one, 
they  drove  the  game  into  this  pen  and 
slaughtered  them  with  ease.  They  prac 
tised  toward  all  animals  the  policy  that, 
whether  required  or  not,  they  must 
kill  all  they  might  find,  lest  those  which 
were  not  taken  would  tell  the  other  beasts 


that  they  themselves  had  been  pursued, 
and  that  these  latter  in  time  of  need 
would  not  permit  themselves  to  be  taken. 
There  were  also  many  elk,  beaver,  wild 
cats,  black  squirrels, "bustards,  turkeys, 
cranes,  bitterns,  and  other  birds  and 
animals,  most  of  which  were  there  all 
winter;  the  rivers  and  lakes  were  abun 
dantly  supplied  with  fish,  and  the  land 
produced  good  maize,  much  more  than 
the  people  required;  there  were  also 
squashes,  beans,  and  other  vegetables  in 
season.  They  made  oil  from  the  seeds 
of  the  sunflower,  which  the  girls  reduced 
to  meal  and  then  placed  in  boiling  water 
which  caused  the  oil  to  float;  it  was 
then  skimmed  with  wooden  spoons.  The 
mush  was  afterward  made  into  cakes  and 
formed  a  very  palatable  food. 

Daillon  said  that  the  life  of  the  Neutrals 
was  "  not  less  indecent"  than  that  of  the 
Hurons,  and  that  their  customs  and 
manners  were  very  much  the  same. 
Like  those  of  the  Hurons,  -the  lodges  of 
the  Neutrals  were  formed  like  arbors  or 
bowers,  covered  with  the  bark  of  trees,  25 
to  30  fathoms  long  and  6  to  8  in  breadth, 
and  had  a  passage  running  through  the 
middle,  10  or  12  ft  wide,  from  one  end  to 
the  other.  Along  the  sides  was  a  kind 
of  shelf,  4  ft  from  the  ground,  whereon 
the  occupants  lay  in  summer  to  avoid 
the  fleas.  In  winter  they  lay  on  mats  on 
the  ground  near  the  fire.  Such  a  lodge 
contained  about  12  fires  and  24  firesides. 
Like  the  Hurons  they  removed  their 
villages  every  5,  10,  15,  or  20  years,  from 
1  to  3  or  more  leagues,  when  the  land 
became  exhausted  by  cultivation;  for  as 
they  did  not  make  use  of  manure  to  any 
great  degree,  they  had  to  clear  more  new 
and  fertile  land  else\vhere.  Their  gar 
ments  were  made  from  the  skins  of 
various  wild  beasts  obtained  by  the  chase 
or  through  trade  with  the  Algonkin, 
Nipissing,  and  other  hunting  tribes,  for 
maize,  meal,  wampum,  and  fishing  tackle. 

The  Seneca  attacked  and  destroyed  a 
town  of  the  Aondironon  in  1647.  "  This 
seemingly  unprovoked  invasion  was  un 
dertaken  to  avenge  the  capture  among 
the  Aondironon  by  the  Hurons  and  the 
subsequent  death  of  a  Seneca  warrior 
who  had  been  among  the  Tionontati  for 
the  purpose  of  committing  murder.  This 
seeming  rupture  of  the  traditional  neu 
trality  existing  between  the  Iroquois 
and  the  Neutrals  caused  the  latter  to  pre 
pare  for  war,  and  for  a  time  both  sides 
were  on  the  alert  and  stood  defiant.  Fi 
nally  the  Neutrals  decided  to  attempt  to 
recover  their  captives  by  some  peaceable 
means,  and  to  await  a  more  favorable  op 
portunity  to  avenge  themselves  for  this 
loss.  But  the  sudden  and  complete  de 
struction  of  the  political  integrity  of  the 
Hurons  by  their  several  defeats  in  1648- 

49  by  the  Iroquois  caused  the  Neutrals 
now  to  fear  the  rising  power  of  the  Iro 
quois  tribes,  and  they  vainly  sought  to 
gain  their  good  will  by  committing  an  act 
of  hostility  against  their  unfortunate 
Huron  neighbors.  When  the  IroMuois 
had  sacked  the  most  strongly  palisaded 
towns  of  the  Hurons,  the  Huron  fugitives 
sought  asylum  in  all  directions,  and  many 
of  them,  placing  their  trust  in  the  long 
standing  neutrality  existing  between  the 
Iroquois  and  the  Neutrals,  which  neither 
had  yet  sought  to  rupture,  lied  to  the 
Neutral  towns  for  refuge;  but  instead  of 
affording  them  protection,  the  Neutrals 
seized  them  as  prisoners,  and  also  that 
portion  of  the  Hurons  still  remaining  in 
their  own  country,  and  led  them  into 
captivity  (Jes.  Rel.  1(>59-(>0). 
_  Immediately  after  the  political  destruc 
tion  of  the  Hurons  by  the  Iroquois.  the 
latter  again  attacked  the  Neutrals.  The 
entire  conquest  of  the  Neutrals  in  1 050-51 
wras  the  result  of  this  war,  and  some  rem 
nants  of  the  Neutral  tribes  were  incorpo 
rated  chiefly  with  the  Seneca  villages  in 
New  York.  * 

The  Neutrals  we're  visited  in  1 040-41  by 
Fat  hern  lirebeuf  and  Oiaunionot.  The 
tribe  was  then  engaged  in  vigorous  war 
against  the  western  tribes,  especially 
the  Mascoutens.  These  two  missionaries 
visited  18  villages  or  towns,  stopping  in 
10  of  them  and  expounding  their  own 
religious  faith  whenever  they  could  as 
semble  an  audience.  In  these  10  settle 
ments  they  estimated  about  500  fires  and 
3,000  persons.  On  their  return  journey 
the  fathers  remained  at  Teotongniaton, 
situated  midway  between  the  chic1!'  town, 
Ounontisaston,  and  the  town  nearest  the 
Huron  country,  Kandoucho,  where  they 
were  compelled  to  remain  on  account  of 
snow.  While  there  their  hostess  was  at 
great  pains  to  shield  them  from  the  abuse 
to  which  they  were  constantly  subjected; 
she  also  aided  them  to  learn  the  lan 
guage  and  to  harmonize  it  with  that 
of  these  Neutrals.  The  Awenrehronon, 
who  had  formerly  lived  eastward  of 
the  Erie  or  Panther  tribe,  took  refuge  in 
Khioetoa,  or  St  ^Michel,  a  few  years  be 
fore  this  visit  of  the  two  fathers,  and  they 
were  disposed  to  listen  to  the  teachings 
of  the  missionaries. 

As  a  sign  of  mourning  for  their  friends 
and  kin  the  Neutrals  customarily  black 
ened  not  only  their  own  but  also  the 
faces  of  the  dead.  They  tattooed  tin- 
corpse  and  adorned  it  with  feathers  and 
other  trinkets;  if  the  person  died  in  war, 
a  chief  delivered  an  address  over  the 
body,  around  which  were  assembled  the 
friends  and  kin  of  the  dead,  who  were 
urged  by  the  orator  to  hasten  to  avenge1 
the  death.  The  Neutrals  figuratively 
resurrected  the  dead,  especially  great 


chieftains  ainl  persons  noted  for  valorand 
wisdom,  by  tin1  substitution  of  sonic  per 
son  \\lio  'they  thought  was  like  the 
deceased  in  person,  age.  and  character. 
Tlie  selection  \vas  made  in  council,  by 
the  clan  of  the  deceased  person;  then  all 
the  people  except  the  one  chosen  arose, 
and  the  master  of  ceremonies,  gently 
lowering:  his  hand  to  the  earth,  feigned 
to  raise  the  illustrious  dead  from  the 
tomb  and  to  give  life  to  him  in  the  per 
son  of  the  chosen  one,  on  whom  he  then 
imposed  the  name  and  dignity  of  the 
dead  chieftain,  and  the  newly  made  chief 
tain  then  arose  amid -the  ceremonial  ac 
claim  of  the  people. 

In  1»>4.S  the  Neutrals  sent  an  expedi 
tion  of  2, 000  warriors  against  the  "Nation 
du  feu,''  some  of  whom  they  attacked  in 
a  palisaded  village  defended" by  900  men, 
who  bravely  withstood  the  first  assaults; 
but  after  a  siege  of  10  days  the  Neutrals 
carried  the  palisade  and  killed  on  the 
split  many  of  its  defenders  and  took 
about  SUM 'captives.  After  burning  70  of 
the  best  warriors  of  the  Nation  du  feu, 
they  put  out  the  eyes  and  girdled  the 
mouths  of  the  old  men,  whom  they 
afterward  abandoned  to  starve  (Jes. 
lu-l.  l«)4:>-44).  The  same  authority  also 
says  that  the  Nation  du  feu  alone  was 
more  populous  than  all  the  Neutral  na 
tion,  all  the  Ilurons,  and  all  the  Iro- 
quois,  showing  that  the  term  had  not  yet 
become  restricted  to  those  now  called 
Mascoiitens,  or  ''Small  Prnirie  people," 
but  included  all  the  so-called  Illinois 
tribes  as  well. 

From  the  .Journal  des  PP.  Jesuites  for 
HJ52- 5:5  it  is  learned  that  the  portions  of 
the  Tobacco  Nation  and  of  the  Neutral 
Nation  then  remaining  independent 
bodies  of  people  were  assembling  with 
all  neighboring  Algonquian  tribes  at 
A'otonatendie  (. \kotonatendike?),  sit 
uated  .'!  days'  journey  southward  from 
^kia'e  (Sault  Sainte Marie);  that  the  To 
bacco  Nation  wintered  in  HJ53  at  Tea'on- 
to'rai,  and  the  Neutrals,  numbering  800, 
at  Sken'chio'e  (i.  e.,  Fox  place)  in  the 
direction  of  Te'o'chanontian,  probably 
Detroit;  that  these  two  tribes  would  ren 
dezvous  in  the  autumn  of  Hio.'i  at  A'oto 
natendie,  where  they  had  assembled 
more  than  2,<>i>0  warriors.  This  is  per 
haps  the  last  historical  mention  of  the 
Neutrals  as  an  independent  body.  It  is 
these  Neutrals,  apparently,  whom  IVr- 
n>t  (Memoire,  chap,  xfv,  1SI>4)  calls 
"  Huron  de  la  nation  neutre"  and  "  Ilu 
rons  neiltres. " 

In  Kiln  the  I  lurons  offered  a  present  of 
'»  hatchets  (costly  articles  at  that  time) 
to  the  chieftains  of  the  Neutral  council, 
111  tin-  hope  of  inducing  it  to  order 
the  assassination  of  Fathers  P.rebeuf 
and  Chaumonot,  but  after  deliberat 

ing  on  the  proposal  all  night  the  council 
refused  to  accept  the  gift. 

As  has  been  seen,  Daillon  said  the 
Neutrals  occupied  28  villages  in  1626. 
In  K>40  Brebeuf  ascribed  to  them  40 
villages  with  a  minimum  population  of 
12,000  persons,  including  4,000  warriors. 
Only  a  few  of  the  names  of  these  have 
been  preserved,  among  them  being  Kan- 
doucho  or  Tons  les  Saints,  Khioetoa  or 
Saint  Michel,  Ongniaahra  ("Ouaroro- 
non,"  probably  on  the  site  of  Youngs- 
town,  N.  Y. ;  a  form  of  Niagara) ,  Ounon- 
tisaston,  and  Teotongniaton  or  Saint 
(itiillaume.  (.1.  x.  B.  n. ) 

Aragaritkas.—  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  IV,  90S,  1854 
(said  to  be  composed  of  7  tribes).  Atiaonrek. — Jes. 
Rel.  1656, 34.  1858.  Atiouandaronks.  — Ibid.,  1(185,83, 
185S.  Atioiiendaronk.  —  Ibid.,  1644,  97, 1858.  Atira- 
guenrek.  —  Ibid.,  1656,31,  185S.  Atirhagenrenrets. — 
.les.  RH.  quoted  by  Parkman,  Jesuits,  xliv,  1867. 
Ati-rhagenrets.— Shea  in  Sohooleraft,  Ind.  Tribes, 
IV,  '208.  1851.  Atiwandaronk.— Shea,  Cath.  Miss., 
'24, 1855.  Attenonderonk. — Schoolcraft,  Ind. Tribes, 
IV,  201,  1854.  Attihouandaron.— Sagard  (1632), Hist. 
Can.,  iv,  186(1.  Attinoindarons.— Sagard  (1626), 
Can.,  11,  408,  186(1.  Attionandarons.— Gallatin  in 
Trans.  Am.  .Kthnol.  Soe.,  IT,  eiii,  1818  (misprint). 
Attionidarons. — Sagard i  1626)  quoted  by  Parkman, 
Jesuits,  xliv,  18(17.  Attiouandaronk.— .les.  Rel. 
1(141,  72,  1858.  AttiSandarons. — Ibid.,  1(189,  88,  1858. 
Attiouendarankhronon. — Ibid.,  1640,35,  1858.  Atti- 
ouendaronk. —  Ibid.  Attiuoindarons.  —  Hazard 
(1(12(1),  Hist.  Can.,  II,  384,  1866.  Attiwandaronk.— 
Sliea,  Miss.  Val.,  iix,  1852.  Attiwondaronk.— 
Hoyee  in  Smithson.  Misc.  Coll.,  xxv,  art,  5, 
95,  1883.  Hatiwa»ta-runh.  —  Hewitt,  infn,  1886 
(  = 'their  speech  is  a  wry';  from  luiti  'they',  <ni'a»ta 
'voices',  run /i.  'is  awry':  Tuscarora  name). 
Nation  Neuht.— McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes, 
in,  81,  1854.  Neuter  Nation. —  Morgan,  League 
Ini(1.,  9,  1851.  Neuters.  —  Shea,  Miss.  Val,  Ix 
1S52.  Neutral  Nation.— Ibid.,  Iix.  Neutre 
Nation. — Champlain  (1616),  CEnvres,  iv,  58,1870. 
Neutrios.— Duro,  Don  Diego  de  Peiialosa,  43.  1882. 
Rhagenratka. — Shea  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes, 
IV,  208,  1S54. 

Neutubvig.  An  unidentified  tribe,  said 
to  have  inhabited  the  extreme  x.  end  of 
Whitneys  ( Whidbey)  id.,  and  the  country 
"between  Skagit  r.  and  Bellingham  bay, 
Wash.,  in  1852.  This  territory  isSalishan. 
Ne-u-lub-vig. — Starling  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  171,  1852. 
Ne-u-tub-vig.— Ibid.,  170. 

Nevantin.  A  former  village  of  the 
Nacogdoehe  (q.  v. )  on  the  site  of  the  pres 
ent  Nacogdoches,  Texas. 

Nevome.  A  name  applied  to  the  Lower 
Pima,  or  Pimas  Itajos,  living  chiefly  in 
Sonora,  Mexico,  including  the  middle 
Yaqui  r.  region  and  extending  K.  some 
what  into  Chihuahua.  They  are  now 
almost  completely  assimilated  with  the 
whites,  the  Nevome  ("  Pima  ")  popula 
tion  in  Sonora  and  Chihuahua  being  offi 
cially  given  as  only  52,8  in  11*00.  Under 
the  same  term  may  be  included  also  one 
or  two  small  colonies;  one  known  as  the 
Bamoa  (q.  v. )  and  the  other  a  former  set 
tlement  in  the  Tepehuane  territory.  The 
language  of  the  two  divisions  of  the  Pima 
tribe,  Upper  and  Lower,  is  substantially 
the  same,  and  there  are  no  marked  dif- 
erences  in  their  physical  characteristics; 
they  are  generally  tall,  robust,  and  well- 

BULL.  30] 


formed.  Their  skulls  are  dolichocephalic. 
According  to  Bandelier  (Arch.  lost.  Pa 
pers,  in,  54,  1890)  their  social  organization 
and  their  religious  beliefs  and  practices 
were  analogous  to  those  of  the  Yaqui. 
They  were  described  by  Ribas,  a  mis 
sionary  of  the  17th  century,  as  "on  the 
banks  of  creeks  with  good  running  water, 
their  houses  better  and  more  durable  than 
those  of  neighboringtribes,  the  walls  being 
formed  of  large  adobes  and  the  roofs  flat 
and  covered  with  earth.  Some  of  their 
houses  were  much  larger  than  others  and 
furnished  with  loopholes  like  forts,  in 
which  the  people  could  take  refuge  in 
times  of  danger."  Lumholtz  (Unknown 
Mexico,  i,  127,  1902)  says  they  often  have 
connected  with  their  houses  a  kind  of 

pueblos  of  Huexotitlan,  Magnina  To^.n-i- 
chic,  Tutuaca,  and  Yepachic  contained  a 
mixed  population  of  Xevonie,  Tarahu- 
mare,  and  Tepehuane.  (  F.  w.  H.) 

Coras.— Bandelier  in  Arch.  lust  I'aj.erx  , 
1890(Xebomes,or).  Ncbome.-liibas  Hist.' Tri'um' 
phos,  361  1645.  Nebomes  Baxos.-Ibid .  ;  7 o.  P  mas 
Bajos.-0rom>  y  Bern,,  Geog.,  68,  1864.  Pimas  de 
el  Sur.— Rivera,  Diario,  leg.  if.M,  17HH.  Southern 
Pimas.— Bandelier,  op.  cit.,  7(1. 

Newark  works.  The  most  elal  ><  irate  ami 
complicated  group  of  ancient  works  K.  of 
the  Rocky  nits.,  situated  at  the  junction 
of  South  and  Raccoon  lurks  of  Licking  r., 
near  Newark,  Licking  (•<>.,  Ohio.  They 
are  on  a  plain  elevated  .'50  to  50  ft  above 
the  bottom  land  bordering  the  stream, 
and  consist  of  an  extensive  series  of 
square,  circular,  and  octagonal  inclosures, 

outside  cellar,  covered  with  a  conical  roof 
of  dry  grass,  which  serves  both  as  a  work 
room  and  as  a  storeroom  for  their  stock 
in  trade.  Like  all  the  converted  Indians 
of  this  section  it  is  common  at  the 
present  day  for  them  to  fix  small  crosses 
in  a  log  and  plant  them  in  front  of  their 
houses.  Their  chief  and  most  formid 
able  enemies  in  former  times  were  the 
Apache.  The  divisions  of  the  Nevoine, 
usually  so  called  from  the  names  of  the 
villages  at  various  periods,  are:  A  i  vino, 
Basiroa,  Buena  Vista,  Cumuripa,  Ecata- 
cari,  Hecatari,  ?Iios,  Huvaguere,  Maicoba, 
Moicaqui,  Movas,  Nuri,  Onavas,  Onopa, 
Ostimuri,  San  Antonio  de  la  Huerta,  San 
Jose  de  los  Pimas,  Sibubapa,  Sisibotari, 
Soyopa,Suaqui,Tecoripa  Tehata,Tehuizo, 
Tonichi,  Ures  (in  part),  and  Yecora..  The 

with  mounds,  ditches,  and  connecting 
avenues  spreading  over  nearly  4  sq.  in. 
A  number  of  the  minor  structures  have 
been  obliterated  and  a  large  portion  of 
the  remaining  walls  considerably  reduced 
by  the  plow.  Fortunately,  an  accurate 
survey  and  plat  were  made  by  Col.  Wliit- 
tlesey  in  1836  while  the  works  were  yet 
comparatively  uninjured;  and  other  sur 
veys  and  plats  were  made  by  the  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology  in  1888 and  a  partial 
survey  by  the  T.  S.  Geological  Survey  in 
1891.  The  works  consist  of  two  groups, 
nearly  2  m.  apart,  connected  by  two  wall- 
lined  avenues.  The  western  group  consists 
of  a  large  circle  connected  with  an  octagon. 
Outside  the  latter,  near  the  K.  corner,  there 
is  a  small  circle,  and  near  the  middle  ot 
the  s.  side  there  is  another.  From  the 


[B.  A.  E. 

latter  point  of  the  octagon  a  walled  ave 
nue,  now  almost  obliterated,  extended 
directly  s.  2  m.  or  more.  From  near  the 
K.  corner  of  the  octagon  two  avenues  ex 
tend  east  ward  wit  ha  low  wall  on  each  side, 
one  connect  ing  with  the  square  of  the  east 
ern  irroup,  the  other  running  directly  east 
ward  to  the  descent  to  the  lowland  x.  of 
the  square.  Along  these  avenues,  at  one 
or  two  points,  are  small  circles.  The  east 
ern  irroiip  consists  of  a  large  circle  con 
nected  with  a  square  by  a  broad  avenue 
and  several  adjoining  lines  of  walls.  The 
circle  of  the  western  group,  which  is  the 
westernmost  structure  of  theentire  works, 
is  still  distinct,  being  H  ft  high  at_  the 
lowest  point,  and  averaging  4  to  5  ft, 
apart  from  an  enlargement  on  the  s.  w. 
side,  where  for  about  170  ft  it  rise's  to  the 
height  of  14  ft.  This  enlargement  has 
been  called  the  "observatory,"  while 
the  circle  has  been  named  "the  observa 
tory  circle."  At  the  x.  E.  side,  directly 
opposite  this  observatory,  is  a  gateway 
leading  into  an  avenue  :>00  ft  long  and 
8d  ft  wide,  which 
terminates  in 
one  of  the  gate- 
nays  of  the  oc 
tagon.  The  lat 
ter,  which  is 
s  y  m  met  rical , 
has  a  'jatewav 
at  each  of  the 

5  corners,  oppo 
site  which,  60  ft 
within,    is    a 
small      in  o  u  n  d 
v  a  r  y  i  n  g     in 
height  from  .'!  to 

6  ft.    The  mean 
diameter  of  the 

circle,  measured  from  the  middle  line  of 
the  wall,  is  1,054  ft.  The  circumference, 
measured  along  the  middle  of  the  wall, 
deviates  at  no  point  more  than  5  ft  from 

a   tine   crcle.     The   area,   including  the 
inner  half  of  the  wall,  is  20  acres;  that  of 
rior,  18.6  acres.     The  parts 

the  level 

and  angles  of  the  octagon  are  quite  sym 
metrical.  The  length  of  the  walls  between 
the  centers  of  the  gates  averages  621  ft, 
trom  which  t  he  greatest  variation  is  only  4 
ft,  except  in  one-wall  that  fallsSft  short  of 
the  average.  The  opposite  angles  do  not 
vary  from  one  a  not  her  more  than  2  degrees 
in  any  instance,  and  the  opposite  sides  do 
not  vary  from  the  same  direction  more 
than  2  degrees.  The  large  circle  of  the 
eastern  group  embraces  within  its  circuit 
the  fair  grounds  of  the  Licking  County 
Agricultural  Society.  The  wall,  in  thisin- 
stance.  is  accompanied  with  an  inside 
ditch,  varying  in  width  from  28  to  40  ft 
and  in  depth  from  S  to  l.'5ft.  The  width 
"f  the  \\all  at  the  base  is  from  M5  to  55  ft 
and  its  height  from  5  to  14  ft.  Then- 

is  one  gateway  at  the  x.  E.  with  Hanking 
extensions  of  the  wall  into  the  avenue 
leading  to  the  square.  The  square  of 
the  eastern  group  is  partially  obliterated, 
yet  most  of  the  walls  could  be  distinctly 
traced  in  1888,  when  the  survey  on  be 
half  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnol 
ogy  was  made.  From  this  survey  it  is 
learned  that  the  sides  varied  in  length 
from  926  to  951  ft  and  that  the  angles  at 
the  corners  did  not  in  any  instance  vary 
from  a  right  angle  more  than  1  degree. 
There  are  now  no  indications  of  the  inner 
mounds  of  the  square  observed  by  Whit- 
tlesey;  but  the  three-pointed  mound  in 
the  center  of  the  fair-grounds  circle  is 
still  visible.  There  were  also,  at  the 
time  of  Whittlesey's  survey,  4  or  5  cir 
cles  that  were  smaller  than  those  above 
described.  The  two  or  three  of  these 
that  remain  vary  from  125  to  200  ft  in 
diameter  and  have  an  inside  ditch  and  a 
semicircular  earthen  platform  on  one 
side.  There  were  also  in  Whittlesey's 
time  several  still  smaller  circles,  which 
may  have  been 
lodge  sites.  The 
avenues,  except 
the  one  con 
nected  with  the 
fair-grounds  cir 
cle,  which  was 
wider,  were  gen 
erally  about  200 
ft  wide.  Their 
walls  at  present 
do  not  exceed 
at  any  point  2 
ft  in  height,  and 
in  many  places 
are  almost  ob 

Consult  Harris,  Tour  to  N.  W.  Ter., 
1805;  Trans.  Am.  Antiq.  Soc.,  i,  1820; 
Smuckerin  Am.  Antiq.,  in,  261-267,1881; 
Thomas,  (1)  Circular,  Square,  and  Octag 
onal  Earthworks,  Hull.  B.  A.  E.,  1894, 
(2)  Mound  Explorations,  12th  Rep.  B. 
A.  E.,  458-468,  1891.  See,  also,  for  list  of 
references,  Thomas,  Cat.  Prehist.  Works, 
Bull.  B.  A.  E.,  178.  1891.  (r.  T.) 

Newastarton  (V'big  \vaters  town').  A 
Dakota  tribe,  according  to  Clark,  which 
roved  on  the  Mississippi  above  the  St 
Peter's  (Minnesota  r.),  in  the  present 
Minnesota.  Probably  the  Mdewakanton. 
Newastarton. — Lewis  and  Clark  Exped.,  Cones 
ed.,  i,  101,  note,  1X93.  Ne  Was  tar  ton.— Ori?,r. 
Jour.  Lewis  and  Clark,  I,  133,  1904. 

Newcastle  Townsite.  The  local  name 
for  a  body  of  Salish  of  Cowichan  agency, 
Brit.  Col.'  Pop.  26  in  1896,  the  last  time 
the  name  occurs. 

Newcastle  Toronsite. — Can.  Ind.  AIT.  Rep.  1891, 
•J~>0,  1X9'J  (misprint).  Newcastle  Townsite.— Ibid., 
•133.  ls%. 

Newchemass.  An  unidentified  tribe 
mentioned  by  Jewitt  (Narr.,  77,  repr. 


BULL.  .*{()] 


1849)  as  living  far  to  the  N.  of  and  inland 
from  Nootka  sd.,  early  in  the  19th  cen 
tury.  Their  language  differed  from  that 
of  the  Nootka,  but  was  understood  by 
the  latter.  Their  complexion  was  said 
to  be  darker,  their  stature  shorter,  and 
their  hair  coarser  than  those  features  of 
other  nations.  The  locality  assigned  to 
them  corresponds  with  that  of  the  Nim- 
Nuchimases.— Galiano,  Relacion,  94,  1802. 

Newcomerstown.  The  village  of  the 
Delaware  chief  Newcomer  in  1766-81, 
about  the  site  of  the  present  New  Comers- 
town,  on  Muskingum  r.,  Tuscarawas  co., 
Ohio.  The  chief's  Indian  name  was 

New  Camero  Town. — La  Tour,  map,  1784  (mis 
print).  New  Comers  Town. — Hutehins,  map  in 
Smith,  Bouquet's  Exped.,  1766.  Ville  des  nouveaux 
venus. — La  Tour,  map,  1784  (New  Camero  town, 

New  Credit.  A  Missisauga  settlement 
in  Tuscarora  township  of  the  Six  Nations 
res.  on  Grand  r.,  Ontario.  These  Mis 
sisauga  formerly  lived  on  Credit  r.,  but 
removed  to  their  present  location  about 
the  year  1850  by  invitation  of  the  Six 
Nations.  They  numbered  218  in  1884, 
263  in  1906. 

New  England  Company.  See  English 
influence,  Missions. 

New  Euf  aula.    A  former  colony  of  Upper 
Creeks  from  PZufaula,  Ala.,  established  in 
1767  in  N.  Florida,  lat.  28°. 
New  Yufala.— Romans,  Fla.,  280,  1775. 

Newhuhwaittinekin.  A  Shuswap  vil 
lage  4  m.  above  Cache  cr.,  Bonaparte  r., 
Brit.  Col. ;  pop.  160  in  1906. 

Bonaparte  Indians.— Gun.  Ind.  Aff.  1885,  91,  1886 
(so  called  by  whites).  Ne-whuh-wait'-tin-e-kin.— 
Dawson  in  Trans.  Roy.  Roc.  Can.,  sec.  n,44, 1S91. 
Tluh-ta-us.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.  1885,  196,  1886. 

Newichawanoc.  A  tribe  or  band  of  the 
Pennacook  confederacy  living  on  upper 
Piscataqua  r.  Their  village,  of  the  same 
name,  was  situated  about  the  site  of 
Berwick,  Me.  They  were  neighbors  of 
the  Piscataqua  and  probably  intimately 
related  to  them.  Their  chief  is  said  to 
have  joined  in  the  deed  of  1629  to 
Wheelwright,  the  genuineness  of  which 
is  still  a  mooted  question.  The  tribe 
early  became  extinct. 

Neahawanak.— Walton  (1704)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll  ,  in,  349, 1853.  Nekekowannock.— Potter,  ibid., 
iv,  190,  1856.  Newchawanick.— Niles  (ra.  1761)  in 
Mass.  Hist,  Soc.  Coll.,  4th  s.,  V,  334,  1861.  New- 
geawanacke. — Rishworth  (1656)  in  Me.  Hist. Soc. 
Coll.,  I,  397,  1865.  Newgewanacke.— Ibid.  New- 
ichawanick.— Penhallow  (1726)  in  N.  H.Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  i.  81,  1824.  Newichawannicke.— Hubbard 
(1680)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s.,  v,  224,  1815. 
Newichawannock.—  Pike  (1692)  in  N.  H.  Hist,  Soc. 
Coll.,  in,  44,  1832.  Newichawanocks.— Sullivan 
in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  ix,  210,  1804. 
Newichewannock. — Gorges  (1678)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  n,  257. 1847.  Newichuwenoq.— Moodey  (1683) 
in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  4th  s.,  vm,  362,  1868.  Ne- 
wichwanicke.— Gibbins  (1633)  in  N.  H.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  i,  311,  1824.  Newichwannock.— Potter  in  Me. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  iv,  190,  1856.  Newickawanacks.— 
McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in.  80,  1854. 

3456- -Bull.  30,  pt  2— 07 5 

Nuch-a-wan-acks.-Maeauley,  N.  Y.,  n,  162  1*'>9 
Nuwichawamck.—  Potter  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.',  A  division  of  the  Miwok 
formerly  living  between  Cosumnes  and 
Mokelumne  rs.,  Cal. 

Newatchumne.— Bancroft,  Nut.  Races,  i,  4.'>0,  1874J 

New  Mikasuky.  A  former  Sem'inole 
town,  30  in.  w.  of  Suwannee  r.,  in  Lafay 
ette  co.,  Fla.,  of  which  Tuskain  ha  was 
chief  in  1823.— H.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  /4,  19th 
Cong.,  1st  sees.,  27,  1826. 

New  Kiver  Indians.  A  subsidiary  branch 
of  the  Shasta  who  occupied  the  "forks  of 
Salmon  r.,  Siskiyou  cu.,  Cal.,  from  a  few 
miles  above  the  junction  (the  lower  parts 
of  those  streams  being  inhabited  by  the 
I-onomihu),  and  also  the  head  of  New  r. 
They  have  no  names  for  themselves. 
Their  language  is  much  closer  to  that  of 
the  Shasta  proper  than  is  that  of  the 
Konomihu,  but  it  is  clearly  a  separate 
dialect.  See  Dixon  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  vn, 
no.  2,  1905.  (R.  B.  D.  ) 

Amutakhwe.— A.  L.  Kroeber,  inf'n,  1903  (Hupa 
name).  Djalitason.—  ibid.  (Chimariko  name). 

Newspapers.     See  Periodicals. 

Newtown.  A  former  village,  probably 
of  the  Seneca,  on  Chemung  r.,  near  El- 
mira,  Chemung  co.,  X.  Y.  It  was  de 
stroyed  by  Gen.  Sullivan  in  1779. 

Newton.— Livermorei  1779  jin  N.  H.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
VI,  325,  1850.  New  Town.— Jones  (1780)  in  N.  Y. 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vm,  785,  1857.  Newtown. — Pem- 
berton  (cu.  1792)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  n, 
176,  1810. 

Newtown.  A  former  village,  probably 
of  the  Delawares  and  Iroquois,  on  the  x. 
bank  of  Licking  r.,  about  the  site  of  the 
present  Zanesville,  Ohio. 

Newtown.  A  former  village,  probably  of 
the  Delawares  and  Iroquois,  on  Mus- 
kinguin  r.,  about  the  site  of  the  present 
Newton,  Muskingum  co.,  Ohio. 

Newtown.  A  former  village,  probably 
of  the  Delawares  and  Iroquois,  on  the  w. 
side  of  Wills  cr.,  near  the  site  of  the  pres 
ent  Cambridge,  Guernsey  co.,  Ohio. 

Newtychanning.  A  mixed  Iroquois  vil 
lage,  built  in  1778  on  the  w.  bank  of  Sus- 
quehanmir.  and  on  the  x.  side  of  Sugar  er., 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  present  North  To- 
wanda,  Bradford  co.,  Pa,  It  was  de 
stroyed  Aug.  8,  1779,  by  Colonel  Proctor 
of  Sullivan's  army,  at  which  time  it  con 
tained  15  or  20  houses.  Near  this  site 
was  formerly  situated  the  village  of  Os- 
calui.  (J.  N'.  i?.  H.) 

Nez  Perces  (' pierced  noses ').  A  term 
applied  by  the  French  to  a  number  of 
tribes  which  practised  or  were  supposed 
to  practise  the  custom  of  piercing  the 
nose  for  the  insertion  of  a  piece  of  denta- 
lium.  The  term  is  now  used  exclusively 
to  designate  the  main  tribe  of  the  Sha- 
haptian  family,  who  have  not,  however, 
so  far  as  is  known,  ever  been  given  to  the 


[B.  A.  JE. 

Tin'  Ne/  Perces,  or  Sahnptm  of  later 
writers,  tin'  Chopunnish  (corrupted  from 
Tsutpeli)  of  Lewis  and  Clark,  their  dis 
coverers,  were  found  in  1805  occupying  a 
large  area  in  what  is  now  w.  Idaho,  x.  E. 
Oregon,  and  s.  K.  Washington,  on  lower 
Snake  r.  and  its  tributaries.  They  roamed 
between  the  IHue  nits,  in  Oregon  and  the 
Bitter  Root  nits,  in  Idaho,  and  according 

CR    JASON       NEZ    PERCE 

!"  Lewis  and  Clark  sometimes  crossed 
i<- range  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Mis 
souri.  |Jy  certain  writers  they  have 
been  classed  under  two  geographic  divi 
sions,  I'pperNex  Pern's  and  Lower  \e/ 
The  latter  were  found  by  I'.onne- 
yille  n,  KM  to  the  x.  and  \v.  of  the 
Blue  mts.  on  several  of  the  branches  of 
Snake  r.,  where  they  were  neighbors  of 
the  (  ayuse  and  Wallawalla.  The  Upper 

Xcz  Perec's  held  the  Salmon  r.  country  in 
Idaho  in  1834,  and  probably  also  at 'the 
same  time  the  Grande  Konde  valley  in  E. 
Oregon,  but  by  treaty  of  1855  they  cedid 
a  large  part  of  this  territory  to  the  United 

The  reservation  in  which  they  were 
confined  at  that  time  included  the  Wal- 
lowa  valley  in  Oregon,  as  well  as  a  large 
district  in  Idaho.  With  the  discovery  of 
gold  and  the  consequent  influx  of  miners 
and  settlers  the  Oregon  districts  were  in 
demand,  and  a  new  treaty  was  made  by 
which  the  tribe  was  confined  to  the  reser 
vation  at  Lapwai,  Idaho.  The  occupants 
of  Wallowa  valley  refused  to  recognize 
the  treaty,  and  finally,  under  their  chief, 
Joseph  (q.  v.),  took  active  measures  of  re 
sistance,  and  the  Nez  Perce  war  of  1877 
resulted.  Several  severe  defeats  were  in 
flicted  on  the  United  States  troops  who 
were  sent  against  the  Indians,  and  finally, 
when  forced  to  give  way,  Joseph  con- 
dueled  a  masterly  retreat  across  the  Bit 
ter  Root  mts.  and  into  Montana  in  an 
attempt  to  reach  Canadian  territory,  but 
he  and  his  band  were  surrounded  and 
captured  when  within  a  few  miles  of  the 
boundary.  Joseph  and  his  followers  to 
the  number  of  450  were  removed  to  In 
dian  Ter.,  where  their  loss  from  disease 
was  so  great  that  in  1885  they  were  sent 
to  the  Colville  res.  in  x.  Washington, 
where  a  remnant  still  resides. 

Under  the  collective  name  Chopunnish, 
Lewis  and  Clark  estimated  the  population 
to  be  7,850.  Deducting  from  this  total 
1,()00  for  the  Pelloatpallah  (Paloos)  band, 
now  treated  as  distinct  from  the  Xez 
Perces,  and  250  for  the  Yeletpo  ( Wailetpti, 
i.  e.,Cayuse),  now  supposed  to  belong  to  a 
distinct  stock,  the  t< >tal  of  the  Nez  Perces  in 
1805  according  to  those  authors  was  about 
«,000.  Wilkes estimated  the  Chopunnish 
at  about  3,000  in  1841),  and  Gibbs  gave 
them  a  population  of  more  than  1.700  in 
185:',.  In  1885  they  were  estimated  offi 
cially  at  1,437.  There  are  now  (1906) 
somewhat  more  than  1,000,  1,534  being 
on  the  reservation  in  Idaho  and  83  on  the 
Colville  res.  in  Washington. 

In  general  habits  of  life  the  Ne/  Perces 
as  well  as  the  other  Shahaptian  tribes 
conform  to  the  inland  type  of  Indians 
and  differ  sharply  in  most  respects  from 
their  western  neighbors,  the  Chinook. 
At  the  time  of  Lewis  and  Clark's  visit 
they  are  reported  as  living  in  communal 
houses,  said  to  contain  about  50  families 
each.  There  is  evidence,  however,  that 
the  Ne/  IVrces  used  the  typical  under 
ground  lodge,  and  that  these  seldom  con 
tained  more  than  3  or  4  families.  A 
much  larger  dancing  house  was  built  at 
each  permanent  winter  camp.  Salmon 
constituted  their  most  important  food  in 
early  times,  and  with  roots  and  berries 

BULL.  301 


made  up  their  entire  food  supply  until 
the  introduction  of  horses  facilitated  hunt 
ing  expeditions  to  the  neigh  boring  moun 
tains.  The  tribe  seems  to  have  been 
divided  into  a  number  of  bauds  or  vil 
lages,  named  according  to  the  place  where 
the  permanent  winter  camp  wa--  made. 
Owing  to  the  precarious  nature  of  the 
food  supply  the  greater  portion  of  the 
inhabitants  of  any  one  of  these  villages 
would  often  be  absent  for  a  large  part  of 
the  year,  consequently  it  is  impossible  to 
determine  with  accuracy  the  location  and 
population  of  these  divisions  in  early 
times.  There  was  no  head  chief  of  the 
tribe,  but  each  band  had  several  chiefs,  of 
whom  one  was  regarded  as  the  leader, 
and  these  chiefs  were  succeeded  by  their 
sons  as  a  rule.  Expeditions  for  hunting 
or  war  were  led  by  chiefs  chosen  for  the 
occasion.  There  are  no  signs  of  a  clan 
system  in  the  social  organization  of  the 
Nez  Perces,  and  marriage  is  apparently 
permitted  between  any  couple  except  in 
the  case  of  recognized  relationship. 

The  religious  beliefs  of  the  Nez  Perces, 
previous  to  the  introduction  of  Christi 
anity,  wrere  those  characteristic  of  the 
Indians  of  the  interior,  the  main  feature 
being  the  belief  in  an  indefinite  number 
of  spirits.  The  individual  might  procure 
a  personal  protecting  spirit  in  the  usual 
way  by  rigorous  training  and  fasting. 

The  Nez  Perces  have  always  borne  a 
high  reputation  for  independence  and 
bravery,  and  have  been  particularly 
noted  for  their  almost  constant  friend 
liness  to  the  whites.  Practically  the  only 
rupture  in  these  relations  was  the  Nez 
Perce  war  of  1877,  mentioned  above. 

The  bands  and  divisions  of  the  Nez 
Perces  are  known  only  approximately. 
The  following  are  the  best  defined:  Al- 
powna,  on  a  small  branch  of  the  Clear- 
water,  below  Lewiston,  Idaho;  Assuti,  on 
Assuti  cr.,  Idaho;  Kamiah,  at  the  town 
of  that  name  on  the  Clearwater,  Idaho; 
Laintama,  so  called  from  a  branch  of 
Salmon  r. ,  Idaho;  Lapwai,  near  the  junc 
tion  of  Lapwai  cr.  and  the  Clearwater; 
Willewah,  formerly  occupying  Wai  Iowa 
valley,  Oreg.,  and'  now  for  the  greater 
part  on  Colville  res.,  Wash.  (Joseph's 
band).  In  addition  a  number  of  bands 
have  been  recorded  by  the  names  of  their 
chiefs  or  their  supposed  places  of  resi 
dence.  (H.  w.  ir.  L.  F.) 
A'dal-k'ato'igo.— Mooney  in  1 1th  Rep.  B.  A.  E., 
744,  1896  ('people  with  "hair  cut  across  the  fore 
head'  :Kio\va name).  Anipbrspi.— Gatschet,  Kala- 
puya  MS.,  B.  A.  E.  (Calapooya  name) .  a-pa-6  pa.— 
Long,  Exped.  Rocky  Mts.,  11,  Ixxxiv,  1823  (Gros 
Ventre  name).  A-pu-pe'.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and 
Philol.  Mo.  Vul.,  -102,  1SG2  ('to' paddle',  'paddles': 
(Crow  name).  Asahaptin.— Gatschet,  Kalapuya 
MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  31  (Calapooya  name).  Blue  Earth 
Indians.— Coues,  Henry  and  Thompson  Jour., 
712,  1897.  Blue  Mud  Indians.— Orig.  Jour.  Lewis 
and  Clark  (1805) .  vi,  106, 1905  (probably  identical). 
Blue  Muds.— Ibid,  (name  applied  by  traders). 

Chappumsh.-Ross,  Fur  Hunters,  i,  sue  1x55 
Cheaptin.— Townsend,  Narr.,  233,  1839  Chipun- 
ish.— Kip  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Sot:.  Sources  i  pt  •>  11 
1897.  Chipunnish.— Kip,  Army  Life,  33  is5<i  "6ho- 
cp-msh  -Gass,  Journal,  215,  1807.  Chohoptins.- 
U)x  Columbia  R.,  n,  125,  1*31.  Chopannish - 
Minto  in  Oreg.  Hist.  Soc.  Quar.,  i,  30:5.  1900  (i,,N- 
pnnt  from  Lewis  and  Clark).  Chopemnish.— Ind 
Aff.  Rep.,  460,  1854.  Choponiesh -Orig  .lour' 
Lewis  and  Clark  (1805;,  vii,  115,  mof,  Chopon- 
ish-Ibid.,  iv,  318.  1905.  Choponnesh.-Ibid  in 
103.  1905.  Chopunish.— Kelley,  Oregon  »w  1x30' 
Chopunmohees.— Robertson,  Oregon  i'>9  '  isitf 
Chopunnish.— Lewis  and  Clark  Exped  ' '  i  455' 
1X14;  ii,  587,  1S17.  Flathead.— Gass,  Journal  13"' 
1807.  Green  Wood  Indians.—  Cotic<  Henrv-Thomp- 
son  Jour..  712,  1897.  I'-na-cpe.-Dorscv,  Kwapa 
MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  K.,  1891  (Quapaw  name,.  Kamu'- 
mu.— Hoffman,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1884  (own  name) 
Ko-mun'-i-tup'-i-o.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and  1'hilol 
Mo.  Val.,  264,  1862  (Siksika  nainei  La-ap- 
tin.— Stevens  in  Ind.  AIT.  Rep.,  425.  1*54  (mis 
print/,  for  >').  Mikadeshitchishi.— Gatschet,  Naisha 
Apache  MS.,  H.  A.  E.  (Kiowa  Apacbe  name). 
Nazpercies.— Hastings,  Guide  to  Oreg.,  59,  1S45. 
Neckpercie.— Lane  (1849)  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  52  31st 
Cong.,  1st  sess.,  171,  1850.  Neepercil.— Lane  in 
hid.  Aff.  Rep.,  159.  1850.  Nenpersaas.— Meek  in 
H.R.  Ex.  Doc.  76,  30th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  10.  ]81S. 
Nepercy.— Irving,  Bonneville's  Advent.,  115,  1868 
(name  as  pronounced  by  trappers).  Ner  Per 
cees. — Scouler  (1846)  in  Jour.  Ethnol.  Soc.  Loud., 
r,  237, 184X.  Nes  Perces.— Wilkes.  Hist.  Oregon.  4  i[ 
1845^  Nezierces. — Farnham,  Travels,  69,  1x43.  Nez 
Perce.— Parker,  Journal,  100, 1840.  Nez  Perce  Flat- 
Heads.— Barrows,  Oregon,  121,  1884.  Nezperces  — 
Wyeth  (1848)  in  Schoolcrnft,  Ind.  Tribes,  i,  221, 
1851.  Nez  Perec's. — Latham  in  Jour.  Ethnol.  Soc. 
Loud.,  i,  158,  1848.  Nez  percez.— McKeuney  and 
Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  79,  1x54.  Nezpercies.— Hast 
ings,  Guide  to  Oreg.,  59.  1845.  Nezperees.— Kane, 
Wanderings  in  X.  A..  290,  ls59.  Nez  Perse.— Hines, 
Oregon,  133. 1851.  Nezpesie. — Hastings,  Guide  to 
Oreg.,  59,  18-15.  Nez  Pierces.— Coyner.  Lost  Trap 
pers,  135,  1817.  Nimipu.— Lyinan  in  Oreg.  Hist. 
Soc.  Quar.,  n,  288,  1901  ('the  people':  own  name). 
Numepo. — Kingsley,  Stand.  Nat.  Hist.,  pt.  vi, 
140,  1885.  Nu-me-poos.— Mattoon  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep. 
1905,  199.  1906.  Numipu.— Mowry,  Marcus  Whit 
man,  259,  1901.  Pe  ga'-zan-de.— Dorsey,  Kansa 
MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1882  (Kausa  name).  Pe  i(a'- 
san-^se. — Dorsey,  Osage  MS.  vocal).,  B.  A.  F. 
('plaited  hair  over  the  forehead':  Osage  name). 
Perces.— Dunn,  Hist,  Oregon,  326,  1845.  Piercd 
Noses. — Orig.  Jour.  Lewis  and  (Mark  (1805), 
ill,  128,  1905.  Pierced-nose.  —  Lewis  and  Clark 
Exped.,  I,  455.  1M4.  Pierced  Noses.— Orig.  Jour. 
Lewis  and  Clark  (1805),  in,  78,  1905.'  Pierce 
Noses.— Ibid.,  112.  Po'-ge-hdo-ke.— Riggs,  Dak.- 
Fng.  Diet.,  423,  1890  (Dakota  name).  Sa  ap- 
tin.— Lane  (1819)  in  S«-n.  Ex.  Doc.  52.  31st 
Cong.,  1st  sess.,  170.  1850.  Sa-aptin.—  Gatschet, 
Okinagan  MS.,  B.  A.  E.  (Okinagan  name:  pi. 
Sa-aptinix).  Saaptins.—  Schoolcraft.  Ind.  Tribes, 
in,  map,  200. 1853.  Sahapotins. — Gallatiu  in  Trans. 
Am.  Antiq.  Soc..  n,  map,  1X36.  Sahaptain. — Ross, 
Advent.,  217,  1849.  Sahaptan,— Gatschet  mis 
quoted  in  Congres  des  Amer.,  iv,  pt.  1,  285,  1883. 
Sahaptanian.— Brinton,  Am.  Race,  108,  1891.  Sa 
haptin.  — Dart  in  Did.  Aff.  Rep..  216. 1851.  Sah  hap- 
tinnay.  —  Featherstonhaugh,  Canoe  Voy..  n.  62, 
1817.  Saiduka.— Gatschet,  MS..  B.  A.  F.  (I'aiute 
name).  Sapetan.— Smet,  Oregon  Mi.-s..  210,  1X17. 
Sapetens.— Cones,  Henry-Thompson  Jour.,  709, 
1897  Sapotans, — Smet.  Reisen  '/.\\  den  Felsen- 
(Jebirgen,  205,  1865.  Saptans.— Armstrong.  Ore 

gon,  ill,  1857.    Sap'tin.— Wilkes,  West.  Am..  97, 
is i;t.     Sha-ap-tin.— Farnham, Trav., 69,  is- 


haptain  — Ross.  Advent..  217.  1x19.  Shahaptan.— 
Scouler  in  Jour.  Gcog.  Soc.  Lond..  XI,  225,  1811. 
Shahaptanian.— Dorsey  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  n,  ;v>, 
1889.  Sha-haptemish.— (iairdner  in  Jour.  Roy. 
Geog  Soc  Lond.,  XI,  256,  1811.  Shahapts.— Deni- 
ker  Races  of  Man,  5:52.  1900.  Shaw-ha-ap-ten. — 
Ross  Fur  Hunters,  I,  185,  1855.  Shaw  Haptens.— 
Ross,  Advent.,  127,  1X49.  Shi'wanish.  —Mooney  in 
14th  Rep.  B.  A.  F.,744.  1896  ( 'strangers  from  up 
the  river':  Tenino  name:  applied  also  to  tl 
Cayuse).  Shopumish.— Kingsley,  Standard  I 


[B.  A.  E. 

Hi-t..  1't.  vi.  1(0.  18X5.  Tcha\sukush.—  Gatschet, 
MS.,  15.  A.  K.  iCaddo  namei.  Tchiitpelit.— Ibid. 
o\\  n  nainr  >.  Thoig'  a-rik-kah.— Stuart.  Montana. 
76.  1865  ( •  kouse-enters ' :  Shoshoni  name).  Tsoi'- 
gah.  -Ibid..  77.  Tsoo-ah  gah  rah.— (iebow,  Shos- 
hoiiay  Voeab..  16.  1868  (Shoshoni  name).  Tsuharu- 
kats.  '  (intsehet.  MS..  15.  A.  K.  (Pawnee  name). 
Tsiitpeli.  —  Ibid,  (own  name).  TJp-pup  pay. — Anon. 
Crow  MS.  voeab..  15.  A.  K.,  n.d.  (Crow  name). 

Nhaiiken  (X'fm.i'ikE)i).  A  Ntlakyapa- 
imik  village  near  Spences  Bridge,  Thomp 
son  r.,  Brit.  Col.  —  Hill-Tout  in  Rep. 
Kthnol.  Surv.  Can.,  4,  ISM. 

Niagara.  Being  of  Iroquoian  origin, 
one  of  the  earliest  forms  of  this  place- 
name  is  that  in  the  .Jesuit  Kelation  for 
H141.  in  which  it  is  written  Oitgniaahru, 
evidently  a  misprint  for  Ongniualwci,  and 
it  is  there  made  the  name  of  a  Neutral 
town  and  of  the  river  which  to-day  bears 
this  designation, although  Ougmctrahronon 
of  the  Jesuit  Relation  for  the  year  1640  ap 
pears  to  l>e  a  misprint  for  0)igniarahronon, 
signifying  '  people  of  Ongniarah.'  The 
Iro.juois  and  their  congeners  applied  it  to 
the  place  whereon  the  village  of  Youngs- 
town,  Niagara  co.,  N.  Y.,  now  stands. 
<  >u  the  Tabula  Nova1  Franci;c,  in  Historic 
Canadensis,  sev  Nova'-Franci;e  (bk.  10, 
Paris,  1H<>4,  but  made  in  itWO  by  Francis- 
cus  Creuxius,  S.  J.),  the  falls  of  Niagara 
are  called  "Ongiara  cutarractes."  Much 
ingenuity  has  been  exercised  in  attempts 
to  analy/e  this  name.  The  most  probable 
derivation,  however,  is  from  the  Iroquoian 
sentence-word,  which  in  Onondaga  and 
Seneca  becomes  < >'hnuV <j<V ,><\\\(\  in "Tnsca- 
n.ra  l'-hn'm' hV i;  signifying  'bisected  bot 
tom-  lan<l.'  Its  first  use  was  perhaps  by  the 
Neutral  or  Huron  tribes.  (.1.  x.  n.  ii.) 

Niagara.  A  species  of  grape,  well  known 
in  the  \.  i:.  portion  of  the  Tinted  States; 
so  called  from  its  cultivation  in  the  Nia 
gara  peninsula.  Aisothe  nameof  a  variety 
of  tomato,  recorded  in  Tracv  (Am.  Var 
of  Veget.  for  !«»()]  2,  \Vash.,"  1903);  from 
the  place-name  .\n//f<trn,  (|.v.  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Niakewankih.  A  former  village  of  the 
Clatsop  on  the  Pacific  coast,  s.  of  Pt  Ad 
ams  at  the  mouth  of  Ohanna  cr.,  Clatsop 
co.,()reg.  (Boas,  Kathlamet  Texts,  236, 
Mini  i. 

Neahkowin.  -Lynian   in   <>re^.  Hist.  Soc.  o,,nr     I 
••i     IMU'   Nia'kIewan(lix--H())ls-  KathlametTexts! 

Niakla  (Xl-atf-ln).  A  former  Chuma- 
shan  village  on  Santa  Crux  id.,  Cal..  K.  of 
the  harbor. —  Henshaw,  Buenaventura 
MS.  vocal..,  15.  A.  K.,  ]SS4. 

Niakonaujang.     An    . \kudnirmiut     Ks- 
kimo   settlement  on    Padli  fjord     Baffin 
Niaqpnaujang.— Boas  in  fith  Rep.  B.  v   K    .141   ixxx. 

Niantic   (contr.  of    \uinntnkfj-nt,   'at  a 
I"""'   "1    hind  on  a  [tidal]   river  or  estu- 
'Inimbulh.     An  Algon<inian  tribe 
v   occupying  the  coast  of   Rhode 
''"in    Narragansett  bay   to  about 
the  (  onnecticiit   state  line,     their  prin 
cipal  village,  \\Ykapaug,  was  on  the  great 
I">"d    near    Charlestown.      Thev    were 

c-losely  connected  with  the  Narraganset, 
forming  practically  one  tribe  with  them. 
By  refusing  to  join  in  King  Philip's  war 
in  1<>75  they  preserved  their  territory 
and  tribal  organization,  and  at  the  close 
of  the  war  the  Narraganset  who  submit 
ted  to  the  English  were  placed  with 

NIANTIC    WOMAN.        ( F.    G.    SPECK.   PHOTO.) 

the  Niantic  under  Ninigret,  and  the 
whole  body  thenceforth  took  the  name  of 

Narraganset,  (,j.   M.) 

Naantucke. — Patrick  (1637)  in  Mass. Hist.  Soc.Coll., 
1th  s.,  vn,  324,  1865.  Nahantick.— Charter  of  1663 
in  R.  I.  Col.  Rec..  n,  18,  1857.  Nahanticut.—  Under 
bill  (16:58)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  vi,  1, 1837. 
Naiantukq-ut.—  Trumbull,  Ind.  Names  Conn.,  3(5, 
1881  (Narraganset  and  Mohegan  form)  Nan- 
teqets.— Co(l<liiiKton(1640)in  Mass.  Hist,  Soc.Coll., 
1th  s.,  vi,  318,  1863.  Nantequits.— Ibid.  Nayanta- 
cott.  — Doe.  of  166:5  in  R.  1.  Col.  Rec.,  i,  513,  1856. 
Nayantakick.— Williams  (1(537)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  4th  s.,  vi,  200,  1863.  Nayantakoogs.— Ibid., 
'203.  Nayantaquist.— Williams  (16-18),  ibid.,  3d  s., 
IX,  275,  1846.  Nayantaquit.— Williams  (ctt  1636), 
ibid.,  i,  160.  1825.  Nayanticks.— Williams  (1638), 
ibid.,  4th  s.,  vi,  248,  1863.  Nayantiks.— Williams 
(1670),  ibid.,  1st  s.,  i,  278,  1806.  Nayantuk.— 
Pynchon  (1645),  ibid.,  4th  s.,  vi,  374, 1863.  Nayan- 
tuqiqt.— Williams  (1648),  ibid.,  3d  s.,  ix,  275,  1846. 
Nayantuquit.— Williams  (1637),  ibid.,  4th  s.,  vi,217, 
1863.  Nayhantick.— Charter  of  1663  in  R.  I.  Col. 
Rec..  iv,  371,  1859.  Nayhautick.— Ibid.,  304  (mis 
print).  Neantick.— Protestof  1662,  ibid. ,1,454, 1856. 
Neanticot.— Parsons.  R.  I.  Local  Names,  19,  1861. 
Neanticutt.— Hopkins  (1646)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  4th  s.,  vi,  334,  1*63.  Neantucke.— Patrick 
(1637),  ibid.,  VII,  S25,  1865.  Nehanticks.  — Holmes, 
ibid.,  Ists.,  ix,  71),  1804.  Neyantick.— Eaton  (1647), 
ibid.,  4th  s.,  vi,  347,  1863.  Niantaquit.— Williams 
(163(5)  quoted  by  Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,bk  2  102  1848. 
Niantecutt.— Doc.  of  1659  in  R.  I.  Col.  Rec.,  I,  424, 

1856.  Niantic.— Doc.  of  1(547  quoted  by  Drake,  Bk. 
hids..  bk.  2,  109,  1818.     Nianticut.— Doe.  of  1660  in 

t.  I.  Col.  Rec.,  i,  450,  1856.  Niantique.— Katon 
(1652)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1th  s.,  vil,  468,  1865. 
Niantuck. — Writer  after  1686,  ibid.,  3d  s.,  I,  210, 
182.").  Niantucuts.— Ili^Lrinson  ( 1637),  ibid.,  4th  s., 
vu,  396.  1865.  Nihantick.— Tinker  (1659),  ibid., 
Ninantics.— Schooler.-! ft.  Did.  Tribes,  VI,  112, 

1857.  Nocanticks.  — Ibid..  150.     Nyantecets. — Vin 
cent  ( 1638  i  in   Mass.  Hist.  Soc    Coll     3d  s    vi,  35, 
1837.     Nyantecutt.— Doc.  of  1659  in  R.  I.  Col.  Ree., 

BULL.  30] 


I,  418,  1856.  Nyanticke.— Vincent  (1G38)  in  Mass 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  VI,  37,  1837.  Nyhantick.— 
Tinker  (1660),  ibid.,  4th  s.,  vn,  241,  1865. 

Niantic.    An  Algonquian  tribe  formerly 
occupying  the  coast  of  Connecticut  from 
Niantic  bay  to  Connecticut  r.     De  Forest 
concluded  that  they  once  formed  one  tribe 
with  the  Rhode  Island  Niantic,   which 
was  cut  in  two  by  the  Pequot  invasion. 
Their  principal  village,  also  called  Niantic, 
was  near  the  present  town  of  that  name. 
They  were  subject  to  the  Pequot,  and  had 
no  political  connection  with  the  eastern 
Niantic.     They  were  nearly  destroyed  in 
the  Pequot  war  of  1637,  and  at  its  close 
the  survivors  were -placed  under  the  rule 
of  the  Mohegan.     They  numbered  about 
100  in  1638,  and  about  85  in  1761.     Many 
joined  the  Brotherton    Indians   in  New 
York  about  1788,  and   none    now  exist 
under  their  own  name.     Kendall  (Trav., 
1809)  states  that  they  had  a  small  village 
near   Danbury  in  1809,  but   these   were 
probably  a  remnant  of  the  western  Con 
necticut  tribes,  not  Niantic.    According  to 
Speck  (inf'n,  1907)  several  mixed  Niantic- 
Mohegan   live  at  Mohegan,   Conn.,  the 
descendants  of  a  pure  Niantic  woman  from 
the  mouth  of  Niantic  r.    Their  voices  are 
commonly  said  to  have  been  high-pitched 
in  comparison  with  those  of  their  neigh 
bors.  (,r.  M.) 
Naihantick.— Early  form  cited  by  Trumbull,  Ind. 
Names    Conn.,    86,   1881.      Na-ticks.— Macauley, 
N.  Y.,  ir,  164, 1829  (incorrectly  so  called) .    Nayan- 
tiaquct.— Williams  (1648)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.. 
3d  s.,   ix,   272,   1846.     Nianticks.— Winthrop   (ca. 
1642)  quoted  by  Drake.  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  2,  67,  1848. 
Niantigs.— Cobbet  (1645) ,  ibid.,  83.    Pequot  Nayan- 
taquit.— Williams  (1637)  quoted  by  Trumbull,  Ind. 
Names  Conn.,  36, 1881.     Pequt  Nayantaquit.— Wil 
liams  (1637)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  4th  s.,  vi, 
220,  1863. 

Niantilik  ( '  with  the  gulls  ' ) .  An  Oko- 
mitit  Fskimo  village  of  the  Kinguamiut 
subtribe,  on  Cumberland  sd.,  Canada. 
Naintilic.— Howgate,  Cruise  of  Florence,  50,  1877. 
Niantilic.— Kumlien  in  Bull.  Nat.  Mas.  no.  15,  15, 

Nibakoa.  A  former  village,  mentioned 
in  1777-78,  seemingly  in  the  vicinity  of 
Portage,  Columbia co.,Wis.  It  contained 
a  mixed  population  of  Chippewa  and  ap 
parently  of  Sank  and  Foxes. 
Nabakoa.— (Jautier  (1777-78)  in  Wis.  Hist.  Soc. Coll., 
XI,  110,  18SS.  Nibakoa.— Ibid.,  109. 

Nibowisibiwininiwak  ('Death  ri ver peo 
ple' ).  A  subdivision  of  the  Chippewa  liv 
ing  in  Saskatchewan,  x.  of  L.  Winnipeg. 
Cf.  Onepowesepewenewak. 

Lake  Winnipeg  band, — Smithson.  Misc.  Coll.,  IV, 
art.  6,  35, 1878.  Nibowi-sibi-wininiwak.—  Gatschet, 
OjibwaMS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1882. 

Nicassias.  A  name  applied  by  early 
writers  (Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Mar.  30, 
1860)  to  a  group  of  Moquelumnan  Indians 
who  formerly  lived  near  the  coast,  in 
Marin  co.,  Cal.  (s.  A.  u. ) 

Nichewaug.  A  village,  probably  of  the 
Nipmuc,  about  the  present  Nichewaug, 
near  Petersham,  Worcester  co.,  Mass. 
The  Indians  remained  until  1754,  when 
they  joined  the  French  against  the  Fng- 

lish.—  Barber,  Hist.  Coll.  Mass    597  1K",!>- 
Kizmicutt,  Ind.  Names,  30,  1905.     ' 

Nichochi.     A    Chuma^han    village    ,.n 
Santa  Cruz  id.,  Cal.,  in  1542. 

Nicholas.     See  Orontony. 

Niciat.  The  local  name  for  a  body  of 
Upper  Lillooet  around  Seton  lake  inte 
rior  of  P>ritish  Columbia.  Pop.  5o  jn 


Nickajack.  A  former  important  Chero 
kee  town  on  the  s.  bank  of  Tennessee  r 
in  Marion  co.,  Tenn.  It  was  settled  in 
1782  by  Cherokee  who  espoused  the  Brit 
ish  cause  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  and 
was  known  as  one  of  the  Chickamauga 
towns.  It  was  destroyed  in  the  fall  of 
1794.  The  meaning  of  the  name  is  lost 
and  it  is  probably  not  of  Cherokee  origin, 
although  it  occurs  also  in  the  tribe  as  a 
man's  name.  In  the  corrupted  form 
"Nigger  Jack"  it  is  applied  to  a  creek  of 
Cullasagee  r.  above  Franklin,  in  Macon 
co.,  N.  C.  See  Royce  in  5th  Rep.  I',.  A. 
F.,  ma]),  1887;  Moonev  in  li»th  Rei.  T, 
A.  F.,  527,  1900. 

Nicojack.—  Doc.  of  1799  quoted  by  Royce  in  5th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  141,  issT.  Nflratseg.—  M'ooney  op 
cit.(abbr.form).  NIkutse'ei.—  Ibid.  Nikwatse'el  — 
Ibid.  NukStse'gi.—  Ibid. 
^  Nickomin.  A  former  Chehalis  town  on 
North  r.,  which  Hows  into  Shoal  water 
bay,  Wash. 

Necomanchee,  —  Swan,  X.  W.  Coast,  211,  1*57. 
NExumE'ntc.—  Boas,  inf'n,  1905,  (correct  'native 

Nicola  Band.  One  of  four  subdivisions 
of  the  Upper  Ntlakyapamuk  in  the  inte 
rior  of  British  Columbia. 
Cawa'xamux.  —  Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  His!., 
II,  170,  1900  ('  people  of  the  creek,'  i.  e.,  Nicola 
r.)_1_  Nicola  band.  —  Ibid.  Tcawa'xamux.—  Ibid. 
Tcua'qamuq.—  Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ktlinol.  Surv. 
Can.,  5,  1899. 

Nicola  Valley  Indians.  The  otlicial  desig 
nation  of  a  large  number  of  local  groups  in 
British  Columbia,  principally  Cowichan, 
Lillooet,  and  Ntlakyapamuk  Indians, 
numbering  522  in  1878.  —  Can.  Ind.  A  ft'., 
74,  1878. 

Nicomen.  ACowichan  tribe  on  Nicomen 
slough  and  at  the  mouth  of  Wilson  cr., 
lower  Fraserr.,  Brit.  Col.  Their  villages 
are  Skweahm  and  Lahaui,  but  the  name 
has  become  attached  to  the  latter  town  of 
the  tribe,  which  in  1906  had  Hi  inhabi 
tants.  The  aggregate  population  of  Nico 
men  and  Skweahm  was  44  in  190(5. 
LKk-'a'mKl.—  Boas  in  Rep.  (Hth  Meeting  Brit. 
A.A.S.,  454,  1891.  Nacomen.—  Can.  Ind.  AfV.,  "X, 
1878.  NeK-'a'mEn.  —  Boas.  op.  cit.  Nicoamen.— 
("an.  Ind.  AfT.,309,  1S79.  Nicoamin.—  Ibid.,  7(i,  1S7S. 
Nicomen.—  Ibid.,  pt.  I.  27C>.  IS'.U. 

Nicotowance.  When  the  career  of  (  )pe- 
chanoanouffh  (q.  v.  )  as  chief  of  the  Pa- 
mimkey  tribe,  as  well  as  of  the  Powhatan 
confederacy,  terminated  on  his  death  in 
1644,  he  was  succeeded  as  ruler  of  the 
Pamunkey  Indians  by  Nicotow;ince. 
This  chief,  desirous  of  obtaining  rest  for 



his  |>e-ople,  entered  into  a  treaty  of  peace 
with  the  colonial  authorities  ami  was 
assigned.  l»y  an  act  ol  the  Virginia  as 
sembly,  Oct.  10,  1»>49,  certain  lands  for 
himself  ai,d  his  people.  His  control, 
however,  appears  to  have  been  of  short 
duration,  as  he  soon  disappears,  from  his 
tory.  (C.  T.  ) 

Nigaluk.  A  Xunatogmiut  Eskimo  vil 
lage  at  the  mouth  of  Colville  r.,  Alaska. 
Nig-a-lek.— Dull  in  Coin.  N.  A.  Kthnol.,  i,  map, 
]s77.  Nigaluk.— Bak IT,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  1902. 

Nigco.  The  tribal  name  assigned  to  an 
Indian  bai>ti/.ed  in  17.' JO  at  San  Antonio 
de  Valero  mission,  Texas.  There  were 
both  Tonkawan  and  Coahuiltecan  tribes 
there  at  the  time,  but  the  Xigco  can  not 
be  identified  with  anv  of  those  known. 
It  may  be  Sinicu,  some  of  which  tribe 
had  been  baptized  in  1728.  and  who  were 
probably  Coahuiltecan  (Valero  Ikuitis- 
mos.  paftida :>25,  .MS.  in  the  custody  of  the 
bishop  of  San  Antonio  i.  (H.  E.  K.  ) 

Nighetauka  ('Ijig  belly').  A  band  of 
the  Miniconjou  Sioux. 

Nige-taijka.  — Dorsey  in  15th  Rrp.  15.  A.  E.,  220, 
1*97.  Nixe-tanka.— Ibid. 

Nightasis.  A  I  laida  town  of  this  name 
is  given  in  John  Work's  list,  18M-41, 
with  lf>  houses  and  280  inhabitants.  It 
seems  impossible  to  identify  the  name 
with  that  of  any  known  town.  On  other 
grounds  KuiiLr,  in  Xaden  harbor,  would 
appear  to  be  the  town  intended. 
Nigh  tan.  -Work  (ls::ti--IH  in  Srhoolcraft,  Ind. 
Tribes  v.  l-'.<,  ixVi.  Nigh-tasis.— Da wson,  Queen 
Charlotte  Ids.  IT.'.B,  l^M). 

Night  Cloud.  Mentioned  by  Culbert- 
son  (Smithson.  Rep.  lxf>(),  I42,~18f>l)  as  a 
band  of  O-iaia  Sioux.  They  probably 
took  their  name  from  the  chief. 

Nigiklik.     A  former  Eskimo  village  in 
Alaska  at  the  head  of  the  Yukon  delta. 
Nigiklik  miout.  -/airoskin    in   Nonv.    Ann.    Yoy 
•"'tli  s..    xxi.    niiij).'  ls:,o.     Nygykligmjut.— Holiii- 
IMTLT,  Kthiioy.  Ski//.,  map.  ]>..">.">. 

Nigottine  ('moss  people').  A  part  of 
the  Kawchogottine  division  of  the  Kaw- 
Hiodinne  living  along  the  outlet  of  Great 
I  Tear  lake,  Macken/ie  Ter.,  Canada. 
Ni-gottine.  — IVtjtot  in  Bui.  Sue.  dc  Grog.  Paris, 
••hart.  Is;.').  Nnea-gottine.— Petitot,  MS.  vocab.,  B! 
iMi.'i.  Nni  Gottine.—  I'etitot,  . \ntour  (In  lac 
•!»•«  Ksclavrs.  :{<;:{,  IS'.U.  Nni-ottine.  —  I'ctitot  Diet 
[)eiu'--Diii(ljir,  xx,  isTti. 

Nijuchsagentisquoa  (probably  'it  is  very 
tall  reeds.'  — Hewitt).  A  Cayuga  chief, 
one  of  the  signers  at  Albaiiy,  X  Y 
July  M».  I7(H.  of  the  "deed  from  the  Five 
Nations  to  the  Kin^h'f  Mn«rlan,i]  Of  their 
l»ea\er  hunting  irround."  —  X.  Y.  Doe 
<  'ol.  Hist  ,  i\,  111  I ),  lsr)4. 

Nikaomin  (  .V^/,,', /,„;„,  or  AV////'//////,  so 
named  beeause  the  water  comes  from  a 
lake  called  Xyinmn'tkn,  'wolf  lake  or 
water';  iron,  xrr//,//,  'wolf').  A  Xtlak- 
yapamuk  town  on  the  s.  side  of  Thomp- 
*'"  r-.  l(l  '".  above  Lytton,  P.rit.  Col 
s  called  Thompson  by  the  whites 
Pop.  4'.»  in  I'.inti. 

NKqa'umin.     T.-ii  in  Mem.  A  in  .M  us .  N,,t .  Ili^t    \\ 
Ni  ca-o-min.— Can.  In<l.    AIT.  18.S."),    l«)t;' 

ISSti.  Nicomen.— I  bid. ,309,  1879.  Nicomin.— Ibid., 
map,  1S91.  Nikaomin.  — Ibid.,  }it.  II,  Ki6,  1901. 
N'kau'men.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Kthnol.  Snrv.  Can., 
4.  1S<J9.  Nqau'min. — Teit,  op.  eit.  Thompson. — 
Ibid,  (modern  name). 

Nikapashna  ('bald  head').  The  third 
gens  on  the  Chizhu  side  of  the  Ponca 
tribal  circle.  Its  subgentes  are  Dtesin- 
deita/hi,  Dtedhezedhatazhi,  and  J)takh- 

Na-ko  poz'-na. — Morgan,  Ane.Soc..  155, 1877 (trans, 
'elk').  Nika-da-ona.— Dorsey in  15th  Rep.B.A.E., 
228,  1*97. 

Nikhdhitanwan.  An  ancient  Osage  vil 
lage  at  the  junction  of  the  Sac  and  Osage 
rs.  in  Missouri. 

Ni-q0i'  ta"-wa».— Dorsey,  Osage  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A. 
E.,  1888.  Niqdhi  ta"wan.— Ibid. 

Nikhkak.  A  Knaiakhotana  village  of 
about  a  dozen  houses  on  L.  Clark,  Alaska. 
The  people,  most  of  whom  are  of  Russian 
admixture,  obtain  clothing  and  other  ar 
ticles  of  civilized  comfort  from  the  trading 
posts  on  Cook  inlet.  Their  houses  and. 
fish  caches  are  built  of  hewn  logs,  floored 
with  planks,  and  they  make  windows  of 
parchment.  Pop.  42  in  1891;  about  25 
in  1904. 

Keeghik.— Osgood  in  Nat.  Geog.  Mag.,  xv,  329, 
1904  (from  their  name  for  the  lake).  Keejik. — 
Osgood  (1902)  quoted  by  Baker,  Geog.  Diet. 
Alaska,  364,  1906.  Kijik.— Baker,  ibid.  Nikhak.— 
Osgood  in  Nat.  Geog.  Mag.,  op.  cit.  Nikhkak.— 
("oast  Survey  map  (189s)  cited  by  Baker,  op.  cit. 

Nikiata.  A  Qua  paw  gens. — Dorsey  in 
loth  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  230,  1897. 

Nikie  name.  A  term  employed  by  Dor 
sey  (8d  Rep.  P>.  A.  K.,  22t,  1884)  to 
designatea  name  "referring to  a  mythical 
ancestor,  to  some  part  of  his  body,  to 
some  of  his  acts,  or  to  some  ancient  rite 
which  may  have  been  established  by 
him";  derived  from  'ii'ikie,  the  word  for 
such  a  name  in  the  Omaha  dialect  of  the 
Siouan  stock.  According  to  Francis  La 
Flesche  (inf'n,  1907),  i/i/:(<i-sfii-(/a}ie  is 
derived  from  nikdshign  'people,'  and  ie 
'  word  or  utterance,'  and  a  nUde  name  is 
one  given  by  the  people  or  by  the  word 
of  the  people — a  name  conferred  by  the 
consent  of  the  people.  As  the  chief  was 
the  mouthpiece  of  the  people,  a  nikie 
name  is  sometimes  defined  as  spoken  by 
a  chief,  but  the  primary  meaning  is  that 
the  name  is  conferred  by  the  word  of  the 
people.  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Nikikouek  ( from  the  Chippewa  or  a 
cognate  dialectic  term  nikiy  'otter',  with 
anim.  pi.  sullix  -ow/-— '  otter  people'. 
1'errot  says  the  form  with  initial  ?//,  Mik- 
•ikonet,  is  from  their  own  language;  such 
is  the  case  in  the  cognate  Menominee 
tnikif/}.  A  little  known  Algonquian  tribe 
that  formerly  dwelt  E.  of  the  Missisauga, 
among  the  rock  caverns  on  the  x.  shore  of 
L.  Huron.  They  are  described  as  lacking 
in  courage,  and  haying  much  to  do  with 
the  tribes  northward.  Twice  a  year,  like 
the  Missisauga,  they  deserted  their  village 
to  hunt  and  fish  along  the  lake  for  stur 
geon  and  other  fish,  and  there  obtained 
bark  for  constructing  canoes  and  lodges. 

BULL.  30] 



On  the  approach  of  winter  they  fre 
quented  the  lake  shores  to  kill  beaver  and 
elk,  whence  they  returned  in  the  spring 
to  plant  and  tend  their  corn.  In  1653, 
jointly  with  the  Saulteurs  and  the  Missi- 
sauga,  they  so  completely  defeated  an 
Iroquois  war-party  of  120  men  that  but 
few  escaped.  (,i.  x.  B.  H.) 

Gens  de  la  Loutre. — Perrot  (ca.  1724),  Memoire 
83,  1864.  Mikikoues.— Ibid.,  219.  Mikikoiiet.— 
Ibid.,  83.  Nation  de  la  Loutre. — Bacquevilledela 
Potherie,  Hist.  Amer.  Sept.,  n,  48,  1753.  Nation  of 
the  Otter.— Heriot,  Trav..  209,  1807.  Nigik.— Kel- 
ton,  Ft  Mackinae,  20,  1881.  Nikicouek.— Jes.  Rel., 
Ill,  index.  1858.  Nikikouek.— Jes.  Rel.  1658,  22, 
1858.  Nikikoues.— I'errot,  Memoire,  index,  1864. 

Nikishka.  A  Knaiakhotana  village,  of 
57  inhabitants  in  1880,  near  the  head  of 
Cook  inlet,  Alaska.— Petroff  in  10th  Cen 
sus,  Alaska,  29,  1884. 

Nikolaief  (presumably  named  by  the 
Russians  after  Tsar  Nikolas) .  An  Aleut 
village  N.  of  Belkofski,  on  Alaska  penin., 
Alaska;  pop.  43  in  1880. 
Nikolaievsky.— Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  23, 

Nikolski.  An  Aleut  settlement  and 
trading  post  for  otter  skins  on  Umnak  id., 
Alaska.  Pop.  83  in  1834,  127  in  1880,  94 
in  1890. 

Nikolskoje. — Holmberg,  Ethnog.  Skizz.,  map,  1855. 
Nikolsky.— Elliott,  Our  Arct.  Prov.,  184,  1886. 
Oomnak. — Ibid.,  179.  Recheshnaia. — Veniamhu>ff 
quoted  by  Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  35,  1884. 
Retchechnoi. — Lutke  quoted  by  Baker,  Geog. 
Diet.  Alaska,  462,  1906.  Riechesnoe.— Ibid.,  1902. 
Rjatscheschnoje. — Holmberg,  op.  cit.  Rychesnoi. — 
Veniaminoff  (1833)  quoted  by  Klliott,  Cond.  Aff. 
Alaska,  225,  1875.  Umnak.— Eleventh  Census, 
Alaska,  163,  1893. 

Nikozliautin  ('people  of  the  river  cov 
ered  with  the  enemy's  arrows').  A  Ta- 
kulli  clan  or  division  on  the  s.  half  of 
Stuart  lake  and  on  Pintce  r.,  Brit.  Col. 
They  inhabit  two  villages,  Nakraztli  and 
Pintce.  The  name  comes  from  a  legend 
of  a  tribe  of  dwarfs  who  once  attacked 
their  village  in  such  numbers  that  the 
surface  of  Stuart  r.  was  covered  with  float 
ing  arrows  (Morice  in  Trans.  Can.  Inst, 
188,  1891 ).  The  Nikozliautin  are  devout 
Catholics,  sober,  law-abiding,  and  hos 
pitable.  Their  main  resources  are  hunt 
ing,  trapning,  and  fishing.  Pop.  234  in 

Na-kas-le-tin. — Dawson  in  Rep.  Geol.  Surv.  Can., 
30B,  1881.  Nakazeteo-ten.—  Smet,  Miss,  de  1' Oregon, 
63,1844.  Na-ka-ztli-tenne.— Morice,  letter,  1890. 
Nakoozetenne.— Can.  Ind.  AfT.,  215,  1902.  Na-'kra- 
ztli-'tenne.  — Morice,  Notes  on  W.  Dene\s,  26,  1893. 
Nancaushy  Tine.— Jour.  Anthrop.  Inst.,  vir,  206, 
1878.  Nekaslay.— McLean,  Hudson's  Bay,  i,  262, 
1849.  Nekaslayans.— Ibid.,  263.  Nekasly.— Ibid., 
269.  Nikozliantin.— Mac-donald,  British  Columbia. 
126,1862.  Nikozliantins. — Domenech,  Deserts  of 
N.  Am.,  n,  62,  1860.  Nikozliautin.— Hale,  Ethnog. 
and  PhiloL,  202,  1846.  Stewart's  Lake  Indians.— 
Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  79,  1878. 

Niktak.  A  Kaviagmiut  Eskimo  village 
on  C.  Prince  of  Wales,  Alaska. 

Nikhtagmut. — Zt-goskin,  Descr.  Russ.  Poss.  Am., 
1,73,1847  (the  people). 

Nilakshi  ( 'dawn' ).  A  former  Klamath 
settlement  at  or  below  Nilaks  mtn.,  E. 
shore  of  Upper  Klamath  lake,  Oreg.  The 
name  is  now  used  to  designate  Modoc 

point,  but  it  properly  refers  to  Nilaks  mtn. 
ridge   only.— Gatschet    in    Com.    X.    \ 
Ethnol.,  n,  pt.  i,  xxx,  1890. 
Nilakskni  mafclaks.— Gatschet,  op  fit     pt    n  243 
(name  of  people). 

Nilalhuyu  (Ni-M-hu'-yu).  A  former 
Chumashan  village  on  Santa  Cruz  id., 
Cal.,  the  inhabitants  of  which  are  said  to 
have  been  celebrated  for  the  practice  of 
sorcery.— Henshaw,  Buenaventura  MS 
vocab.,  B.A.  F.,  1884. 

Nilestunne  (  Xl-foii'im*',  '  people  at  the 
small  dam  in  the  river').  A  former  vil 
lage  _of  the  Mishikhwutmetunne  on 
Coquille  r.,  Oreg.  —  Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am. 
Folk-lore,  in,  232,  1S90. 

Niletunne.  A  former  village  of  the 
Tututni  on  the  Oregon  coast,  beingthelirst 
village  s.  of  the  Kusan  village  of  Xasumi, 
s.  of  the  mouth  of  Coquille  r. 

Jake's  people.  —  Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in, 
233. 1X90  (referring  to  man  on  Siletx  res.)! 
Ni-le'  lunne'.— Ibid. 

Nilsumack.  A  Salish  l>and.  probably 
Cowichan,  under  the  Fraser  superinten- 
dency,  Brit,  Col.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  78,  1878. 

Niltala.  A  Wikeno  village  on  Rivers 
inlet,  Brit.  Col.— Boas  in  Petermanns 
Mitt.,  pt.  5,  130,  1887. 

Nim  (iietnn  or  i/i't/n,  'people').  A  name 
adopted  by  Merriam  (Science,  xix,  916, 
1904)  to  designate  a  Mono-Paviotso  divi 
sion  on  the  N.  fork  of  San  Joaquin  r.  and 
the  adjacent  region  in  California  Regard 
ing  it,  Kroeber  (Univ.  (1al.  Pub.,  Am. 
Arch;col.  and  Fthnol.,  iv,  1 19,  1907)  says: 
"Xim  is  not  a  tribal  name  but  the  word  for 
person,  ti.i'aii,  which  occurs  also  in  other 
Mono  dialects  as  far  s.  and  E.  a<  Kings  r. 
and  Owens  r.,  so  that  it  cannot  be  re 
garded  as  distinctive  of  these  people  x. 
of  the  San  Joaquin."  In  one  or  another 
form  it  is  the  common  Shoshonean  desig 
nation  for  'men,'  'people.' 
Pa-zo-6ds.— Merriam,  op.  fit.  (Holkomah  name). 

Nimatlala  (Xt-mut-la'-lu}.  A  former 
Chumashan  village  on  Santa  Crux  id., 
E.  of  Prisoners  harbor. — Ilenshaw,  Bu 
enaventura  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  F.,  1S84. 

Nimham,  Daniel.  A  YVappinger  chief, 
noted  not  only  for  his  active  participation 
in  the  wars  of  1746  and  1754,  but  espe 
cially  for  his  efforts  to  recover  for  his  tribe 
the  lands  lying  along  the  E.  side  of  Hud 
son  r.  that  had  been  taken  from  it,  while 
aiding  the  English.  The  earliest  recorded 
notice  of  him  is  Oct.  13,  1730,  the  date  of 
an  affidavit  in  which  it  is  slated  that  the 
deponent  was  "a  River  Indian  of  the 
tribe  of  the  Wappinoes "  ( Ruttenber, 
Tribes  Hudson  R.,  51,  1S72).  Nimham 
was  made  chief  sachem  in  1740;  his  resi 
dence  after  1746  was  at  Westenhuck.  In 
1755,  with  most  of  his  fighting  men,  he 
entered  the  English  service  under  Sir 
William  Johnson,  and  about  1762,  in 
company  with  some  Mohegan  chiefs  of 
Connecticut,  went  to  Fngland  on  a  mis 
sion  regarding  their  land  claims.  They 


[B.  A.  E. 

received  a  favorable  hearing,  and  on  their 
return  t«>  America  their  claim*  \yere 
brought  into  court,  but  were  lost  to  slight 
durini:  the  Revolution.  Nimham  was 
killed  at  the  battle  of  Kingsbridge,  N. 
Y.,  Aug.  31,  1778,  while  lighting  bravely 
in  the  cause  of  the  Americans.  Near  the 
entrance  to  IVlham's  Nock,  Westchester 
co.,  N.  Y.,  were,  according  to  Ruttenber 
(op.  cit.,  SI  ),  two  large  mounds,  pointed 
<»ut  as  the  sepulchers  of  Ann-IIoock  and 
Nimham.  The  name  of  Daniel  Nimham, 
as  well  as  those  of  Aaron,  John,  and 
Isaac  Nimham,  appear  in  the  rolls  of  New 
York  men  enlisted  in  the  service  of  the 
Revolution.  As  Indians  are  included  in 
the  list,  Daniel  Nimham  is  doubtless  the 
subject  of  this  sketch.  (c.  T.  ) 

Nimitapal.  A  former  Chumashan  vil 
lage  on  Santa  Crux  id.  (the  San  Lucas  of 
Cabrillo),  Cal.,  in  1542.  Possibly  the 
same  as  Nimatlala. 

Nimetapal.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Apr.  17,  1863. 
Nimitapal.— Cabrillo  (1->12)  in  Smith,  Colec.  Dot'. 
Flii..  1M.  1S.-S7. 

Nimkish  (^Xn'mges}.  A  Kwakiutl  tribe 
on  and  about  the  river  of  the  same  name 
in  N.  K.  Vancouver  id.  According  to  Rev. 
A.  .1.  Hall  they  derived  their  name  from 
that  of  a  mythical  halibut,  called  Nurn- 
hya-li-gi-yu,  which  caused  a  tide-rip  off 
the  point  of  the  bay.  The  gentes,  according 
to  Unas,  are  <  Jyigyilkam,  Nenelkyenok, 
Sisintlae,  Tlatlelamin,  and  Tsetsetloala- 
kemae.  Pop.  151  in  1901,  134  in  1906. 
eNn'mges.  —  HUMS  in  Mem.  Am.  Mns.  Nat.  Hist., 
v.  pt.  i'.  I:'-:!.  I'.to-j.  Ni.'mk'ic.— Boas  in  6th  Rcp.X.W- 
Tril.c><';m...M.  Iv.H).  NK-mqic.— Boas  in  Hep.  Nat- 
Mn<.  ls<i."S,  ;;;;i,  i.v.ty.  Nemqisch.— Boas  in  I'eter- 
maims  Mitt.,  lit..").  i:H).lN<7.  Nim-keesh.— Can.  Did- 
Atr.lsM.l'.Mi.isx;,.  Nimkis.—Taylorin  Cal.  Farmer, 
.Inly  I'.t.  ]N;-J.  Nimkish.  -Kane,  Wand,  in  N.A., 
app..  is.v.t.  Nimpkish.— Mayne,  Brit.  Col.,  17'.), 
Istii'.  Num  kes. — Hall  (jnoicd  hyDawson  in  Trans. 
Koy.  S( ic.  CM n.,  >(.•<•.  ii.  72.  1S87. 

Nimoyoyo.  A  Chumashan  village  on 
San  Miguel  id.  (the  Isla  de  Juan  Rod 
riguez  of  Cabrillo),  Cal.,  in  1542. 
Nimilolo.— Taylnr  in  CM!.  Farmer,  Apr.  17,  18(13. 
Nimollollo.— Cabrillo  (15-12)  in  Smith  Colec  Doc 
Fl.-i..  isii.  ]s:>7. 

Nimsewi  ('))ig  river').  A  division  of 
Maidu  living  on  upper  Buttecr.,  near  the 
edgi-  of  the  timber  in  P>utte  co.,  Cal. 

Nemshan.  I'.ancn  -it  NM!  .  KMCCS.  I,  -I.'H),  1S8'J  Nem- 
shaw.  -Hale.  Kt lim <x.  ;m<l  I'liilol.,  (131,  is|i;.  Nem- 
•hoos.— Bimcroft.  op.  cit.  Nemshous.— Taylor  in 
CM!.  Farmer,  .Inm-  ,\  ].st;o.  Nim  Sewi — Curtin 
Ms.  vonib.,  ]',.  A.  I-:.,  issf).  Nim'-shu.— Powers  in 
Cont.  N.  A.  KHinol..  in.  L'Mi.  ]s77  (from  -IK  ni-xc-it, 
'hiK  river' i.  Nim-sirs.  —  .lohnston  (is.")()i  in  Sen' 
x.  Doc.  I,  :v_M  Com;.,  spec.  s,.ss..  .|r,.  1853.  Nim; 
Bi'Mlr  in  Sen.  Kx.  Doc.  .77.  :;•_'<!  Con^..  i>d 
s<-«  ,  1."),  is.".:;.  Nim-sus. — .lohnston  in  Did'  MY 

i'v''p..    VI  \.    |S.r)(l. 

Ninchopan('bear').  A  T.»nka\va  clan, 
now  nearly  extinct. 

Nintchopan.— (Jatschct,  Tonkawc  MS  vocab  B 
A.  !•:  ,  i.ssj.  Nintropan.— D)id. 

Ningweegon.     See  AV////-a//o//. 

Ninibatan  (  A'/'///'/,,/-/-,///,  '  keepers  of  the 
pipe').  A  siibgens  of  the  Mandhinka- 
gau'lie  gens  of  the  Omaha. — Dorsev  in  15th 
Kep.  P,.  A.  K.,  22S,  1897. 

Ninibatan  A  subgens  of  the  Tapa  gens 
of  the  Omaha. 

Ninibatan.  A  subgens  of  the  Inshta- 
sanda  gens  of  the  Omaha,  consolidated 
prior  to  1880  with  another  snbgens  known 
as  the  Real  Inshtasanda. 

Ninigret.  A  sachem  of  the  Niantlc  in 
the  region  about  Westerly,  R.  I.,  and  a 
cousin  of  Miantonomo.  Besides  the  name 
Ninigret,  Nenekunat,  etc.,  he  bore  earlier 
that  of  Janemo  or  Ayanemo,  by  which 
he  first  became  known  to  the  English 
(Drake,  Inds.  of  N.  Am.,  131,  1880).  He 
visited  Boston  in  1637.  After  the  death 
of  Miantonomo  he  began  war  against  the 
Mohegan,  but  the  English  interfered, 
and  a  treaty  was  signed  at  Boston  in  1647. 
Contemporary  chroniclers  have  left  a  de 
tailed  account  of  the  appearance  of  Nini 
gret  before  the  commissioners  and  his 
conduct  on  that  occasion,  which  was  much 
to  his  credit.  Later  (1652)  Ninigret  vis 
ited  the  Dutch  at  Manhattan,  arousing 
the  suspicions  of  the  English,  which 
were  groundless.  The  next  year  he  made 
war  upon  the  Long  Island  Indians.  He 
abstained  from  personal  activity  during 
King  Philip's  wrar,  but  had  trouble  in 
keeping  terms  with  the  English.  He 
secured  to  himself  and  heirs  the  tribal 
land  near  Charlestown ;  and  after  the  cap 
ture  of  Nanuntenoo  (Canonchet),  the  last 
chief  of  the  Narraganset,  that  tribe  was 
consolidated  with  the  Niantic  under  Nini 
gret.  The  latter  and  Miantonomo  were 
lifelong  rivals  of  Uncas.  Notwithstand 
ing  his_  pacific  tendencies,  Ninigret  was 
drawn  into  conflict  with  the  Montauk  of 
E.  Long  Island  in  1659.  Aptly  called  by 
Mather  ''an  old  crafty  sachem,"  beseems 
to  have;  preserved  his  pride,  of  which  he 
possessed  an  inordinate  amount,  and  his 
property  as  well,  without  being  obliged 
to  fight  for  either.  Ninigret  died  full  of 
years  some  time  before  the  close  of  the 
century.  He  consistently  opposed  Chris 
tianity",  and  told  Mayhew,  the  mission 
ary,  to  "go  and  make  the  English  good 
first."  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Ninilchik.  A  Knaiakhotana  village  of 
18  houses  on  the  E.  coast  of  Cook  inlet, 
s.  of  the  mouth  of  Kasilof  r. ,  Alaska; 
inhabited  in  1890  by  45  natives  and  36 
Russian  Creole  descendants  of  the  convict 
colony  of  1793. 

Munina.— Wosnesenski's  map  (ca.  1840)  cited  by 
Baker,  (ieoff.  Diet.  Alaska,  463, 1906.  Ninilchik.— 
1'etrofT  in  Tenth  Census,  Alaska,  27,  1884. 

Ninivois.  A  Fox  chief  in  command  of 
the  warriors  of  his  tribe  at  the  siege  of 
Detroit  by  Pontiac,  in  1763.  Ninivois 
and  Take,  leader  of  the  Hurons,  appear 
to  have  been  the  most  active  aids  of  Pon 
tiac;  at  the  commencement  and  during  the 
early  part  of  the  siege  (Mich.  Pion.  Coll., 
viu,  266-339,  1886),  and  next  to  Pontiac 
were  the  leaders  in  the  councils  of  the 
besiegers  and  the  first  to  begin  the  invest- 



ment  of  the  fort.  Fulton  (Red  Men  of 
Iowa,  477,  1882)  writes  his  name  Ninivay 
and  says  he  was  a  Potawatomi.  (c.  T.) 

Ninnipaskulgee  ('highroad  people', 
from  Creek  nini-puski  'swept  road',  algi 
'people').  A  former  band  or  tribe  of 
Upper  Creeks,  probably  near  Tucka- 
batchi,  Elmore  co.,  Ala. 

Ninny-pask-ulgees.— Woodward,  Remin.,  37,  1859. 
Road  Indians. — Ibid. 

Ninstints.  A  Haida  town  which  for 
merly  stood  on  Anthony  id.,  at  the  s. 
end  of  Queen  Charlotte  ids.,  Brit.  Col. 
The  native  name  was  SgA'nguai  ( '  Red- 
cod  island'),  Ninstints  being  the  white 
man's  corruption  of  the  town-chief's 
name,  Nungstins  (iY.m  sttns,  'he  who  is 
two').  All  the  people  from  this  end  of 
Moresby  id.  gathered  there  in  compara 
tively  recent  times.  The  remnant  have 
since  abandoned  the  place  and  settled  at 
Skidegate.  It  is  impossible  to  identify 
absolutely  the  name  of  this  town  with 
that  of  any  given  in  John  Work's  list  of 
1836-41,  but  it  is  probably  referred  to  as 
"Quee-ah,"  a  town  to  which  he  assigned 
20  houses  and  a  population  of  308.  At 
the  present  day  there  are  probably  not  a 
dozen  Ninstints  people  left.  The  'family 
to  which  the  chief  of  this  town  belonged 
was  the  Sakikegawai.  See  Swanton 
Cont.  Haida,  105,  277,  1905.  (j.  R.  s.) 
NEnsti'ns.— Boas,  12th  Rep.  N.  \V.  Tribes  Can. ,25, 
1898.  Ninstance.— Dawson,  Queen  Charlotte  Ids.] 
169,  1880.  Ninstence.— Poole,  Queen  Charlotte 
Ids.,  195,  1872.  Ninstints.— Dawson,  op.  cit. 
Sg'a'nguai. — Boas,  op.  cit. 

Ninumu.  A  Chumashan  village  on  one 
of  the  Santa  Barbara  ids.,  Cal.,  probably 
Santa  Rosa,  in  1542. 

Ninimu.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Apr.  17,  1863. 
Ninumu.— Cabrillo  (1542)  in  Smith,  Colec.  Doc. 
Fla.,  186,  1857. 

Ninvok.  A  Chnagmiut  Eskimo  village 
near  the  delta  of  Yukon  r.,  Alaska. 

Ninvaug.— Zagoskin  in  Nonv.  Ann.  Voy.,  5th  s., 
xxi,  map,  1850. 

Ninyuelgual.  A  former  Chumashan 
village  near  Ptirisima  mission,  Santa 
Barbara  co.,  Cal. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer, 
Oct.  18,  1861. 

Nio.  A  small  tribe,  probably  Piman, 
long  extinct,  which  formerly  resided  in 
N.  Sinaloa,  Mexico,  their  village,  the  seat 
of  the  mission  of  San  Ignacio  de  Nio, 
occupying  the  site  of  the  present  town  of 
the  same  name.  Zapata,  in  1678  (Doc. 
Hist.  Mex.,  4th  s.,  in,  404, 1854),  said  that 
a  league  and  a  half  x.  E.  of  San  Pedro  de 
Guazave  was  the  pueblo  of  San  Ignacio 
de  Nio,  in  which  the  language  spoken, 
called  Nio,  was  particular  unto  itself, 
though  the  Mexican  was  also  in  common 
use.  Alegre  (Hist.  Com  p.  Jesus,  i,  294, 
1841)  states  that  Father  Mendez,  who 
had  entered  Sinaloa  as  a  missionary, 
recommended  "the  pueblos  and  lan 
guages  of  the  Ocoroiri  [Ocoroni],  Nio, 
and  some  others  which  he  had  held,  to 
the  charge  of  Father  Tapia." 

Niowe.  Mentioned  by  Bartram  (Trav 
els  3/1  1792)  as  a  Cherokee  settlement 
on  the  headwaters  of  Tennessee  r  about 

v*6  >^r  1V5\  P°'sil)1>'  "'tonde.1  for 
Nayu'h,,  which  signifies  'sand  place' 
Cf.  Noewe.  / ,  M  \ 

Nipaguay.  A  Diegueno  village"  near 
ban  Diego,  s.  Cal.,  about 6  m.  from  the  old 
presidio  to  which,  in  1774,  the  mission 
was  removed.  See  San  Dieao 
Nypagudy. -Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,' Feb.  ±»,lStiO 
Nipigiguit.  A  former  Micmac  village 
on  the  site  of  Bathurst,  at  tin-  mouth 
ot  Nipisiguit  r.,  New  Brunswick.  The 
trench  mission  of  Sainte  Magdalen  wa< 
there  in  1645. 

Nepegigpuit.— Jes.  RH.  1645, 35,  ls5s  Nipieieuit  — 
Aetromilo,  Abimkis,  59.  18(16.  Nipisiguit —Mem - 
bre  quoted  by  Shea,  Miss.  Val.,  86  ]s.*> 

Nipinchen.  (iiven  by  Bolton  (Hist. 
^  estchester  Co.,  1881 )  as  a  former  Indian 
fort  on  the  N.  side  of  Spuyten  Dnyvil  (or 
Papirinemen)  cr.,  at  its'  junction  with 
Hudson  r.  from  the  E.,  in  Westchester 
co.,  N.  Y.  Ruttenber  (Ind.  Geog.  Names, 
22,  1906)  says  the  name  belongs  on  the 
w.  side  of  the  Hudson,  at  Konstable's 
Hook,  and  doubts  that  there  was  any 
real  settlement  there.  CL  Nipiniclwn. 

Nipinichsen.  A  former  Manhattan  vil 
lage  on  the  E.  bank  of  Hudson  r.,  just 
above  Spin-ten  Duyvil,  X.  V. — Ruttenber 
Tribes  Hudson  R.',  77,  1872. 

Nipissing  ('at  the  little  water  or  lake', 
referring  to  L.  Xipissing;  Xiplxii-inicii, 
'little-water  people').  A  tribe  of  the 
Algonkin.  Whenthey  first  became  known 
to  the  French,  in  1613,  they  were  residing 
in  the  vicinity  of  I,.  Nipissing,  Ontario, 
which  has  been  their  home  during  most  of 
the  time  to  the  present.  Having  been 
attacked,  about  1(550,  by  the  Iroquois,  and 
many  of  them  slain,  they  lied  for  safety  to 
L.  Nipigon  (Mackenzie,  Voy.,  xli,  note, 
1802),  where  Allouez  visited  them  in  l(if>7, 
but  they  were  again  on  L.  Nipissing  in 
1671.  A  part  of  the  tribe  afterward  went 
to  Three  Rivers,  and  some  resided  with 
the  Catholic  Inxjuois  at  Oka,  where  they 
still  have  a  village.  Some  of  these  as 
sisted  the  French  in  1756.  It  is  their  dia 
lect  which  is  represented  in  Cuoq's  Lcx- 
ique  de  la  Langue  Algonquine.  They 
were  a  comparatively  unwarlike  people, 
firm  friends  of  the  French,  readily  ac 
cepting  the  Christian  teachings  of  the 
missionaries.  Although  having  a  fixed 
home,  they  were  semi-nomadic,  going 
s.  in  autumn  to  the  vicinity  of  the  liuroiis 
to  fish  and  prepare  food  for  the  winter, 
which  they  passed  among  them.  They 
cultivated  the  soil  to  a  slight  extent  only, 
traded  with  the  Cree  in  the  N.,  and  were 

ieu  v^  uii  me  vn  *    in       "    -•>•,  «*' 

ch  given  to  jugglery  and  shamanistic 
ctices,  on  which  account  the  Hurons 
and  the  whites  called  them  Sorcerers. 
Their  chiefs  were  elective,  and  their 
totems,  according  to  Chauvignerie  (X.  Y. 



[B.  A.  fi. 

I)oc.  Col.  Hist.,  x,  1053,  1855),  were  the 
hcnm,  heaver,  birehbark,  squirrel,  and 
Mno.l.  No  reliable  statistics  in  regard  to 
their  iiunihers  have  been  recorded.  The 
Indians  now  on  a  reservation  on  L.  Nipis- 
sini;  arc  otlieially  classed  as  Chippewa; 
they  nnnihered  'HJL*  in  1884,  and  223  in 
ll»0i>.  A  Nipissing  division  was  called 
Miskouaha.  (.1.  M.  ) 

AskicSaneronons.— .les.  Rel.  1(139.  8S,  1858  (-=' sor 
cerers' —  Ilt'U'itl).  AskikSanehronons. — Jcs.  Rel. 
Kill,  SI,  is.58.  Askikouaneronons.  — Ibi-1.  Aweatsi- 
waenrrhonon.— Jos.  Kel.,  Thwaites  ed.,  x,  83,  1X97. 
Bisserains.— Champjain  (f«.  1624).  (Knvres,  v.  2d 
pt.,  Til.  IvO.  Bisseriniens. — Sagard  (1636).  Can.,  I, 
190.  INK'..  Bissiriniens.— .les.  Rel. 1635.18,1858.  Bys- 
siriniens.—  Charlevoix  (1T44),  Nr\v  France, II.  95, 
ISM;.  Ebicerinys.  —Sudani  ( 1636).  Can.,  i,  172,  1866. 
Epescngles. — McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes, 
in.  MI.  isiVJ.  Epicerinyens. — Pa  sard  (1636),  Can., 
m,  727.  1N16.  Epicerinys. — Ibid.,  IV,  Huron  Diet., 
iNiii.  Epiciriniens. — Sagard  (1636)  quoted  by  Park- 
man.  Pioneers,  351,  1883.  Episingles. — Duinont, 
Mem.  of  La..  VI,  13."),  1753.  Epissingue. — Writer  of 
1756  in  X.  Y.  Dor.  Col.  Hist.,  X.  -lsf>.  1S58.  Ilgon- 
quines.  —  La  Salic  (1682)  in  French.  Hist.  Coll.  La., 
i.  16, 1M6.  Juskwaugume. — Jones,  Ojebway  Inds., 
17.\  IN',!.  Kekerannon-rounons. —  Lamberville 
ililNii  inN.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  in.  489,  1853.  Longs 
Cheveux.—  .les.  Rcl.l6Tl,  35,  1858.  Nation  des  Sor- 
ciers.— .les.  Rel.  1632,  11,  1858.  Nebicerini. — Cham- 
plain  i  1613).  (Kuvres,  in.  295.  1870.  Neperinks. — 
Clinton  i  1715)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  C«>1.  Hist.,  vi~  276, 1855. 
Nepesangs. — Pike,  Kxped.,  pt.  1,  app.,  62,  1810. 
Nepesinks.— Clinton  (1745)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
vi.  2*1 .  ]s55.  Nepessins. — Buchanan,  N.  Am.  Inds., 
I.  13'.i,  ls2l.  Nepicerinis,  —  Lahontan,  New  Voy., 
i.  113.  1703.  Nepicinquis. — Chauvignerie  (1736) 
quoted  by  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  m,  554,  1853. 
Nepicirenians.  — llcriot,  Trav.,  195,  1807.  Nepiciri- 
niens.— -Kacqueville  do  la  Potherie,  n.  48,  1753. 
Nepiscenicens.  —  Houdinot.  Star  in  the  West,  127, 
M6.  Nepiseriniens.  —  La  Barre(1682)  in  N.  Y.Doc. 
Col.  Hi-i..  ix.  I'.i6.  is.v>.  Nepisin.— Dobbs,  Hudson 
Hay.  map.  1711.  Ncpisinguis.  —  Mackenzie,  Voy., 
xlii.lNii.  Nepisirini.— Lahontan,  New  Voy.,  1, 231, 
1703.  Nepisseniniens.  — Doc.  of  1695  in  N.' Y  Doc 
Col. Hist.,  ix, 599, 1855.  Nepissens.— Boudinot,  Star 
in  the  West,  127. 1M6.  Nepisseriens.  —  Du  Chesneau 
(1681) in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  160, 1855.  Nepis- 

seriniens.  -  Doe.  of  1697,  ibid.,  (169.     Nepissings. 

Due.  ,,f  1695,  ibid.,  599.  Nepissingues.— Ibid.,  602. 
Nepissiniens.  — Ibid.,  596.  Nepissiriens.  — Du  Ches 
neau  (Itisli.  ibi.l.,  I,;D.  Nepissiriniens.— Doc.  of 
ibid.,  .->66.  Nibissiriniens.  —  I'arkman.  Pio 
neers,  351.  Iss3.  Nipeceriniens, — < 'olden  (1T27) 
Five  Xations,  2s,  17 17.  Nipercineans.— School- 
craft  Ind.  Tribes  i.  307,  lsr.1.  Nipicirinien.- 

•s.  Rel.  1639,  11,  l«:.s.  Nipisierinij.— Champlain 
HHir.i.  (Kuvres,  iv,  21,  1S70.  Nipisings.— Cox 
Columbia  K..  n.  1  12.  is:;].  Nipisineues.— Henrv 
Tniy..  3'>.  1^)9.  Nipisinks. -German  Flats  con'f' 
117711,111  X.  V.  Doc.  Col.  Hist, VIII,  229, 1857  Nipi 
sinniens.  .les.  Rel.  1636, 69, 1858.  Nipissings.  — Doc 
of  1741  in  N.  V.  Doc. C«,l. Hist.. ix.  10SO  ]S55  Nipis- 
singues.  Du  Chesneau  (1(579),  ibid.,  133.  Nipis- 
•ins.— Smith,  HoiK,in.fs  Kxped.,  69,  1766  Nipis- 
Siriniens.-Jes  i:«-l.  1641  81.1858.  NipUsiHnioek.- 
Inimbnll,  Aljjonk.  Xames  lor  Man,  is  1871 
-'small  hike  men').  Nipistingues.— Lettres 
I..  i.r,%.  |s:{.s.  Nippsingues.-Fn.ntcnac  (168'>) 
m  N.  Y  Doc.  C,,l.  Hist. .ix,  182,1855.  Nipsang  - 
L'-;ir  .1792)  in  Am.  St.  P,-,,,.,  I,,.|.  AIV.,  I,  241.  1832 
Nypissings.  Lamberville  (16S6)  in  x  Y  Doc' 
..Ml.  4S9,  is;-,:;.  NyPsin8.-L(',nK,  Kxped! 

I  I-'-ters  R.,  n,  15],  iso,  Odishk  wagami.-Bar- 
nuii.  Kntr.-<»tcb.  Diet.,  n,  1878  (Cbippeua  name- 

ii'.q  renders  it  'at  tbe  last  water,'  but  Chamber- 
j»iin  prefers- [peoplc-1  ontheotherside<,fthelake') 
Odishkwa-Oamig.  Trumbull.  Al^onk.  Xames 

"//     "!1M11S72(V"10-I)1<")f  thplnstlake';  from 

Mikii-n    tit  the  end   of.  ,/„,„/    Make'  or 'water'- 

bij.pewa    iiiirm-).      0  dish  quag-urn  eeg.-Scbool- 

•Taft.    Ind.     Iribes,     n.    i:W,     ]s52.       0  dish  quag- 

nT,'le"'~uRUniS<iy     "'       '"(1-      Afr-     He,,.,    .,],     ]S50 

Odishquahpumme.— Wilson,  Ojebway    I  •mtr      157' 

•AlKon.(uin  Indians').    Otick-w«»a-mi!  — 

""'1,    Lex.     Jroq.,     42,    18M2.      Outiskouagami.- 

.les.  Rel.  1671,  35,  1858.  Outisquagamis. — Andre 
(1671)  (juoted  by  Shea,  Cath.  Miss.,  365,1855. 
Pisierinii. — Clmmplain  (1616),  CEuvres.  iv,  61, 1870. 
Pisirinins. — Ibid.,  63,  1870.  Quiennontateronons. — 
Sat,rard  (1636),  Can.,  IV,  index,  1866.  Quieunonta- 
teronons. — Ibid.,  Ill,  750, 1866.  Skaghnanes. — Mess. 
of  1763  in  X.  Y.  Doe.  Col.  Hist  .  VII,  544,  1856. 
Skaghquanoghronos. — Johnson  (1763),  ibid.,  582. 
Skecaneronons. — Sagard  (1636),  Can.,  in,  727,  1866. 
Skekaneronons.— Ibid.,  I,  148,  1866.  Skekwanen-hro- 
non. — Cuoq,  Lex.  Iroq.,  42,  1883  (Mohawk  name). 
Skequaneronon.— Sagard  (1632),  Can.,  iv,  Huron 
Diet.,  1866.  Skighquan. — Livingston  (1701)  in  N. 
Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  IV,  899,  1854.  Sorcerers.— Mae- 
lean,  Can.  Savage  Folk,  359,  1896  (English  ren 
dering  of  name  -by  which  they  were  known  to 
earlv  French  missionaries).  Squekaneronons. — 
Sagard  (1636),  Can.,  1,172,  1.866  (Huron  name). 
Tuskwawgomeeg. — Tanner,  Narr.,  316,1830  (Ottawa 

Nipky.  Probably  a  Lower  Creek  town, 
as  "Appalya,  beloved  man  of  Nipky,'"  is 
mentioned  among  the  Lower  Creek  chiefs 
in  a  document  dated  Frederica,  Ga.,  in 
1747.— McCall,  Hist.  Ga.,  i,  867,  1811. 

Nipmuc  (from  Nipamaug,  'fresh-water 
fishing  place').  The  inland  tribes  of 
central  Massachusetts  living  chiefly  in 
the  s.  part  of  Worcester  co.,  extending 
into  Connecticut  and  Rhode  Island. 
Their  chief  seats  were  on  the  headwaters 
of  Blackstone  and  Quinebaug  rs.,  and 
about  the  ponds  of  Brookfield.  Ilassana- 
mesit  seems  to  have  been  their  principal 
village  in  1674,  but  their  villages  had  no 
apparent  political  connection,  and  the 
different  parts  of  their  territory  were  sub 
ject  to  their  more  powerful  neighbors, 
the  Massachuset,  Wampanoag,  Narragan- 
set,  and  Mohegan,  and  even  tributary  to 
the  Mohawk.  The  Nashua,  dwelling  far 
ther  K.,  are  sometimes  classed  with  the 
Nipmuc,  but  were  rather  a  distinct  body. 
The  New  England  missionaries  had  7 
villages  of  Christian  Indians  among  them 
in  1674;  but  on  the  outbreak  of  King 
Philip's  war  in  the  next  year  almost  all 
of  them  joined  the  hostile  tribes,  and 
at  its  close  fled  to  Canada  or  westward 
to  the  Mahican  and  other  tribes  on  the 

The  following  villages  and  bands  prob 
ably  belonged  to  the  Nipmuc:  Acoorne- 
ineck,  Chabanakongkomun,  Chachau- 
bunkkakowok,  Hadley  Indians,  Hassa- 
namesit,  Magunkaquog,  Manchaug,  Man- 
exit,  Massomuck,  Med field,  Menemesseg, 
Metewemesick,  Missogkonnog,  Musketa- 
quid,  Nashobah,  Nichewaug,  Okomma- 
kamesit,  Pakachoog,  Quabaug,  Quahmsit, 
Quantisset,  Quinebaug,  Segunesit,  Stjuaw- 
keag,  Tatumasket,  Totapoag,  Wacuntug, 
Wenimesse.t,  and  Womntuek.  (,r.  M.  ) 
Neepemut.— Williams  (1637)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  4th  s..  vi,  190,  1863.  Neepmucks.— /bid.,  3d 
s.,  ix,  300,  1846.  Neepnet.— Williams  (en.  1636), 
ibid.,  4th  s.,  vi,  188,  1S63.  Neipnett.— Winthrop 
(1632)  quoted  by  Barber.  Hist.  Coll.,  570,  1841. 
Nepmets.— Higginson  (1637)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll. ,4th  s.,  vii,  396, 1865  (misprint?).  Nep  mock.— 
Stephens  (1675),  ibid.,  3d  s.,  X.  117, 1849.  Nepnet — 
Mck'cnney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  82,  1854. 
Nibenets.— Maura  nit,  Abenakis,  2,  1866.  Nip- 
moog.  — Writer  of  1675  quoted  by  Drake,  Inn. 
Chron.,  19,  1836.  Nipmucks  —  Williams  (1660)  in 
Iv.  I.  Col.  Roc.,  i,  40.  1856.  Nipmug.— Letter  of 
1675  in  X.  II.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  II,  6, 1827.  Nipmuk.— 

BULL.  30] 


Eliot  (1059)  quoted  by  Drake,  Bk.  Inds  bk  2 
80,  1848.  Nipnet.— Eliot  (1649)  quoted  by  Barber, 
Hist.  Coll.,  570,  1841.  Nipnett.— Dudley  (1<>31)  in 
N.  H.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  iv,  226,  1834.  *  Nopnat  — 
Writer  of  1647  quoted  by  Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  2 
18,  1848. 

Nipoma.  A  former  Chumashan  village 
near  Santa  Inez  mission,  Santa  Barbara 
co.,  Cal.  (Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  May  4, 
1860) .  Perhaps  the  same  as  Nipomo. 

Nipomo.  A  former  village  under  San 
Luis  Obispo  mission,  8  m.  inland  from 
San  Luis  Obispo,  Cal.  Perhaps  the  same 
village  (Nipoma)  given  by  Taylor  as  near 
Santa  Inez  mission. 

Ni-po-mo. — Schumacher  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1874 
342, 1875. 

Niquesesquelua.  A  Chumashan  village 
on  one  of  the  Santa  Barbara  ids.,  Cal., 

Erobably  Santa  Rosa,  in  1542. 
iquesesquelna. — Wheeler    Surv.    Re-]).,    vn,   311, 
1879.     Nisquesesquelua.— Cabrillo  (1542)  in  Smith. 
Colec.  Doc.  Fla.,  186,  1857. 

Niquipos.  A  Chumashan  village  on 
either  Santa  Rosa  or  Santa'Cruz  id.,  Cal., 
in  1542. 

Niquipos.— Cabrillo  (1542)  in  Smith,  Colrc.  Doc. 
Fla.,  181,  1857.  Nquipos.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer, 
Apr.  17, 1863. 

Nirdlirn.  A  summer  settlement  of  the 
Kingnaitmiut  subtribe  of  the  Okomiut 
Eskimo  on  the  x.  coast  near  the  head  of 
Cumberland  sd.,  Baffin  land. — Boas  in  6th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,map,  1888. 

Nisal  (.VIw/).  A  division  of  the  Chi 
nook  tribe  formerly  residing  on  Nasal  r., 
Pacific  co.,  Wash. 

GiLa'lelam. — Boas,  Chinook  Texts,  260,  1894  (own 
name).  Nasal.— Swan,  N.  W.  Coast,  211,  1S57. 
Nisal. — Boas,  op.  cit. 

Niscak  ('bustard').  A  tribe  or  divi 
sion  mentioned  with  other  Algonquian 
tribes  of  the  region  between  L.  Superior 
and  Hudson  bay  in  the  Prise  de  Possession 
( 1671 )  in  Perrot,  Mem.,  293,  1864.  They 
were  perhaps  a  gens  of  the  Ottawa. 

Nishinam  (from  nlseuani,  'our  rela 
tions').  The  southern  branch  of  the 
Maidu,  occupying  the  valley  of  Bear  r., 
Cal.  While  this  portion  of  the  Maidu 
is  in  some  ways  distinct  from  the  north 
ern  branches,  all  of  this  family  are  so 
similar  in  every  respect  that  even  without 
the  fact  of  the  complete  linguistic  unity 
which  they  represent  it  would  seem 
illogical  to  separate  them.  The  Nishinam 
divisions  and  villages,  which  were  once 
populous  and  numerous  along  Bear  r.,  are 
as  follows:  Divisions — Koloma,  Pusune, 
Vesnak,  and  Wapumne.  Villayc* — I>ush- 
amul,Chuemdu,  Hamitinwoliyu,  Intanto, 
Kaluplo,  Kapaka,  Lelikian,  Lidlipa,  Mu- 
lamchapa,  Opelto,  Pakanchi,  Pulakatu, 
Shokumimlepi,  Shutamul,  Solakiyu,  Ta- 
lak,Toanimbuttuk,  and  Yokolimdu.  See 
Maidu,  Pujunan  Family.  (R.  u.  i>. ) 

Nishinam.— Powers  in  Cont.'  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  in,  282, 
1877.  Nis-se-non, — Merriam  in  Science,  N.  a., 
xix,  914,  1904  (or,  Nishinam).  Tainkoyo.— Cur- 
tin,  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1885.  Tanko.— Dixon, 
mf'n,  1903  (northern  Maidu  name:  probably 
from  tai,  'west':  Tai-nko  'having  the  west'). 
Tankum.— Chever  in  Bull.  Essex  Inst.  1870,  n,  28, 


tun}.     A  former  village  of  the  Chastacosta 
on  Rogue  r.,  Oreg.— Dorsey  in  Jour  Am 
Folk-lore,  in,  2:U,  1S90. 

Nisibourounik.  Oneof  the  fonrdivision< 
of  theCree.— Jes.  Rel.  ltir)S,22,  1858. 

Niska.  The  dialectic  name  for  one  of 
the  three  Chimmesyan  divisions,  the 
other  two  being  the  Kitksan  and  the 
Tsimshian.  In  tradition,  art,  and  manner 
of  living  these  three  divisions  are  closely 
allied,  with  such  geographic  differences 
as  would  naturally  occur.  In  language 
less  than  one-third  of  the  vocabulary  is 
common  to  all,  a  like  proportion  varies 
in  accent,  while  the  remainder  is  different 
and  more  local  in  character.  Dialectic 
differences  are  much  less  marked  between 
the  two  interior  river  divisions  than  be 
tween  either  of  them  and  the  Tsimshian 
of  the  coast. 

The  territory  of  the  Xiska  includes  Ob 
servatory  inlet,  Nass  bay,  and  the  drain 
age  basin  of  Nass  r.  and  its  tributaries, 
but  those  northern  sources  that  interlock 
with  the  Iskoot  and  the  Stikine  rs.  are 
claimed  also  by  the  Tahltan,  and  over  this 
contention  have  occurred  many  wars  that 
havealwayskeptthesepeopleapart.  The 
Niska  villages  have  always  been  on  the 
main  river  and  show  evidence  of  consid 
erable  size.  The  houses,  in  a  single  row, 
follow  the  contour  of  the  shore;  they  are 
built  of  hewn  timbers  in  the  form  of  a 
parallelogram,  with  a  central  open  lire- 
place  of  gravel,  and  a  smoke-hole  in  the 
roof.  Carved  heraldic  columns  stand  in 
front,  in  which  the  crest  of  the  deceased 
is  shown  at  the  ba^e  ar.d  that  of  the  suc 
cessor  at  the  top,  and  in  one  old  village 
grave-houses  of  logs  surmounted  by  ani 
mal  and  bird  forms  in  wood  and  stone, 
representing  the  totemic  emblems  of  the 
dead,  rest  on  the  river  bank  in  the  midst 
of  the  columns. 

With  the  establishment  of  missions  the 
older  villages  have  generally  been  de 
serted  and  the  people  are  being  concen 
trated  at  three  points,  under  the  super 
vision  of  missionaries  of  the  Church  of 
England,  and  small  modern  dwellings 
are  taking  the  place  of  the  old  communal 
house.  Modern  ideas  prevail,  and  the 
condition  of  the  people  is  a  credit  to 
both  their  teachers  and  themselves. 
The  villages,  past  and  present,  together 
with  the  more  important  village  sites,  are: 
Kincolith,  Kitaix,  Lakkul/ap  or  (ireen- 
ville,  ( Jwinwork,  Laktmgidaor  Ankeegar, 
Kisthenmwelgit  or  Willshilhtumwill- 
willgit,Qunahhair,  Kitwinshilk,Sheaksh, 
Aiyansh,  Kitlakdamix,  and  Kitwinlkole. 
Other  town  names  have  been  given,  as 
follows,  but  these,  wholly  or  in  part,  may 
duplicate  some  of  the  above:  Kitahon, 
Kitangata,  Kitlakaous,  and  Andeguale. 

The  Niska  were  divided  geographically 
into  the  Kitkahteen  ( 'people  of  the  lower 


[B.  A.  E. 

valley'),  including  those  Inflow  the  can 
yon,  and  the  Kitanweliks  (  'people  of  the 
upper  river'),  comprising  those  above 
this  point. 

Tradition  tells  that  long  ago  when  the 
principal  village  was  across  the  river 
to  the  southward,  some  little  hoys  were 
aiMii.-inir  themselves  by  catching  salmon, 
rutting  slits  in  their  barks  in  which  they 
inserted  Hat  stones,  and  then  letting  them 
g»>,  playing  they  were  whales.  This_  so 
incensed  the  guardian  spirit  that,  rising 
from  the  mountain  to  the  southward 
enveloped  in  a  wide  spreading  black 
cloud  that  changed  day  into  night,  with 
eyes  of  tlame  and  voice  of  thunder,  he 
rolled  down  the  mountain  side  as  a  river 
of  lire  and  swept  the  village  away.  The 
people  tied  across  the  river  and  took 
refuse  on  the  hills  until  quiet  was  re 
stored,  when  they  divided,  some  settling 
at  Kitlakdamix  and  there  retaining  the 
old  name  of  K  itauwiliks,  while  the  others, 
founding  Kitwinshilk  on  the  rocks  over 
looking  the  rapids,  we're  ever  afterward 
known  by  the  name  of  their  village  as 
'The  people  among  the  li/ards.' 

The  social  organi/ation  is  founded  upon 
matriarchy,  and  is  dependent  upon  the 
existence  of  four  exogamons  parties,  dis 
tinguished  by  their  crests,  who  inter 
marry  and  who  supplement  one  another 
on  all  occasions  of  ceremony.  These 
parties  are  subdivided  into  families  who 
are  represented  by  minor  crests  but  who 
still  retain  the  party  emblem.  These 
four  parties  are:  (1)  Laghkepo,  repre 
sented  by  the  Wolf  and  having  as  its 
subdivisions  the  Brown-bear,  Crow, 
Crane,  and  Red-wing  flicker;  ('2)  Lagh- 
keak,  represented  by  the  Eagle  and  hav 
ing  as  its  subdivisions  the  Beaver,  Owl, 
Dog-iish,  and  Squirrel;  (':>)  Kanhadda, 
represented  by  the  Raven  and  having  as 
its  subdivisions  the  Frog,  Sea-lion,  Scul- 
pin,  and  Star-fish;  (4)  Kishpootwada, 
represented  by  the  Killer-whale  and  hav 
ing  as  its  subdivisions  the  Osprey  and 
the  Hear-under- Water.  (Boas  gives  the 
following  subdivisions:  (iyitkadok,  Lak- 
seel.  Laktiaktl,  (iyitgyigyenik,  (Jyitwul- 
nakyel,  <  iyi-kabenak,  Laklonkst,  Gy- 
itsaek,  Laktsemelik,  and  (lyisgahast. 
lie  assigns  the  first  two  to  the  Raven 
phratry,  the  next  three  to  the  Wolf 
phratry,  the  four  following  to  the 
Kagle  phralrv.  and  the  last  to  the  Bear 

The  Niska  look  to  the  river  for  their 
food  supply,  which  consists  principally 
of  salmon  and  eulachon.  Indeed  it  is 
owing  to  the  enormous  number  of  the 
latter  fish  that  run  in  to  spawn  in  the 
early  spring  that  the  name  Nass,  mean 
ing  'the  stomach,  or  food  depot',  has  been 
given  to  the  river. 

In  I'.ML'  the  population  of  the  Niska 
towns  was  SlL';  in  IWfi,  si-|.  ((j.  T.  K.  ) 

Naas  River  Indians.— Scott  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1869, 
563,  1870.  Nascah.— Brit.  Col.  map,  Ind.  Aff., Vic 
toria,  1872.  Nascars.—  Horetzky,  Canada  on  Pac., 
121),  1874.  Nasqa. — Dorsey  in  Am.  Antiq.,  XIX, 
277,  1897.  Nass.— Dunn,  Hist.  Oregon,  279,  1844. 
Nasva.— Boas  in  Zeit.  t'iir  Ethnol.,  231,  1888. 
Nishgar.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  432, 1896.  Nishka.— 
Horetzky,  op.  cit.,  219.  Niska. — Tolmie  and  Daw- 
son  Vocabs.  Brit.  Col.,  113B,  1884.  Nisk-a'.— 
Boas  in  10th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  48,  1895. 
Nis-kah.—  Gibbs  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  1, 143, 1877. 
Nuss-ka.— Kranse,  Tlinkit  Ind.,  318,  1885.  Old- 
nass.— Scott  in  H.R.  Ex.  Doc.  65,  36th  Cong.,  1st 
sess.,  115,  1860  (probably  identical). 

Niskap.  Mentioned  with  the  Smulka- 
mish  as  bands  residing  on  the  Muckle- 
shoot  res.,  Wash.  Perhaps  a  subdivi 
sion  of  the  Puyallup. 

Nooscope.— Gosnell  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1857,  338,  1858. 
White  River  Indians.— Gosnell  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep. 
1856,  338,  1857. 

Nisqualli.  A  Salish  tribe  on  and  about 
the  river  of  the  same  name  flowing  into 
the  s.  extension  of  Puget  sd.,  Wash. 
The  Nisqualli  res.  is  on  Nisqualli  r.  be 
tween  Pierce  and  Thurston  cos.  The 
name  has  also  been  extended  to  apply  to 
those  tribes  of  the  E.  side  of  Puget  sd. 
speaking  the  same  dialect  as  the  above. 
Such  are  the  Puyallup,  Skagit,  Snoho- 
mish,  Snokwalmu,  and  Stilakwamish. 
Mitsukwic  was  a  former  Nisqualli  village. 
The  Nisqualli  made  a  treaty  with  the 
United  States  at  Medicine  cr.,  Wash.,  Dec. 
26,  1854,  ceding  certain  lands  and  reserv 
ing  others.  The  Executive  order  of  Jan. 
20,  1S57,  denned  the  present  Nisqualli  res. 

Askwalli.— Gatschet,  Kalapuya  MS.,  B.  A.  E..  31 
(Calapooya  name).  Lts^eais.— Gibbs,  Nestucca 
vocab.,  B.  A.  E.  (Kestucca  name).  Nasqually. — 
White  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  460,  1843.  Nesquallis.— 
Duflot  de  Mot'ras,  Expl.,  n,  335,  1844.  Nesqually.— 
LI.  S.  Stat.  at  Large,  XI,  395,  1S67.  Nez-quales. — 
Smet.  Letters,  231,  1843.  Nez  qually.— Hines, 
Oregon,  29,  1851.  Niskwali.— Gatschet  in  True. 
A.  A.  A.  S.,  xxxr,  577, 1882.  Niskwalli.—  Gibbs  in 
Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol. .1,178, 1877  (used collectively). 
Nisqualies.— Domenech,  Deserts  X.  A.,  I,  442,  1860. 
Nisquallis.— Sterrett  (1855)  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  26, 
34th  Cong.,  Istsess.,  65, 1856.  Nisqually.— Hale  in 
U.S.  Expl.  Exped.,  VI, 211, 1846.  N'squalli.— Gibbs, 
MS.  no.  248,  B.  A.  E.  (name  strictly  belongs  to  the 
village  at  the  first  dam  on  Nisqualli  r.).  Qual- 
liamish.— Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  vi,  688,  1857. 
Quallyamish. — Lane  quoted  by  Schoolcraft,  ibid., 
r.  521,  1X51.  Skwale.— Hale  in  V.  S.  Expl.  Exped., 
vi,  211,  1X46.  Sk'wa-le-ube.— McCaw,  Puyallup 
MS.  vocal).,  B.  A.  E..  1X85  (Puyallup  name). 
Skwali.— Latham  in  Trans.  Philo'l.  Soc.  Lond., 
71,  1856.  Skwalliahmish.— Gibbs  in  Cont.  N.  A. 
Ethnol.,  i,  17x,  1X77.  Skwalz.— Gallatin  (1846)  in 
Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  402,  1X53.  Squalli- 
ah-mish.— Gibbs  in  1'ac.  R.  R.  Rep.,  i,  435,  1X55. 
Squalli-a-mish.— Tolmie,  ibid.,  434.  Squally-ah- 
mish.— Starling  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  170,  1X52. 
Squallyamish. — Scouler  in. Tour.  Geog.  Soc.  Lond., 
I.  224,  1X41.  Squawlees.— Meek  in  II.  R.  Ex.  Doc. 
76,  30th  Cong..  1st  sess.,  10,  1X4X.  Squiath. — Ind. 
Aff.  Rep.  1X56,  265.  1X57.  Tse  Skualli  amim.— Gat 
schet,  Lakmiut  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  105  (Ldkmiut- 
Kalapuya  name). 

Nissowaquet.  An  Ottawa  chief,  known 
to  the  French  as  La  Fonrche,  who  during 
most  of  his  life  resided  at  Michilimackinac, 
Mich.  lie  is  said  to  have  been  made 
head  chief  of  his  tribe  as  early  as  1721 
((rrignon  in  Wis.  ilist.  Coll.,  in,  198, 
1857),  at  which  time  Charles  DeLanglade, 
his  close  friend  and  aid,  married  his  sis 
ter  Domitilde.  Nissowaquet  allied  him- 

BULL.  30] 


i  i 

self  with  the  French  in  their  war  with  the 
English,  and  it  is  said  was  present  at  Ft 
Duquesne  at  the  time  of  Braddock's  de 
feat.  He  is  said  to  have  been  still  living 
in  1780  (Draper  in  Wis.  Hist.  Coll.  in 
_  199,  1857;  Mich.%  Pion.  Coll.,  x,  406, 
1888).  His  name  is  also  spelled  Nissaoua- 
kouad  (Wis.  Hist.  Coll.,  vn,  125,  1876). 

Nitahauritz.  One  of  the  4  Alibamu 
towns  formerly  existing  w.  of  the  con 
fluence  of  Cabo  (Cahawba)  and  Alabama 
rs.,  in  Dallas  co.,  Ala. 

Nitahaurithz.— Lattre,  Carte  des  Etats-TTnis,  1784. 
Nitahauritz.— Jefferys,  Am.  Atlas,  map  5, 1776. 

Nitak.  A  Knaiakhotana  village  on  the 
E.  side  of  Knik  bay,  at  the  head  of  Cook 
inlet,  Alaska,  containing  15  persons  in 

Nitak.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  1901.  Nitakh.— 
Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska.  29,  1884. 

Nitakoskitsipupiks  ('obstinate').  A 
band  of  the  Piegan  tribe  of  the  Siksika. 
Ne-ta'-ka-ski-tsi-pup'-iks.— Harden,  Kthnog.  and 
Philol.  Mo.  Val.,  2(54,  1802  (trans,  'people  that 
have  their  own  way ' ) .  Nit' -ak-os-kit-si-pup-iks.  — 
Grinnell,  Blackfoot  Lodge  Tales,  209,  1892.  Obsti 
nate.— Ibid.,  225. 

Nitawaliks.  Given  as  a  Chimmesyan 
tribe  on  upper  Nass  r.,  Brit.  Col. — Tolmie 
and  Dawson,  Vocabs.  Brit.  Col.,  113u 

Nitawyiks  ( '  lone  eaters ' ) .  A  band  of 
the  Piegan  tribe  of  the  Siksika. 

Lone  Eaters. — Grinnell,  Blaekfoot  Lodge  Tales 
225,  1892.  Ni-taw'-yiks.— Ibid.,  209. 

Nitchequon.  A  small  tribe  or  division 
living  about  Nicheku  lake,  Ungava,  Cana 
da;  probably  a  Nascapee  band. 

Nitrhequon.— Hind,  Labrador  Penin.,  n,  117,  18(53. 
Nitchik  Irinionetchs. — Bellin,  map,  1755.  Nitchik 
Irinionetz.— La  Tour,  map,  1779.  Nitchiks.— Jef 
ferys,  French  Doni.,  pt.  1,  map,  1761. 

Nitel.  A  Chumashan  village  on  Santa 
Cruz  id.  (the  San  Lucas  of  Cabrillo), 
Cal.  in  1542.— Cabrillo  (1542)  in  Smith, 
Colec.  Doc.  Fla.,  181,  1857. 

Nith-songs.  The  nith-songs  ( Norwe 
gian mth,  'contention')  of  the  Greenland 
Eskimo  are  a  species  of  word  duel  in 
which  the  audience  present  has  the  de 
ciding  voice,  ?  sort  of  decision  by  "song 
and  dance"  of  private  quarrels  and  dis 
putes—primitive  arbitration,  as  it  were. 
As  described  by  Crantz  (1767)  and  Egede 
(1746)  this  institution  is  as  follows:  When 
a  Greenlander  considers  himself  injured 
in  any  way  by  another  person,  he  com 
poses  about  him  a  satirical  song,  which 
he  rehearses  with  the  help  of  his  inti 
mates.  He  then  challenges  the  offending 
one  to  a  duel  of  song.  One  after  another 
the  two  disputants  sing  at  each  other 
their  wisdom,  wit,  and  satire,  supported 
by  their  partisans,  until  at  last  one  is  at 
his  wit's  end,  when  the  audience,  who  are 
the  jury,  make  known  their  decision. 
The  matter  is  now  settled  for  good,  and 
the  contestants  must  be  friends  again  and 
not  recall  the  matter  which  was  in  dis 
pute.  Egede  styled  this  song  contest 
"the  common  mode  of  avenging  one's 
self  in  Greenland."  To  make  his  oppo 

nent  the  laughing  stock  of  the  commu 
nity  is  a  sweet  morsel  of  revenge  fur  an 
Eskimo.  The  general  opinion  of  trav 
elers  and  others  is  that  the  "son"  dud'' 
was  a  very  useful  and  even  praiseworthy 
social  institution,  and  Xansen  expresses 
his  regret  that  on  the  w.  coast  of  Green 
land  it  has  been  abolished  by  the  IHH- 
sionaries.  On  the  E.  coast  it'lingers  as, 
Nansen  reports,  in  the  form  of  the  so- 
called  "drum  dance,"  the  only  real  judi 
cial  institution  of  these  Eskimo'.  The  fear 
of  public  shame  is  very  powerful  as  a  fac- 
.tor  in  social  betterment.  This  remark 
able  restriction  of  vengeance  and  modifi 
cation  of  the  duel  has  been  largely  over 
looked  by  sociologists.  Boas  reports  the 
nith-song  as  still  in  vogue  among  the  Es 
kimo  of  Baffin  land,  where  "downright 
hostile  feelings  and  personal  grudges  are 
settled  by  the  opponents  meeting  on  a 
fixed  occasion  and  singing  songs  at  each 
other";  and  Swanton  reports  an  analo 
gous  custom  among  the  Tlingit,  entered 
into  by  opposing  phratries.  Brinton  (  Es- 
.  says  of  Anier.,  287,  1890)  gives  a  speci 
men  of  this  poetic  duel,  furnished  by 
.Rink.  Consult  also  Egede,  Descr.  of 
Greenland,  158,  1745;  Crant/,  Hist,  of 
Greenland,  1 78, 17*67;  Xansen,  First  Cross 
ing,  8,'J7,  1890;  Steinmetz,  Entwickl.  der 
Strafe,  ir,  67-7(5,  1S92.  (A.  F.  <-. ) 

Nitikskiks  ( Xlt'-lk-xkik*,  'lone  fight 
ers'  ).  A  band  of  the  Piegan  and  also  of  the 
Kainah  tribe  of  the  Siksika.—  Grinnell, 
Blackfoot  Lodge  Tales,  209,  1S92. 

Nitinat.  A  Xootka,  tribe  on  a  tidal  lake 
of  the  same  name,  near  the  s.  w.  coast  of 
Vancouver  id.  Pop.  198  in  1906.  Their 
villages  are  Carmanah,  Clo-oose,  Tso- 
oquahna,  and  Wyah. 

Nettinat.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Fanner.  Au^.  1,  lsfc>. 
Niten  aht.— Hrit.  Col.  map,  Victoria.  1872.  Niti- 
naht.— Sproat,  Savage  Life,  80S,  IM>S.  Nitinat.— 
Galiano.Viaje,  28, 1802.  Ni'tinath.— Boas.  Rep. 
N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  :il,  IS'.tO.  Nittanat. — K.-lli-y. 
Oregon,  (18, 1830  (given  as  a,  village).  Nitten-aht. — 
Can.  Ind.  Aft'..  188.  iss;i.  Nittenat.— Seouler  ( ix-ir,) 
in  Jour.  Ethnol.  Sor.  Loud..  I  231.  1*48.  Nitti- 
nahts.— Whymper,  Travels,  74,  18<;y.  Nittinat.— 
Mayne.  Brit,  Col. ,251.  18<i2. 

Nitotsiksisstaniks  ('kill  close  by').     A 
band  of  the  Piegan  tribe  of  the  Si'ksika. 
Kill  Close  By.— (irinnrll,  Blarkfoot  Lodge  Tales. 
225,  1892.     Ni-tot'-si-ksis-stan  iks.  —  Il>i'].,  2(H>. 

Niudje  (Xt-i'«1j<',  'lower  part  of  a 
stream').  A  former  village  of  the  Kansa 
on  Kansas  r.,  about  4  in.  above  the  site 
of  Kansas  City,  Mo. — ,T.  O.  Dorsey,  Kansa 
MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1S82. 

Niueuomokai  (nom  signifies  'offspring 
of  two  sisters').  The  Bu//anl  clan  of  the 
Pi  ma. 

Ni-ue-U6m  0-kai.— Bandelier  in  Arcli.  lust.  Papers, 
in  254  1890.  Nuey-kech-emk. — ten  Kate,  Keizen 
in  N.  A.,  155,  1S.S5. 

Niutang.  A  village  of  the  Kingnait- 
mitit  subtribe  of  the  <  >komiut  Eskimo  on 
Kingnait  fjord,  E.  I.aHin  land.  — P>oas  in 
6th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  map,  1888. 

Niuyaka  ( '  New  York  ' ).  A  subordinate 
settlement  of  the  Upper  Creek  town  Oak- 



fn>kee.  on  tin'  K.  bank  of  Tallapoosa  r., 
I'O  in.  above  Oaktnskee,  in  Cleburne  co., 
Ala.  It  was  settled  in  1777  byTukpafka 
Creeks  from  the  Chattahoochee.  It  was 
first  called  by  another  name,  but  after 
the  conclusion  of  the  treaty  between  the 
Tnited  States  and  the  Creeks  in  New 
York.  A  lit:.  7.  1790,  it  received  the  above 
appellation.  (  H.  w.  H.  ) 

New  Yarcau.—8ch<K)lcTuft,Ind.  Tribes,  VI,  371, 1857. 
New  Yaucaa.— Pickett,  Hist.  Ala.,  n,  339.  1S">1. 
New  yau-cau.— Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch, 45. 46, 1848. 
New  Yauco.  — I'.  S.  Ind.  Treat.  (1825),  326,  1837. 
New-yau-kau.— Schoolcrnft,  Ind.  Tribes,  iv,  381, 
1x51.  New  York.— Hlount  (1793)  in  Am.  State  Pap., 
Ind.  All'.,  i,  -HO.  1S32.  New  Youcka.— Flint.  Ind. 
Wars, 202. 1S33.  Niuyaxa.— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr. 
Leur..  i.  139.  issi.  Nowyawger.— Barnard  (1793) 
in  Am.  State  Pap..  Ind.  Aft'..  I,  382,  1832.  Nuo 
Yaucau.  — Hawkins  1 1M  1),  ibid..  860. 

Niuyaka.  A  town  of  the  ('reek  Nation 
on  New  Yorker  cr.,  as.  branch  of  Deep 
Fork,  about  Tp.  13  X.,  K.  10  or  11  K., 
Okla.—  (iatschet,  Creek  Miur.  Leg.,  n, 
lS(i,  1SSS. 

Niwanshike  (\i'-ir<ti'-ci'-ke,  'water  per- 
son').  A  subgens  of  the  Pakhtha,  the 
Beaver  L'ens  of  the  Iowa.  —  Dorsey  in  loth 
Rep.  P..'  A.  K.,  L>:!J),  1897. 

Nixora  (from  nij<>i\  tiij'or,  said  to  mean 
'captive').  A  term  said  to  have  been 
applied  liv  the  Pima  of  s.  Arizona  to 
"those  Indians  whom  the  nations  beyond 
capture  in  their  wars  among  themselves, 
and  whom  the  Ynma  and  Papago  after 
ward  bring  to  Altar  and  other  places  to 
sell  as  captives  or  slaves,  of  whatever 
nation  they  may  be"  (Font,  1775-76, 
cited  by  Cones,  Garces  Diary,  446,  1900; 
Oro/co'y  Berra,  Geog.,  350/1864).  Ac 
cording  to  ( iarees,  the;  term  Nifores  was 
one  of  the  names  which  the  Pima  applied 
to  the  Yavapai.  Cf.  dfiihnrox. 
Nichoras.  Miihlenpfordt,  Mejico.  II,  537.  1814. 
Niforas.— Gunvs  (1770)  cited  by  Arrieivita,  Chron. 
Scn'itica.  n.  155.  1792  (  here  applied  to  Yavapai). 
Nifores.— (Jurees  (1775-76).  Diary.  416,  1900  (ap 
plied  to  Ynvapnii.  Nigoras.  —  Raynal,  Indies,  vi, 
map,  178.x.  Nijor.— Kino  «•«.  1(199)  in  Doe.  Hist. 
Mrx..  lib  s..  i.  319, 1*56.  Nijoras.— Orozeoy  Berra, 
<H-i»u'..  35(1.  1  Mi  I.  Nijores.  — Ibid.  Nijotes.'— Villa- 
Seiior.  Thealro  Am.,  pt.  2,  107.  17ls  Niojoras,— 
Ale. •<!(..  I>ir. <;»•<«..  iv. -J1S.  178s.  Nizorse.— Morelli, 
KnMj.  Novi  Orbis,  Id.  I77ti.  Noraguas.— (iarees 
i  1771  ,  cited  by  Cones,  (lanvs  Diarv  (1775-76),  31, 

Nkahlimiluh  (  V-k<ilt-l't-,itil-ult}.  A 
Ntlakyapamnk  village  near  the  month  of 
upper  Nicola  r.,  P.rit.  Col.  —  Dawson  in 
Trans,  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec.  n,  44,  1891. 

Nkaih.  A  Ntlakyapamnk  village  not  far 
from  Stryne,  in  the  interior  of  British  Co 
lumbia.  Pop.  4  in  1896,  after  which  date 
it  seems  to  have  been  confused  with  a 
town  called  Nkya. 

Nkaih     -Can.  Ind.  AfT.,  434, 1896.    N-wa-ih  — Ibid 
!Hx5,  !'.«'..  ISM;. 

Nkakim  (  'despised  ',  because  the  people 
of  this  place  were  of  low  social  status  and 
much  looked  down  upon  by  the  Spu/- 
/<nm  people).  A  villa^eof  Xtiakyapanmk 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Spnx/.nm,  Fraser 
r.,  P.rit.  Col. 
N'ka'kim.— Hill-Tout  in  Hep.  Ktlni..].  surv.  Can.. 

Nkaktko  ( Xqa'ktko,-  '  little  rotten  water ', 
or  '  bad  water' ).  A  village  of  the  Upper 
Fraser  band  of  Ntlakyapamuk  on  the  w. 
side  of  Fraser  r.,  28  in.  above  Lytton, 
Brit.  Col. 

Nqa'ktko.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  II, 
172,  1900.  N'ta'-ko.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol. 
Surv.  Can.,  4,  1899. 

Nkamaplix.  A  division  of  Okinagan 
under  the  Kamloops-(  >kanagan  agency, 
Brit.  Col.;  pop.  232  in  1900. 

En  ke  map-o-tricks.—  Can.  Ind.  AfT.  1883.  pt.  1,191, 
188-1.  Nkamaplix.— Ibid.,  pt.  II,  166,  1901.  Okana- 
gan.— Ibid.,  pt.  II,  68.  1902. 

Nkamchin  ('confluence',  'entrance'). 
A  village  of  the  Spences  Bridge  band  of 
Ntlakyapamuk,  on  the  s.  side  of  Thomp 
son  r.,  at  its  junction  with  the  Nicola, 
about  24o  in.  above  Lytton,  Brit.  Col. 
Pop.  81  in  1901,  the  last  time  the  name 
apj  tears. 

Nic-com-sin.—  Can.  Ind.  AfT.  1883,  pt.  I,  189,  1884. 
Nicola,— Brit.  Col.  map,  Ind.  AfT..  Victoria,  1872. 
Nicola  Mouth, — Present  white  man's  name.  N'- 
kam-sheen. — Dawson  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soe.  Can.,  see. 
n,  44,  1891.  Nkamtci'n.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.,  ii,  173.  1900.  Nkumcheen.— Can.  Ind. 
AfT.,  pt.  n,  166,  1901.  N'kum'tcin.— Hill-Tout  in 
Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv.  Can.,  4,  1899. 

Nkamip.  An  Okinagan  division  under 
the  Kamloops-Okanagan  agency,  Brit. 
Col.  Pop.  70  in  1904,  65  in  1906. 

En-ke-mip.— Can.  Ind.  AfT.  1883,  pt.  I,  191,  1884. 
N-Kamip.— Ibid.,  pt.  n,  166. 1901.  Osooyoos.—  Ibid., 
79,  1S78.  Osoyoos.— Ibid.,  1882.  259,  1883. 

Nkattsim  (Nkattst'm,  'log  bridge  across 
stream.' — II ill-Tout).  A  Ntlakyapamuk 
village  on  the  E.  side  of  Fraser  r.,  about 
38 m.  above  Yale,  Brit. Col.,  near  Keefer's 
station,  but  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river.  Pop.  87  in  1901,  the  last  time  the 
name  appears. 

Ne-kat-sap.— Can.  Ind.  AfT.  1883,  pt.  I,  189,  1884. 
Nkatsam.— Ibid.,  pt.  II,  166,  1901.  Nkattsi'm.— 
Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist,,  n,  169,  1900. 
N'ka'tzam.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv.  Can., 
5,  1899. 

Nkoeitko  (Nqu^itko,  'little  lake  or 
pond'— Teit;  'yellow  water'— Hill-Tout). 
A  village  of  the  Spences  Bridge  band  of 
Ntlakyapamuk  on  the  s.  side  of  Thompson 
r.,  30 'm.  above  Lytton,  Brit.  Col. 
N'koakoae'tko.  — Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv. 
("nn.,  4,  1899.  Nqoe'itko.—  Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.,  n,  173,  1900. 

Nkoiam  (N'ko'lmn.',  'eddy').  A  Ntlak 
yapamuk  village  on  Fraser  r.,  below  Cisco, 
Brit.  Col.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol. 
Can.,  5,  1899. 

Nkoikin  (  Xqol'khi,  'black  pine  ridge'). 
A  village  of  the  Lytton  band  of  Ntlakya 
pamuk  on  the  E.  side  of  Fraser  r.,  8  in. 
above  Lytton,  Brit.  Col. ;  so-called  because 
young  tirs  grew  thickly  there.  Pop.  15 
in  1897,  when  last  the  name  appears. 

Nkuaikin.—  Can.  Ind.  AfT.  1892,  312,  1893. 
N'okoie'kKn. — Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv. 
Can.,  1,  1899.  Nqakin.— Can.  Ind.  AfT.  1898,  418, 
1899  (in  combination  with  " Stryne-Nqakin-*, 
Stryne  bein^  another  town).  Nqoi'kin.— Teit  in 
Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  11,172.  1900.  Nquakin.— 
Can.  Ind.  AfT.,  230,  1886. 

Nkukapenach  (N'k'u'kapenatc,  'canoes 
transformed  to  stone').  A  Squawmish 
village  community  on  the  right  bank  of 

BULL.  30] 


Bquawmisht  r.,  Brit.  Col. — Hill-Tout  in 
Rep.  Brit.  A.  A.  S.,  474,  1900. 

Nkuoosai  (Nkud'osai}.  A  Squaw  mish 
gens  living  on  Howe  sd.,  coast  of  British 
Columbia.— Boas,  1MB.,  B.  A.  E.,  18S7. 

Nkuoukten  ( Nkuo'ukten}.  ASquawmish 
gens  living  on  Howe  sd.,  coast  of  British 
Columbia.— Boas,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1887. 

Nkya  ( AV///a,  from  nqa'iEx,  'to  swim ' ). 
A  village  of  the  Lytton  band  of  Ntlak- 
yapamuk  on  the  w.  side  of  Eraser  r.,  Brit. 
Col.,  2  m.  below  Lytton.  Pop.  71  in  1901, 
the  last  time  the  name  appears. 

Macaiyah.— Brit.  Col.  map,  Ind.  Aff.,  Victoria, 
1872.  Macayah.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  79,  1878.  Ni- 
kai'-a. — DJUVSOII  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec.  II, 
44,  1891.  N'kai'a.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol. 
Surv.  Can.,  4,  1*99.  Nkaih.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  363, 
1897  (confused  with  Ntedh,  q.  v.) .  Nkya.— Ibid., 
pt.  II,  164,  1901.  Nqa'ia.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.,  It,  171,  1900.  Nyakai.— Can.  Ind.  All'. 
1898,  418,  1899. 

Nma  (xV -?//<//,  'sturgeon').  A  gens  of 
the  Potawatomi. — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc., 
167,  1877. 

Nmapena  ( N' -md-pe-nti,' ,  'carp').  A 
gens  of  the  Potawatomi. — Morgan,  Anc. 
Soc.,  lf)7,  1877. 

No  ('beloved  town').  A  Calusa  vil 
lage  on  the  s.  w.  coast  of  Florida  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  16th  century. 
No. — Fontaneda  (co.  1575),  Mem. /Smith  trans., 
19.  1854.  Non.— Fontaneda  in  Doc.  Died.,  v,  538, 

Noamlaki  (Ilmawi:  'western  dwell 
ers.' — Curtin).  A  Wintun  tribe  formerly 
living  on  Long,  Thomes,  and  Elder  crs., 
in  the  mountains  and  on  the  edge  of  the 
plains  in  Colusa  and  Tehama  cos.,  Cal. 
Nomee  Lacks. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Fanner,  June  8, 
1860.  Nome-Lacke'es,— Geiger  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep. 
1859,  438,  i860.  Numleki.— Curtin,  Ilmawi  MS. 
vocab.,  B.A.E.,  1889  ('west  dwellers':  given  as 
Ilmawi  name  of  the  Wintun).  Tehamas. — II  it  tell, 
Hist.  Cal.,  I,  731,  1898.  Titkainenom.—  A.  L. 
Kroeber,  inf'n.  1903  (Yuki  nair.eV 

Noatak.  A  Nunatogmiut  settlement  on 
the  lower  part  of  Noatak  r.,  in  x.  w. 

Noatagamut^s.— Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska, 
60,  1881.  Noatak.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska, 
464,  1906. 

Nobscusset.  A  village,  perhaps  of  the 
Nauset,  that  was  subject  to  the  \Vampa- 
noag;  situated  near  the  present  Dennis, 
Barnstable  co.,  Mass.  In  1685  it  was  a 
village  of  the  Praying  Indians. 
Nabsquassets.—  H'oyt,  Anti'q.  Res.,  89,  1821.  Nobs- 
cussett.— Hinckley  (1685)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Sue. 
Coll.,  4th  s.,  v,  133.  1861.  Nobsqassit.— Drake, 
Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  2,  118,  1848.  Nobsquasitt.—  C.ookin 
(1674)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  I,  148,  1806. 
Nobsquassit.— Bourne  (1674),  ibid.,  197. 

Nocake.  Parched  corn-meal,  a  dish 
which  the  English  colonists  adopted,  with 
its  name,  from  the  Algonquian  tribes  of 
New  England.  Roger  Williams  (Key  to 
Am.  Lang.,  11,  1643)  defines  the  Narra- 
ganset  tiokeJi ick  as  "parched  meal,  which 
is  a  readie  very  wholesome  food,  which 
they  eat  with  a  little  water . "  The  Massa- 
chuset  form  as  given  by  Eliot  is  nookhic, 
the  same  astiokldk.  Wood,  in  1634,  uses 
the  form  nocake;  Palfrey  (New  Eng.,  i, 

28,  1858)  has  iwokhik.     The  word  signi 
fies  'it  is  soft'.  (A.  ,,,  ,.  ) 

Nochak.  A  Kuskwoginiut  Kskiino  vil 
lage  on  Chuiitna  r.,  Alaska-  non  '>s  in 

Noh-chamiut.  — Kleventh  Census,  Alaska,  ir.J    ls«« 
(the  people). 

Nochpeem.  A  tribe  or  band  of  the 
Wappinger  confederacy  formerly  occu 
pying  the  E.  bank  of  the  Hudson  about 
the  site  of  Matteawan,  Dutchessco.,  X.  Y. 
De  Laet  locates  here  the  Paehami,  but 
Ruttenber  says  these  may  have  been  the 
Tankitekes,  and,  indeed',  a  chief  of  the 
latter  bore  the  name  Pacham  or  Pachem. 
They  had  a  village  called  Nochpeem, 
and  others  called  Keskistkonk  and  Pas- 
quasheck,  but  their  principal  one  seems 
to  have  been  called  Canopus,  from  their 
chief.  (.1.  M.  ) 

Highlanders.— Doc.  of  1660  in  N.  Y.  Doe  ( 'ol  Hist 
XIII,  ]SL>,  18X1.  Highland  Indians.  — Doe.  of  Hi:,:,, 
ibid.,  52.  Hogelanders.—  Breedeu  Raedt  (ru.  1630) 
quoted  by  Ruttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R  ,  80,  1*72 
(Dutch  form).  Noch-Peem. — Van  der  Donek 
(1656)  quoted  by  Ruttenber,  ibid.,  72.  Nochpeem.— 
Treaty  of  1644  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist..  AMI  17 
1881.  Pachami.— Map  (co  1614).  ibid.,  I,  Isoii. 
Pachamins.— De  Laet  (1633)  in  N.  Y.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  2d  s.,  I,  308,  1841. 

Nockay-Delklinne.     See  Xnht'«lnU',ni. 

Nocos.  A  Chumashan  village  between 
Goletaand  PtConcepcion, Cal.,in  1542.— 
Cabrillo(1542)  in  Smith,  ('olec.  Doc.  Ela., 
183,  1857. 

Nocto.  A  former  Chumashan  village 
near  Purisima  mission,  Santa  Barbara 
co.,  Cal. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Oct. 
18,  1801 . 

Noewe.  Mentioned  by  Bartram  (Trav 
els,  371,  1792)  as  a  Cherokee  settlement, 
about  1775,  on  the  upper  waters  of  Ten 
nessee  r.,  apparently  in  w.  North  Car 
olina.  The  form  can  not  be  certainly 
identified,  but  it  may  be  intended  for 
NayiYhT,  'sand  place,'  or  Nufiyn'hl, 
'rock  place.'  Cf.  Xiour.  (.?.  M.) 

Nogaie  (Xo-ya'-ie).  A  Paviotso  tribe 
of  four  bands,'  formerly  living  in  N.  K. 
Nevada,  in  the  vicinity  of  Robinson  dis 
trict,  Spring  valley/  I)uckw;iter,  and 
White  r.  valley;  pop.  200  in  1873.— 
Powell  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1873,  52,  1874. 

Nogal  (Span.  '  walnut' ).  A  settlement 
of  the  Huichol  to  which  emigrated  those 
who  once  lived  at  Aguas  A/ules;  situated 
s.  w.  of  Santa  Catarina,  in  Jalisco,  .Mex 
ico.  The  place  was  afterward  taken  pos 
session  of  by  Mexican  settlers,  but  now 
the  Huichol  are  permitted  to  reside 
therein.— Lumholtz,  Unknown  Mex.,  n, 
256,  1902. 

Nogales  (Span.:  'walnuts').  A  ruined 
pueblo  s.  of  the  malpais  or  lava  beds  in 
s.  E.  New  Mexico.— Bandelier  in  Arch. 
Inst.  Rep.,  v,  88,  1884. 

Nogeling.  A  Kiatagmiut  Kskimo  vil 
lage  on  the  outlet  of  L.  Clark,  Alaska;  pop. 

Kiin  1890. 

Noghelingamiut.— Eleventh   Census,  Alaski 

1893  (the  people). 



[B.  A.  E. 

Noggai.  A  former  Yukonikhotana  vil 
lage  en  Yukon  r.,  Alaska,  having  10  in 
habitants  in  1844.— Zagoskin  quoted  by 
Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  37,  1884. 

Nogwats  ( .\\>-<}>i-nts').  A  Paiute  band 
formerly  near  Potosi,  s.  E.  Nev.  Pop. 
."ii>  in  IS?:!,  including  the  Parumpats. — 
IN. well  in  Ind.  Aff.  Kep.  1*73,  5°,  1S74, 

No  Heart.     See  Nachcn'mga. 

Nohioalli.  A  Costanoan  village  situ 
ated  in  1819  within  10  in.  of  Santa  Cm/ 
mission,  (1al. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Fanner, 
Apr.  fi,  1860. 

Nohulchinta.    Tlie  highest  Koyukukho- 
(ana   village  on   Koyukuk    r.,  on  the  s. 
fork.  3  in.  above  the  junction.     It  con 
tained  6  families  in  1885. 
Nohoolchfntna.— Allen.  Rep.,  99.  1S87. 

Nohuntsitk  ( Xo'.rmtfx'it.r}.  A  Kwa- 
kiutl  tril>e  living  at  the  lower  end  of 
YVikeiio  lake,  coast  of  British  Columbia. — 
Bnas  in  Hep.  Nat.  Mus.  1895,  328,  1897. 

Noieltsi  (  AW//.s-/,  'burnt  body').  A 
Xtlakyapamuk  village  on  the  w.  side  of 
Fraser  r. ,  about  23  in.  above  Yale,  Brit. 
Col. — Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist., 
II,  KS9,  1900. 

Nok.  A  former  Koyukukhotana  village 
on  the  \v.  bank  of  Koyukuk  r.,  Alaska, 
near  its  mouth;  pop.  50  in  1844. 
Nokhakate.— Zairoskin  in  Noiiv.  Ann.  Voy.,  5th  s., 
xxi.  iiuij..  is.M).  Nok-khakat.— Za^oskin  quoted 
by  IVtmlY  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  37,  1X84. 

Noka  ( AV/r,  'bear  foot').  A  gens  of 
the  ( 'hippewa. 

Noka.  — Warn-n  ilxrvj)   in   Minn.   Hist.  Soc    Coll. 
v.  !!.  isx:,.     No-kaig.— Ibid. ,87  (plural).    Nok'e.— 

Win.  Junes,  inf'n,  I'.ioii. 

Noka.  A  chief  of  the  western  ('hippewa 
in  the  latter  half  of  the  18th  century,  who 
attained  some  celebrity  as  a  leader  and 
hunter.  The  chief  incident  of  his  life 
relates  to  the  war  between  the  Mdewa- 
kanton  and  the  Chippewa  for  possession 
of  the  banks  of  the  upper  Mississippi.  In 
17(19,  the  year  following  the  battle  of 
Crow  Wing.  Minn.— -where  the  Chip 
pewa,  though  maintaining  their  ground, 
were  hampered  by  inferior  numbers — 
they  determined  to  renew  the  attack  on 
the  Mdewakanton  with  a  larger  force. 
This  war  party,  under  the  leadership 
of  Noka.  referred  to  as  "Old  Noka" 
evidently  on  account  of  his  advanced  age, 
attacked  Shakopee's  village  on  Minnesota 

,  Minn.,  the  result  being  adrawn  battle, 
the  Chippewa  retiring  to  their  own  terri 
tory  without  inflicting  material  damageon 
their  enemy.     Regarding  Noka's  skill  as 
"  hunter,  it  is  said  that   he  killed  in  one 
*  hunt,  starting  from  the  mouth  of 
'  Wing  r.,  Minn.,  W  elk,  4  buffalo,  5 
>  hears   a   lynx,  and  a  porcupine. 
Hole-in-the-day   was  one  of  Noka's  de 
scendants    I  Warren    in    Minn.  Hist.  Soc 
(  oil.,  v,  'Jtiii,  I,ss5). 

Nokehick.     Sec  .Yor,,/r. 

Nokem  (  .W,//.;,,,,  from  *',„//•,  <  valley') 
A  village  of  the  Spruces  Bridge  band  of 

Ntlakyapamuk  at  a  place  called  by  the 
whites  Drynoch,  on  thes.  side  of  Thomp 
son  r.,  16  m.  above  Lytton,  Brit.  Col. — 
Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n,  172, 

Noketrotra.  Mentioned  as  a  tribe,  seem 
ingly  Moquelumnan,  formerly  on  Fresno 
r.,  Cal.— Weasels  in  H.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  76, 
34th  Cong.,  3d  sess.,  30,  1857. 

Nokosalgi  ('bear  people',  from  tiokosi 
'bear',  alfjl  'people').     A  Creek  clan. 
Nokosalgi.—  Gatsehet,   Creek   Migr.    Leg.,  i,   155, 
1X84.    No-kuse'.— Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  161,  1877. 

Nokrot.  A  Chnagmiut  Eskimo  village 
near  C.  Romanof,  s.  coast  of  Norton  sd., 

Azachagyagmut. — Zagoskin,  Descr.  Russ.  T'oss. 
Am.,  I,  73,  1847.  Nokrotmiut.— Coast  Surv.,  1868, 
quoted  by  Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  1901. 

Nokyuntseleta.  A  former  pueblo  of  the 
Jeme/  in  New  Mexico,  the  exact  site  of 
which  is  not  known. 

No-cum-tzil-e-ta. — Bandolier  in  Arch.  Jnst.  Pa 
pers,  iv,  207,  1892.  No-kyun-tse-le-ta'.— Hodge, 
iield  notes,  B.  A.  E.,  1895. 

Nolcha  ('Sun').  Given  by  Bourke 
(Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  n,  181,  1889)' as  a 
clan  of  the  Mohave,  (j.  v. 

Nomas  (X<Ym<ix}.  The  ancestor  of  a 
Tlauitsis  gens,  after  whom  the  gens  itself 
was  sometimes  called. — Boas  in  Peter- 
manns  Mitt.,  pt.  5,  130,  1887. 

Nomasenkilis  (Nomasen^ilis} .  The 
ancestor  of  a  Tlatlasikoala  gens,  after 
whom  the  gens  itself  was  sometimes 
called. — Boas  in  Petermanns  Mitt.,  pt.  5, 
131,  1887. 

Nomkolkol  (Nom-koV -kol) .  A  former 
Chumashan  village  on  Santa  Cruz  id. 
(the  San  Lucas  of  Cabrillo),  Cal.,  E.  of 
the  harbor.  —  Henshaw,  Buenaventura 
MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1884. 

Nomoqois.  The  ancestor  of  a  Nakomgi- 
lisalagens,  after  whom  the  gens  itself  was 
sometimes  called.  — Boas  in  Petermanns 
Mitt.,  pt.  5,  131,  1887. 

Nonantum  ('I  rejoice,'  or  'I  am  well- 
minded.' — Trumbull).  A  Massachuset 
village  on  Nonantum  hill,  near  Newton, 
Middlesex  co.,  Mass.  John  Eliot  began 
his  missionary  labors  here  in  1646,  and  it\ 
was  soon  after  established  by  law  as  ai 
village  for  the  converts.  In  1650-51  they 
removed  to  Natick. 

Hoanantum.— Hutchinson  in  Trans.  Am.  Antiq. 
Soe.,  u,  518,  1836.  Nanitomen.— Mass.  Hist.  Soc. : 
Coll.,  1st  s.,  x,  14, 1809.  Nonandom.— Harris,  ibid., 
1st  s.,  ix,  192,  1804.  Nonantum.— Gookin  (11)74), 
ibid.,  I,  148,  1806-  Kliot  (1640)  quoted  by  Pilling. 
Algonq.  Bibliog. ,  177,  1X91.  Nonatum.— Gookin 
(1677)  in  Trans.  Am.  Antiq.  Soe.,  ir,  518,  1836. 
Noonanetum. — Shepard  (1(548)  in  Mass.  Hist  Hoc. 
Coll. ,3d  s.,  iv,  38.  18:51.  Noonatomen.— Eliot  (1(547), 
ibid.,  20. 

Nonapho.  A  tribal  name  given  in  the 
book  of  burials  at  Mission  San  Antonio  de 
Valero,  Texas,  in  1726.  Only  one  entry 
was  made  under  this  name,'  which  was 
for  the  burial  of  a  child  of  a  Mesquitc 
father  and  a  Nonapho  mother.  The  Mes- 
quites  (there  appear  to  have  been  dif 
ferent  tribes  by  this  name)  were  appar- 

BULL.  30] 


ently  Tonkawan.  At  this  time  there 
were  also  Coahuiltecan  tribes  at  the  mis 
sion,  but  the  Nonapho  can  not  be  identi 
fied  with  any  of  the  known  tribes 
(Enherros,  San  Antonio  de  Valero  MS 
in  the  custody  of  the  Bishop  of'  San 
Antonio).  (H.  E.  B.) 

Nonawharitse.     A  Tuscarora  village  in 
JNortn   Carolina  in  1701,  mentioned  bv 
Lawson  (1709),  N.  C.,  383,  1860. 
Non-che-ning-ga.     See  Nacheninga. 
Nondas  ( 'steep  hill.'— Hewitt).     A  for 
mer  Seneca  village,  visited  in  1791  (Am 
State   Pap.,  Ind.    Aff.,  i,   151,   1832)  by 
Col.  Thomas  Procter,  who  says  it  lay  8  m 
from  Squakie  hill,  which  would  place  it 
near  the  present  Nunda,  Livingston  co 
N.     Y.     Mary     Jemison,     "the     white 
woman,"  lived  there  then.     (w.  M.  B.) 
Non-gee-ninga.     See  Nacheninga. 
Nongee's  Village.    A  former  settlement 
probably  of  the  Chippewa,  named  after  a 
resident  chief,  situated  about  the  junc 
tion  of  Thornapple  cr.   with  Grand   r., 
Kent  co.,  Mich.,  a  few  miles  E.  of  Grand 
Rapids.     The  land  on  which  it  was  situ 
ated  was  ceded  to  the  United  States  by 
the  treaty  of  Chicago,  Aug.  29,  1821. 

Nonharmin  (Nor-har' -min,  'pulling  up 
stream ' ) .  A  subclan  of  the  Delawares  — 
Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  172,  1877. 

Nonhdeitazhi  ( '  those  who  touch  no  char 
coal  ).  A  subgens  of  the  Inkesabe  gens 
of  the  Omaha. 

former  Chehalis  vill 

hahs  na 

the  s 

-^M/0.    Anuniden- 

ified  village  that  anciently  stood  on  the 
JV  end  of  Harbledovvn  id.,  Brit.  Col     in 
Kwakiutl    territory.-Dawson    in    Ca 
Geol.  Surv.,  map,  1887 

Nookalthu  (  \oo-Mlt-Jm)  .     The  «ito  of  a 
former  Chehalis  village  x.  of  Gravs  har 
bor,  Wash.—  Gibbs,  MS  no  <>48   B    \    K 
Nookhick.     See  Nocake. 
_  Nooksak  (  '  m<  .untain  men  '  )      The  n-une 
given  by  the  Indians  on  the  coast  to  a 
bahs  h  tribe,  said  to  be  divided  into  three 
small  bands,  on  a  river  of  the  same  name 
in    Whatcom    co.,    Wash.       About    <>()() 

?Qn?  f\  ^e  °ffidally  enumerated  in 
1906,  but  Hill-Tout  says  there  are  only 
about  6  true  male  Nooksak.  They  speak 
the  same  dialect  as  the  Squawmish,  from 
whom  they  are  said  to  have  separated 
Neuk-sacks.—  Fitzhugh  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1X57  3">8 
18o8.  Nook-saak.-Stevens,  ibid.,  458  18  ' 

^eit'a-baji.— Dorsey  in  15th  Rep.  B.  A.  E    2*7 
.   JNon-hde-i-ta-zhi.— E.  La  Flesche,  inf  n,  I90ti! 
Nonhdeitazhi.     A  subgens  of  the  tapa 
gens  of  the  Omaha. 

Naq^it'aji.— Dorsey  in  loth  Rep.  B.  A.  E  2'>s 
189 /.  Non-hde-i-ta-zhi.— F.  La  Flesche,  inf  n'/lQOe! 
Nonoava  (from  nono,  'father.'— Lum- 
holtz) .  A  Tarahumare  settlement  on  the 
headwaters  of  Rio  Nonoava,  s.  w.  Chi 
huahua,  Mexico.  The  inhabitants,  who 
numbered  335  in  1900,  are  becomino- 
completely  civilized.  Apache  raids  are 
still  remembered  here. 

in  Doc.  Hist,  Mex.,  4th  s. 

Nonotuc.  A  village  near  the  present 
Northampton,  on  Connecticut  r.,  in 
Hampshire  co.,  Mass.  Its  inhabitants 
seem  to  have  been  a  part  of  the  Pocomtuc. 
in  1653  they  sold  a  considerable  tract  on 
me  w.  bank  of  the  river,  extending  from 
Hatfield  to  the  falls  near  Holvoke,  but 
continued  to  live  in  the  English  settle 
ment  until  King  Philip's  war  in  1675, 
when  they  joined  the  hostiles.  (.T.  M  ) 

'nC°n    663)  in  N-  Y-  Doc-  Co1-  Hist" 

K°n  l-6,63)  in    -    -       -      -        " 
*'    Nonaticks.—  Hoyt,  Antiq.  Res.,  91, 
Non°tuck.—  Ibid.,    74.     Northampton    Indi- 

Nonyishagi  (  No-nyish'  -ii-gi')  .  A  former 
pueblo  of  the  Jemez  of  New  Mexico; 
lennite  locality  unknown.  (F.  w.  n.) 

3456—  Bull.  30,  pt 

IT  ,'  -1 1S('8-  No°k;sahk.— Stevens,  ibid.,  455  1*54" 
Nooksahk.-Gibbs  in  Pac.  K.  R.  Rep.,  i,  433  1855 
Nooksaks.— Keane  in  Stanford,  Compend.  fi->(;' 
18,8.  Nootsak.— Hill-Tout  in  Ethnol.  Surv  Can  ' 
•'•\1'"^-  Nugh-sahk.— Mallet  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep., 198"! 
IS//.  Nuksahk.— Gibb.s  in  Cont  N  A  Ethnol  i 
18<U*77.  Nuk-sak.-Gibbs,  Clallam  and  Lum^ 

Noolamarlarmo  ( Xool-d  -  mar-lar'-ino 
'living  in  water').  A  subclan  of  the 
Delawares. — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  172, 1877. 

Noosiatsks  ( Xoo-si-atxks).    The ( 'hehalis 
name  of  an  ancient  village  on  the  s.  side 
of  Grays  harbor,  Wash.— Gibbs   MS   no 
48,  B"  A.  E. 

Nooskoh  (.YOOX-/-O/O.  The  Chehalis 
name  of  a  former  yillage  on  a  creek- 
opposite  Whishkah  r.,  Wash. — Gibbs 
MS.  no.  248,  B.  A.  E. 

Noot  (X<Y<ti,  or  NKru't,  allied  to  ri/it, 
'sleep').  A  village  of  the  Lytton  band 
of  Ntlakyapanmk  on  the  w.  side  of  Eraser 
r.,  12  in.  above  Lytton,  Brit.  Col. 
NKro't.— Teit  in  Mein.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n 
172,  15)00.  No'ot.  — Ibid.  Tent.— Can  Ind  An" 
185)4,  277,  18D5  (misprint).  Yent.— Ibid.,  lS9S,.|ls, 
1899.  YEo't.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Kthnol.  Surv. 
Can..  4,  1899.  Yeut.— Can.  Ind.  All'.,  j.t.  n,, 
1901.  Yout.— Ibid.,  1886,  230,  1887.  Ze-ut.— Ibid 
1885,  19(5,  1885. 

Noota.  One  of  the  four  bands  into 
which  Lewis  (Trav.,  17o,  1801J)  divided 
the  Crows. 

Noo'-ta-.— Oritr.Jour.  Le\visand  Clark,  vi,  103,1905. 
Noo-taa. — Lewis  and  Clark,  Jour.,  lilt1.,  ls-IO. 
Nootapareescar.— Lewis  and  Clark  K.\pe<l.,  O.ues 
ed.,  iv,  index,  1339,  1893  (names  of  two  divisions 
erroneously  united). 

Noothlakimish.  An  unidentifiable  Bel- 
lacoola division  on  North  Bentinck  Ann, 
Brit.  Col.;  mentioned  by  Tolinie  and 
Dawson,  Vocabs.  Brit.  CoL,  122n,  1SS4. 


Nootka.  A  name  originally  applied  to 
the  Moouehaht  «\.  v.  )  of  Nootka  sd.,  w. 
coast  of  Vancouver  id.,  and  to  their 
principal  town,  Yu<|Uot  (q.  v.),  but 
subsequently  extended  to  all  the  tribes 
speaking  a  similar  language.  These  ex 
tend  from  ('.  Cook  on  the  x.  to  beyond 
1'ort  San  Juan,  and  include  the  Makah  of 
C.  Mattery,  Wash.  Sometimes  the  term 
has  been  s  •  used  as  to  exclude  the  last- 
named  tribe.  The  Xootka  form  one 
branch  of  the  great  Wakashan  family  and 
their  relationship  to  the  second  or  Kwa- 
kiutl  branch  is  apparent  only  on  close  ex- 
ami  nation.  In  1906  there  \vere4o5  Makah 
and  -.  iri<)  Vancouver  id.  Nootka;  total, 
LV>JM.  They  are  decreasing  slowly  but 
steadily,  the  reduction  in  population  of 
the  Xootka  of  Vancouver  id.  alone  having 
exceeded  L'.~><>  between  1901  and  190(>. 

The  Nootka 
clesaht,   Cla 
quiat,    KelM-i 
extinct  ),  Kw 
Makah,  .Man 

are:  Ahousaht,  Chaic- 
<|not,  Cooptee,  Ehatisaht, 
l:irhaath  (extinct),  Iles- 
aht.  Klalm.sdit  (probably 
neatsliatka  ('.'),  Kymjuof, 
aht,  Mooachaht,  Muchalat', 
Nitinat,  Nudiatlit/,  oiaht,  Opitchesaht, 
I'aeheenaht,  Seshart,  To,,U;irt,  lYhiiekle- 
sit,  and  1'ehielet.  i.i.  K  s  ) 

Aht.-Sproat,   Savage  LiiV.   :si2,    istjs.    Nootka.- 
•!.    K.xpl     Kxpt-d  ,   vi,  2-2(1  569.  1M6. 
Wootka  Columbian.   -Scouler  in   .lour    Fov    (}eoir 
So,-      xi.  2_M,  ISM.    Noutka.-Dullot   de'kofras 
Kxpl.,   ii,  Hll.    1M1.      Nuqueno.—  (ialiano     Rela- 
'.    Hrj.     O'mene.-Boas  in 
;>tli     Rep.    N.    \v.    Tribes    Can.,    '.)     ]s,s«»    (Coinox 
inuii.-..     Ouakicha.—  Duflot   ,|,-    M,,!n,s,    01,     (-it' 
34o.     Southern.—  Seoul,  T,   op.   cit       ^''l      Tc'- 


Nopeming    (for    \f>i>t 
people  ot  th«-  hush.'—  W.  J.  ).      A  north 

ern  branch  of  the  Chippewa,  living  in 
Ontario,  N.  K.  of  L.  Superior  and  w.  of  ]j. 
Nipissing,  and  sometimes  ranging  E.  as  far 
as  Ottawa  r.  From  their  frequently 
resorting  to  Sault  Ste* Marie  they  have 
often  been  confounded  with  the  band  at 
that  place,  and  they  have  been  likewise 
confused  with  the  Tetes  de  Boule,  q.  v. 
Men  of  the  woods.— Maclean,  Hudson  Bay,  I,  74, 
1819  (so  i-alied  by  other  tribes).  Muskegoag. — 
Tanner,  Narr.,  315,  1S30  (applied  by  the  Ot 
tawa  to  them  as  well  as  to  the  Maskegon).  Nca- 
peeming'.— Sfhoolcraft,  Miss.  Val.,  299, 1825.  Nope- 
men  d'Achirini. — Lahontan,  New  Voy.,  I,  2151, 17U3. 
Nopemetus  Anineeg. — Tanner,  Narr.,  315,  1830 
(Ottawa  name).  Nopemings. — Schoolcraft,  Ind. 
Tribes,  v,  145,  1855.  Nopemin  of  Achirini. — Rich 
ardson,  Arct.  Exped.,  II,  39,  1851.  Nopemit  Azhin- 
neneeg. — Tanner,  Narr.,  315,  183U  (Ottawa  name). 
Nopimingdaje  inini. — Cuoq,  Lex.  Algonquine,  129. 
lS8t'>  ( 'men  (>f  the  interior  of  the  lands':  Nipissing 
name).  No'pimingtashineniwag.  —  Wm.  Jones, 
iufn,  1906  (correct  name).  Nubenaigooching. — 
Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  16,  1875.  Opemens  d'Acheliny.— Du 
Lhut  (1684)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  vi,  51,  1886. 
O'pimittish  Ininiwac.— Henry,  Trav.,  60,  1809. 
Wood  Indians.— Ibid. 

Noponne  ( *\(/-pon-?ie,  '  face ' ,  '  front ' ) . 
The  name  of  the  midmost  mesa,  directly 
s.  of  Znfii  pueblo,  N.  Mex.,  so  named  be 
cause  the  face  or  front  (no'-jton)  of  Kolo- 
wissi,  the  mythical  serpent  of  the  sea,  ap 
peared  above  the  waters  of  the  flood  at 
that  point,  when  the  youth  and  maiden 
were  sacrificed  from  the  top  of  Thunder 
mtn.  The  southern  of  the  7  shrines  of 
Ahaiytita  and  Matsailema,  the  twin  war 
gods  of  the  /ufii,  is  situated  there,  but  no 
ruin  of  any  kind.  (F.  n.  c.) 

No-pone.— Fewkes  in  Jour.  Am.  Eth.  and  Arch.,  I, 
100.  1891. 

Noptac.  A  former  village  connected 
with  San  Carlos  mission,  Oal.,  and  said  to 
have  been  Ksselen. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Far 
mer,  Apr.  20,  I860. 

Nopthrinthres.  A  tribe  mentioned  by 
Arroyo  de  la  Cuesta  ( MS. ,  B.  A .  K. )  as  set 
tled  at  the  mission  of  San  Juan  Bautista, 
San  Benito  co.,  Cal.,  during  the  mission 
period.  A  vocabulary  given  by  him 
shows  it  to  have  been  Yokuts  (Mari- 

Nopochinches. — Garcia  MS.  quoted  by    Bancroft, 
Hist.  Cal..  n,  339,  1886. 

Noquet  (Noke,  'bear  foot';  another 
name  for  the  Bear  gens  (see  Nok<i]  of  the 
Chippewa.  —  \V.  J. ).  An  Algonquian  tribe 
located  by  the  earliest  French  writers 
about  Xoquet  bay,  at  the  mouth  of  Green 
bay,  extending  \.  across  the  peninsula  to 
L.  Superior.  In  1(559  they  were  attached 
to  the  mission  of  St  Michel,  together  with 
the  Menominee,  Winnebago,  and  others. 
In  17()1  Jefferys,  ])robaV)ly  on  the  author 
ity  of  some  recent  French  writer,  says 
they  were  on  the  islands  at  the  mouth  of 
Green  bay,  formerly  occupied  by  the 
Potawatomi.  They  were  never  promi 
nent  as  a  tribe,  and  were  probably  absorb 
ed  by  the  Chippewa  or  the  Menominee. 
Nikic!— Coxe,  Carolana,  48,  1741.  Nikie.— Ibid., 
map.  Nocke.— Du  Lhut  (1684)  in  Margry,  Dec., 
vi,  41,  l.ssr,.  Noguets.— Perrot.  Mem.,  295,  1864. 
Nokes.— Lahontan  (1703),  New  Voy.,  i,map,  1703. 
Nokets.— Frontenac  (1682)  in  N.  Y.'Doc.  Col.  Hist., 

BULL.  30] 


ix,  182,  1855.  Noquai.— Kelton,  Ft  Mackinac 
145,  1884.  Noquets.— Prise  de  Possession  (1671)  in 
Margry,  Dec.,  I,  97,  1875.  Notketz.—  Vaudreuil 
(1720),  ibid.,  vi,  511, 1886.  Noukek.-Jes.  Rel.  1658 
21,  1858.  Nouquet.  — Jes.  Rel.  1670,  79,  1858 
Roquai. — Jes.  Rel.  1640,  34,  1858. 

Noquiquahko.     A  former  Salish  band  of 
Fraser  superintendency,  apparently  on  or 
near  upper  Fraser  r.,  Brit.  Col. 
No-qui-quahko.— -Can.  Ind.  AfF.,  78,  1878. 

Norajik.  An  East  Greenland  Eskimo 
village  on  an  island  in  Angmagsalik  fjord, 
lat.  65°  51';  pop. 47  in  1884.— Meddelelser 
om  Gronland,  ix,  379,  1889. 

Norbos  ('southern  house').  A  general 
name  applied  by  the  Daupom,  or  Cotton- 
wood  Wintun,  to  the  Nummuk,  Noani- 
laki,  Nuimok,  Noyuki,  and  Puimuk  tribes 
of  the  Copehan  family. 

Norbos.— Powers  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  in,  230, 
1877.  Norboss. — Powers  in  Overland  Mo.  xn  531 

Norchean.  A  Maricopa  rancheria  on 
the  Rio  Gila  in  1744.— Sedelmair  (1744) 
cited  by  Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  N.  Mex.,  366 

Normuk  ( '  southern  ' ) .  A  Wintun  tribe 
formerly  living  on  Hay  fork  of  Trinity 
r.,  Trinity  co.,  Cal.  Tliey  were  the  most 
southerly  Wintun  tribe  of  the  Trinity 
group,  hence  their  name.  See  Kasha- 

Noobimucks.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  June  8, 1860. 
Normoc.— Powers  in  Overland  Mo.,  ix,  499,  1872. 
Nor'-mok.— Powers  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  in,  231, 
1877.  Nor-rel-mok.— Ibid. 

Norogachic  ('where  there  is  a  rock  in 
front.' — Lumholtz).  A  Tarahumare  set 
tlement  on  the  headwaters  of  Rio  Fuerte, 
in  the  middle  of  the  Sierra  Mad  re,  lat. 
27°  20',  Ion.  107°,  Chihuahua,  Mexico. 
Pop.  about  3,850  Tarahumare  in  1900.— 
See  Orozco  y  Berra,  Geog.,  323,  1864; 
Lumholtz  in\Scri  brier's  Mag.,  xvi,  32, 
July  1894;  Lumholtz,  Unknown  Mex.,  i 
205,  1902. 

Norridgewock  (from  Nanrant$/cak,  'peo 
ple  of  the  still  water  between  rapids'). 
A  tribe  of  the  Abnaki  confederacy,  the 
typical  tribe  of  the  group.  Their  closest. 
relationship  was  with  the  Penobscot, 
Arosaguntacook,  and  Wewenoc.  Their 
territory  embraced  the  Kennebec  valley 
nearly  to  the  river's  mouth,  Norridge 
wock,  their  principal  village,  being  on 
the  left  bank  just  below  the  rapids,  near 
:he  present  Norridgewock,  Me.  The 
French  established  a  mission  at  their 
tillage  in  1688.  In  1695  the  Jesuit 
Father  Rasles  took  up  his  residence  there 
md  succeeded  in  attaching  the  tribes  so 
varmly  to  the  French  cause  that  they 
loon  came  to  be  regarded  as  dangerous 
jnemies  of  the  English  colonists.  In  1 724 
in  expedition  was  sent  against  the  Nor- 
idgewock,  which  resulted  in  the  destruc- 
ion  of  their  village,  the  dispersion  of  the 
rihe,  and  the  death  of  Rasles.  They  fled 
n  different  parties  to  the  Penobscot  and 
'assamaquoddy,  and  to  St  Francis  in 
"anada.  A  number  afterward  returned 

and  settled  in  their  old  home,  but  owim: 
to  the  continued  unfriendly  disposition 
of  the  whites,  who  again  attacked  their 
Village  in  1 749,  returned  at  the  breaking 
out  of  the  trench  and  Indian  war  in  1754 
to  fet  Francis.  A  few  families  that  re 
mained  behind  for  some  years  iinallv 
found  their  way  also  to  Canada.  See 
Abnaki,  Missions.  i  ,  M  \ 

Aridgevoak.— Bellin,  map,  1755  Aridgewoak - 
Homann  Heirs'  map,  1756.  Arransoak.-Montre- 
sor  (ca.  1775)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  ,,  459  l',;5 

°fmi£Sf  K>11IK'y  and  Hal1'  ]nd-  Tribes,  m' 

79,  1854  (misprint).  Canabas.— Ibid.  Canibas  -- 
Doc.  ol  1689  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  433  ]sr,:, 
Cannabas.— McKeen  in  Me.  Hist.  Soe.  Coll  v' 
327,1857.  Oannibas.— Jes.  Rel.  1611,  5,  1858  Cam' 
bas.— Aubery  (1720)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col  Hi«t  ,x 
895,  1855  (misprint).  Kanibals.--Vetromiie''Ab- 
"a,ki?'c?2.  MM.  Kanibas-Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  i>k.3 
lOo,  1818.  Kanibats.— Frontenac  (1691)  in  N  Y' 
Doc.  Col  Hist.,  ix,  495,  l,x.->5.  Kanibesinnoaks.- 
Maurault,  Hist,  des  Abenakis,  5,  1866.  Kanibes- 
sinnoaks— Ibid.  Kenabeca.— Smith  (1631) in  Mass 
Hist.  Soe.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  in,  22,  1833.  Kenabes.— Wil 
lis m  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  JV,  9(1. 1850.  Kenebecke 
Indeans.— Pateshall  (1684),  ibid.,  v  91  1*57 
Kenebeke.  —  Purchas  (1625),  ibid.,  I5li.  Kenne- 
beck  Indians.— Sewall  (1721),  ibid.,  in,  351,  1853 
Kennebecks.— Gookin  (1674)  in  Mass.  Hist  Soc 
Coll.,  1st  s.,  i,  162,  1806.  Kennebeki.— La  Tour,  map 
1779.  Kinnebeck Indians.— Doc.  oflfM) in  N  V  Due 
Col.  Hist.,  xiii,  190,1881.  Nalatchwaniak.— Gat- 
schet,  Penobscot  MS.,  B.  A.  1-1,  1887  (Penobscot 
name).  Namgauck.— Dudley  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
v,429, 1857.  Nanrantsoak.— Rasles  (1712)  in  Mass' 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2(1  s.,  vin,  25s,  1^19.  Nanrant- 
souak.— Rasles  (1721)  ibid.,  252.  NanrantsSak.- 
Vandreuil(  1722)  inN.Y.  Doc. Col. Hist., ix, 910, 1855. 
Nanrantswacs.— Kendall,  Trav.,  in,  63, 1809.  Nan- 
rantswak.— Vetromile,  Abnakis,  24, 1X66.  Nantan- 
souak.— Vaudreuil(1724)in  N.Y.Doc.  Col.Hist.jx, 
934,  1855  (misprint).  Naragooe.— Purchas  (1625)  in 
Me.  Hist.  Soc.  ColL.V,  156,1857.  Naranchouak.— 
Jes.  Rel.  1652,  24,  1858.  Naranchouek.— Ibid.,  30. 
Narangawock.— Gyles  (172(1)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  Ill,  3  >7, 1853.  Narangawook.— Ibid.  Narant- 
soak.— Charlevoix  (1744)  (|iiotcd  by  Drake,  Bk. 
Inds.,  bk.  3,  126,  1848.  Narantsouak.— Vandreuil 
(1724)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  VI/24U.  1859.  Narant- 
s8ak.— Beauharnois  (1744)  in  N.  Y.  Doe. Col.  Hist., 
ix,  1107,  1855.  Narantsouans.—  Vandrenil  (1724), 
ibid. ,937.  NarantsSuk.— Rasles  (1721)  in  Mass.  Hist 
Soc.  (-oil.,  2d  s.,  vin,  262,  1819.  Narantswouak.— 
Beauharnois  (1744)  in  X.  Y.  Doc. Col.  Hist.,  ix,  1107, 
1855.  Narautsouak.  —  Vaudreiiil  (1721),  ibid.,  903. 
Narauwings.— Boudinot,  Star  in  the  West,  127, 1816. 
NarentchSan.— CbanviKiierie  (1736)  in  N.  Y.  Doc. 
Col.  Hist,,  IX,  1052,  1855.  Narent  Chouan,— Cbau- 
viffiierie  quoted  by  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in 

V  IgllClic     (J  UUICU     I  '  V     «^<    I  1UOH   I  HI  I  ,    J  IH  1.       Ill  I»CS,    -III, 

553,1853.    Naridgewalk.— Penhallow    (1726)  in  N. 
H.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.  1,20,1824.     Naridgwalk.  — Fal- 

Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  IX,  934,  1855.  Naurautsoak.— 
Doc.  of  1718,  ibid.,  880.  Naurautsouak.— Ibid. 
881.  Navidgwock. — Niles  (m.  17(11)  in  Ma<s. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  3d  s.,  vi,  235.  1837  (misprint). 
Neridgewalk.— Niles  (ca.  1761).  ibid.,  4th  s.,  v,335, 
1861.  Neridgewok.— Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  3,  128, 
1848.  Neridgiwack.— Church  (1716)  quoted  by 
Drake,  Ind.  Wars.  201.  1825.  Neridgwock.— Casco 
conf.  (1727)  in  N.  H.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  n,  261,  1827. 
Neridgwook.— Ibid.  Nerigwok.— 1)  rake.  Ind. 
Chron.,175,  1836.  Nerridgawock.— Falmouth  conf. 
(1727)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  m,  407,  1853.  Ner- 
ridgewock.— Ibid..  445.  Nolongewock.— Pynchon 
(1663)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  xiil,  308,  1881. 
Noridgawock.— Oakman  (ca.  1690)  quoted  by 
Drake  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  3,  109,  1848.  Noridgewalk.— 
Kendall,  Trav.,  in.  48,  1809.  Noridgewoc.— Ibid. 
Noridgewock.— Church  (1689)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  4th  s.,  V.  222.  1861.  Noridgwoag.—  Jef- 
ferys  Fr.  Doms..  pt.  1,  123,  1761.  Noridgwock.— 



[B.  A.  E. 

I'emaniiid  treaty  (1693)  queued  by  Drake,  Bk. 
hid-  bk  3  121  "1848.  Norredgewock.— McKenney 
and  llall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  82,  1854.  Norrideg- 
wock  —  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  in,  357.  1853  (mis 
print  Norridgawock.— Doc.  of  1752.  ibid.,  iv,  170, 
isxi.  Norridgewalk.—  Column  (1726)  in  N.  H. 
HM  Soc  Coll  I  17  1824.  Norridgewocks.—  Dum- 
mer'(1726)in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,vi,  111, 
isoo.  Norridgowock.— Treaty  jour.  (1749)  in  Me. 
Hi-t.  soe.  Coll.,  iv,  11").  1S56.  Norridgwak. — Gusse- 
I'dd  mai>.  17M.  Norridgwalk.— Hornann  Heirs' 
man  17">6.  Norridgwocks.—  IVnhallow  (1726)  in 
N.  H.  Hi.-t.  Soc.  Coll..  I.  129.  1824.  Norridgwog.— 
Kaslcs  (,-a.  1720)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  1st  s..  X, 
137.  1809.  Norridgwogg. — CotVm  (J796)  in  Me.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  iv.  313,  1856.  Norrigawake, — I'orts- 
moutli  treaty  (1713i,  ibid.,  vi,  250.  1859.  Norrige- 
wack.— Dudley  (1701)  (inoted  by  Drake,  Ind. 
Wars  220  1825'.  Norrigewock.— Xiles  (r«.  1761 )  in 
Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  3d  s.,  vi,  217,  1837.  Nor- 
rigwock.— Cburcli  (1716i  quoted  by  Drake,  Ind. 
\Vars.  217.  1825.  Norrijwok.—  .letl'erys,  Fr.  Doms.,,  119.17(11.  Norriwook.  —  La  Tour,  map, 
17v_>.  Norrywok.— .lefYerys,  Kr.  Doms.., 
17iil.  Norwidgewalks.  — Doc.  of  1761  in  N.  Y.  Doc. 
Col.  Hist.,  vil,  641.  1S56.  Nurhantsuaks. — Man- 
rault.  Ilistoire  des  Al»enakis,  5,  ]S66.  Quenebec 
Indians.  — Douglass,  Summary.  I,  181,  1755.  Waw- 
rigweck. --Smith  (1616)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
3d  s..  VI.  107,  1N37.  Wawrigwick. —Smith  (1631), 
ibid.,  in.  22.  1833. 

Norsemen.     See  ftcandinui'ian  influence. 

Norsit.  An  Mast  ( Jreenland  Eskimo  vil 
lage  on  an  island  at  ttie  mouth  of  Ang- 
magsalik  fjord,  lat.  (io0  ',\(V;  pop.  25  in 
1SS4. — Meddelelserom  Gronlaml,  ix,  379, 
I  SHU. 

Northern  Assiniboin.  A  division  of  the 
Assiniboin  as  recognized  about  the  mid 
dle  (.t'  the  19th  century  and  earlier.  Per 
haps  the  same  as  the  Tschantoga  (<].  v.), 
or  <  iens  des  Bois  of  .Maximilian,  and  the 
\Vo<>d  Stoneys  or  Stonies  of  northern 
Alberta  of  the  present  day,  although 
Denig  ils.">4)  says  they  were  so  called 
because  they  came  from  the  x.  in  1839. 
In  I  >enig's  time  they  numbered  60  lodges 
under  Le  Robe  de  Vent. 

Assiniboels  of  the  North.— .lefTerys,  Am.  Atlas, 
map  8,  177(1.  Assiniboins  of  the  North.— Jefferys, 
French  Dom.  Am.,  pt.  1,  map.  1761.  Gens 'du 
Nord.  -Haydcn,  Ktlnio-.  and  I'hilol.  Mo.  Val., 
3*7.  |M'>_'.  Northern  People.  —  Denitf  quoted  by 
horsey  in  15th  Rep.  H.  A.  K..  223.  1897.  To 
kum' pi.  -Hayden. op. cit.  Wah  ze-ah we-chas-ta.— 
hciiiu'.  op.  cit.  Wah'  zi-ah.— Hayden.  op.  cit. 

Northern  Comanche.  The  name  1  >v  which 
the  Kuahari,  I)itsakana,an<i  Detsanayuka 
wen-  sometimes  designated  collectively 
to  distinguish  them  from  the  Penateka, 
who  were  known  as  Kasteru  or  Southern 
('"maiiche.  Moouey  in  14th  Rep.  B.  A 
Iv.  104."),  ]s<)(i. 

North  Fork.  A  village  in  the  Canadian 
district  of  the  Creek  Nation,  Ind.  T..  in 
IS5H  (Smith  in  hid.  A  ft'.  Rep.,  149,  hSoS). 
The  name  doubtless  refers  to  the  x.  fork 
of  ( 'anadian  r. 

North  Herndon.  A  Xetchilirmiut  Es 
kimo  village  at  Felix  harbor,  Boothia, 
Can.  —  R..SS,  Second  Voy.,  249,  1835. 

Norumbega.     A   name  used  by  explor 
ers  and  cartographers  of  the  Kith  and  the 
tn>t  hall  of  the  17th  century  to  designate 
th<-    1'enobscot   r.    in    Maine,   a    fabulous 
:it  nty  upon  its  banks,  and  a  province 
'kingdom,'1    including   the  adjacent 

New  England  coast,  and  sometimes  ex 
tended  in  its  application  to  include  the 
whole  coast  region  from  Nova  Scotia  to 
Virginia.  It  occurs  as  Aranbega  on  the 
map  of  Hieronimus  Verrazano  of  1529,  as 
Auorobagra  on  a  Jomard  map  of  1543, 
and  as  Nurumbega  on  the  (iastaldi  map 
of  1550.  With  better  knowledge  of  the 
region  the  province  disappeared  and  the 
great  city  dwindled  to  a  few  wigwams  at 
a  place  called  by  the  Penobscot  Indians 
Aggnncia,  supposed  (Godfrey  in  Me. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  vn,  1876)  to  have  been 
about  the  present  site  of  Brewer,  oppo 
site  Bangor,  on  Penobscot  r.,  Ale. 

The  derivation  of  the  name  has  been 
much  disputed,  but  it  is  generally  ad 
mitted  to  be  of  Indian  origin,  although 
attempts  have  been  made  to  give  it  a 
Norse  meaning.  According  to  Vetroniile, 
the  best  recent  authority  on  the  Abnaki 
language,  the  correct  Abnaki  form  is 
Nolumbeka,  meaning  'a  succession  of 
falls  and  still  water',  used  by  the  In 
dians  to  designate  certain  parts  of  Penob 
scot  r.,  and  not  the  river  itself.  Father 
Sebastian  Rasles,  author  of  the  great 
Abnaki  dictionary,  gives  the  form  as 
Aranmbeg8k,  'an  fond  de  Peati',  from 
ariiinn,  'ati  fond';  but  which  Hewitt 
thinks  means  'at  the  clay  inlet'.  Accord 
ing  to  Gatschet  (Nat,  Ge'og.  Mag.,  vm,  23, 
1897),  Penobscot  nalambiyl  and  Passama- 
quoddy  it<il<ibegik  both  refer  to  the  still, 
quiet  (nala-)  stretch  of  a  river  between 
two  riffles,  rapids,  or  cascades;  -bcyik,  for 
nipeyik,  means  'at  the  water.'  A  manu 
script  authority  quoted  by  Winsor  (Hist. 
Am.,  in,  184,  1884)  gives  the  Penobscot 
form  as  Nah-rah-be-gek.  De  Costa,  in 
the  same  volume,  inclines  to  a  European 
origin  for  the  name,  which  Beauvois 
(1880)  derives  from  Norroenbygda,  'Nor 
way  country',  and  Horsford  (Discov. 
Anc.  City  Norumbega,  1890)  from  Nor- 
bega,  an  ancient  name  for  Norway,  claim- 
Ing  also  to  identify  the  river  as  Charles 
r. ,  Mass.,  and  the  town  site  as  at  the 
present  Watertown.  (,i.  M.) 

Aggoney. — De  Costa  in  Winsor,  Hist.  Am.,  in,  LS4, 
18S4.  Agguncia.— Heylin  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll., 
vi  I,  99.  1876.  Agoncy'.— Tlievet  (1556)  quoted  by 
Kohl,  Discov.  of  Me.,  416, 1869.  Arambeck.—  Otfilby 
(1671)  in  Me.  Hist,  Soc.  Coll..  vu.  99.  1S76.  A.r- 
ampec.  — Heylin,  ibid.,  99.  Aranbega.— Map  of 
Hieronimus  Verrazano  (1529)  noted  by  Kohl, 
op.  cit..  291.  AranmbegSk.— Rasles,  "-Abnaki 
Diet.,  1691.  Auorobagra. — Jomard,  map  (1543),  as 
reproduced  by  Kohl,  op.  cit.,  351.  Nah-rah-be- 
gek.— Winsor,  Hist.  Am.,  in,  184,  1884.  Nolum- 
beghe. — Ibid.  Nolumbeka. — Vetiomile,  Abnakis, 
45,  1866.  Norambegue.— ,!es.  Rel.  1611,  2,  18-58. 
Norembega. — Blaeu,  map  (1642),  reproduced  by 
Kohl,  op.  cit., 315.  Norembegua.—  Oldmixon,  Brit. 
Kmpire,  n,  363,  1708.  Norembegue.— Champlain 
(1604),  CEuvres,  in,  26,  1870.  Norimbegue.— Jef 
ferys,  Fr.  Doms.,  I,  98,  1761.  Norombega.— Mer- 
eator,  map  (1569),  reproduced  by  Kohl,  op.  cit., 
381.  Norumbega.— Champlain  (1605)  in  Me.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  vn.  93. 1876:  also  Hondiusmap  (m.  1590) 
reproduced  by  Kohl,  op.  cit.,  315.  Norumbegua. — 
Heylin  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  2d  s..  i.  99,  1869. 
Norumbegue.— Champlain  (1636),  ibid.,  vil,  253. 



Nurumberg. — Ruscelli,  map  (1561),  ibid.,  2d  s.,  I, 
233,  1869  (evidently  a  form  suggested  by  the  name 
of  the  German  city  Nuremberg).  Nvrvmbega.— 
Gastaldi,  map  (1550),  as  reproduced  by  Kohl,  op. 
cit.,  226. 

Norwalk.  A  band  holding  lands  on 
Norwalk  and  Saugatnck  rs.,  s.  w.  Conn., 
which  they  sold  in  1640  and  1641,  Ma- 
hackemo  being  then  the  principal  chief 
(De  Forest,  Inds.  Conn.,  177,  1851).  No 
tribal  name  is  given  this  people,  but  they 
were  probably  closely  connected  with  the 
Paugnsset,  about  Stratford,  or  with  the 
more  important  Quinnipiac  about  New 
Haven.  (j.  M.  ) 

Norwootuc.  An  Algonquian  tribe  or 
band  whose  possessions  extended  from 
the  "great  falls"  at  South  Hadley  to 
Mt  Sugar  Loaf,  in  the  Connecticut  val 
ley,  Mass^  They  were  attacked  by  the 
Mohegan  about  1656,  and  were  at  war 
with  the  Montauk  and  Narraganset. 
They  were  probably  a  part  of  the  In 
dians  who  took  part  in  King  Philip's 
war  of  1675  and  afterward  tied  the  coun 
try,  as  "  Norwootuck  plantations"  arc 
mentioned  in  1678  as  if  a  new  English 
settlement.  The  Norwootuc  were  prob 
ably  the  "Nowonthewog  or  the  East 
ward  Indians,"  who  in  1700  combined 
with  the  Mohawk  against  the  English 
colonists.  (,T.  M.  ) 

Nalvotogy.— Pynchon  (1677)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
Hist.,  XIII,  511, 1881.  Kalwetog.— Pynchon  (1663), 
ibid.,  308.  Narwootuek.— Leete  (1675)  in  Mass. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  4th  s.,  vu,  579,  1S65.  Norwoo 
tuck.— Bishop  (1678),  ibid.,  vin,  306,  1S6S.  Nor- 
wottock.— Doc.  (ra.  1657)  in  N.  II.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.,  in,  96,  1832.  Norwottucks.— White,  Old-time 
Haunts,  7,  1903.  Norwuthick. — Quanapaug  (1675) 
in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  1st  s.,  vi,  207,  1800.  No 
wonthewog.— Doc.  of  1700  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.. 
IV,  614, 1854. 

Noscaric.  A  Maricopa  rancheria  on  the 
Rio  (Hla,  Arizona,  in  1744.— Sedelmair 
(1744)  cited  by  Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  N. 
Mex.,  366,  1889. 

Nostic.  A  former  settlement  of  the 
Tepecano  or  of  a  related  tribe  who  may 
have  been  replaced  by  Tlaxcaltec  intro 
duced  by  the  Spaniard's  in  the  18th  cen 
tury  as  a  defence  against  the  "Chichi- 
mecs."  Situated  on  the  Rio  de  Bolanos, 
about  4|  in.  s.  of  Mezquitic,  in  Jalisco, 
Mexico. — Hrdlicka  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  v, 
388,  409,  1903. 

Nastic.— Mota  Padilla  (1742),  Hist,  de  la  Oonq., 
354,  1870. 

Notaloten.  A  Koyukukhotana  village 
on  Yukon  r.,  Alaska,  20  in.  above  the 
mouth  of  Koyukuk  r.  Pop.  37  in  1844; 
15  in  1890. 

Natulaten. — Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  map, 
1884.  Nohtalohton.— Post-route  map,  1903.  Notag- 
lita.— Zagoskin  quoted  by  PetrolY.  op.  cit,,  37.  No 
taloten.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  1901. 

Notched  plates.  Stone  plates  of  discoidal 
or  rectangular  form  obtained  mainly  from 
ancient  mounds  in  the  Ohio  valley  and 
I  the  Southern  states.  Heretofore  these 
plates  have  been  classed  with  problemat- 
ical  objects  (q.  v.),  and  the  significance 

of  some  specimens  remains  yet  in  doubt; 
but  Moore  has  shown  that  those  obtained 
in  Alabama  were  undoubtedly  used  in 
grinding  pigments.  It  is  also  observed  that 
a  close  analogy  exists  between  these  tablets 
and  the  pigment  plates  employed  by  the 
Pueblos  and  other  Southwestern  tribes, 
and  also  frequently  encountered  among 
the  ancient  ruins  of  the  S.  W.  ( Fewkes, 
Russell).  The  rectangular  specimens 
rarely  exceed  10  in.  in  width  by  about  15 
in  length,  and  the  discoidal  variety  ranges 
from  6  to  15  in.  in  diameter.  The  thick 
ness  does  not  exceed  1\  in.  The  central 
portion  of  one  face  is  of  ten  slightly  concave, 
a  few  are  quite  flat  on  both  faces,  while  a 
smaller  number  are  doubly  convex  in  a 
slight  degree.  The  margins  are  square  <  >r 
roundish  in  section.  With  rare  excep 
tions  the  periphery  of  the  discoidal  plates 
is  notched  or  scalloped.  In  many  cases  one 
or  more  engraved  lines  or  grooves  encircle 
the  face  of  the  plate  near  the  margin,  and 
not  infrequently  the  marginal  notches 
extend  as  shallow  grooves  inward  over 

the  surface  of  the  plate,  terminating 
against  the  outer  encircling  band,  or  con 
nect  as  loops  forming  what  may  be  re 
garded  as  reversed  scallops.  The  most 
striking  feature  of  these  plates,  occurring 
perhaps  in  one  case  in  ten,  is  certain 
engraved  designs  occupying  the  reverse 
«ide  of  the  plate,  the  grinding  surface 
being  regarded  as  the  obverse.  These 
subjects  are  undoubtedly  of  mythologie 
origin  and  include  highly  conventional 
representations  of  the  human  hand,  the 
open  eye,  the  rattlesnake,  death's-head 
symbol's,  etc.  The  rectangular  plates  have 
notches  or  scallops  at  the  ends  only,  and 
the  surface,  excepting  in  the  Ohio  speci 
mens  (which  are  tentatively  included  in 
this  group),  has  no  embellishment  other 
than  simple  engraved  lines  extending 
across  the  plate  near  the  ends  or  continu 
ing  around  the  four  sides  just  inside  the 

The  most  noteworthy  of  the  rectangu 
lar  plates  are  the  Cincinnati  tablet,  from 
a  mound  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  described  by 


[B.  A.  a. 

Clark,  and  by  Putnam  and  Willoughby; 
the  Hurst  tablet,  found  in  Pike  co., 
Ohio;  the  Purlin  tablet,  found  in  Jack 
son  co.,  Ohio,  and  a  number  of  other 
decorated  specimens  from  Southern 
mounds,  described  by  Ran,  Moore,  and 
others.  Interesting  examples  of  the  dis- 
eoidal  plates  are  the  Naples,  111.,  speci- 

men,  described  by  Henderson,  and  the 
Arkaiii-as  Po>t  specimen,  described  by 
Stoddard.  These  two  disks  are  without 
marginal  notches.  Numerous  discoidal 
tablets  obtained  from  mounds  in  Missis 
sippi  and  Alabama  are  described  by  Moore 
and  Holmes.  The  feathered  serpent  tab- 
Jet  from  Issaquena  co.,  Miss.,  the  knotted 
serpent  tablet  from  Monndville,  Ala., 
-pecimens  from  the 
latter  locality,  de 
scribed  by  the 
same  authors,  arc; 
deserving  of  spe 
cial  mention. 

Jt  is  observed 
that  these  plates 
arc;  made  of  sand 
stone  and  kindred 
gritty  materials, 
and  this  fact  con 
firms  Moore's  con 
clusion  that  they 
were  used  in  grinding  pigments.  That 
they  were  held  in  exceptional  esteem 
by  their  owners  is  shown  by  their 
burial  \\ith  the  dead.  These  facts  in 
dicate  clearly  that  the  plates  were  not 
intended  to  serve  an  ordinary  purpose, 
but  rather  that  thev  filled  some  impor 
tant  sacred  or  ceremonial  olliee,  as  in 
preparing  colors  for  shamanistic  use  or 
lor  ^ religion-;  ceremonies.  The;  engraved 
designs  on  these  plates  naturally  give  rise 
to  speculation,  and  it  is  not  surprising 

that  the  very  general  presence  of  notched 
and  scalloped  margins  should  suggest  the 
theory  that  the  plates  were  sun  symbols. 
But  a  critical  examination  of  the  various 
markings  and  figures  leads  to  the  convic 
tion  that  all  are  representative,  in  a  more 
or  less  conventional  fashion,  of  animal 
originals  and  that  all  were  probably  em 
ployed  because  of  their  peculiar  esoteric 
significance  and  relationship  with  the 
functions  of  the  tablets.  It  is  observed 
that  the  notches  cut  in  the  edges  of  the 
plates  are  in  many  instances  carried  in 
ward  over  the  plate 
in  such  a  way  as  to 
suggest  feathers,  as 
these  are  often  form 
ally  treated  in  native 
art,  and  this  leads  to 
the  surmise  that  the 
animal  original  might 
have  been  a  duck — a 
symbol  of  wide  dis 
tribution  among  the  KNOTTED  SERPENT^  PLATE,  ALA- 

Indian  tribes  in  the      ™*,:TYDOF' A^i 
S. ;  but  recalling  the 

occurrence  of  the  feathered-serpent  de 
sign  engraved  on  the  obverse  of  the 
Mississippi  tablet,  the  idea  is  suggested 
that  the  original  concept  in  the  mind  of 
the  makers  of  these  plates  was,  at  least 
in  some  cases,  the  feathered  serpent,  a 
northern  form  of  Quetzalcoatl,  a  chief 
deity  of  the  middle  American  peoples. 

A  noteworthy  feature  of  the  engravings- 
of  the1  serpents  and  other  figures  on  thest 
mound  tablets  is  the  apparent  maturity 


of  the  art,  the  intricate  forms  being  skil 
fully  disposed  and  drawn  with  a  certaii 
hand.  The  designs  are  not  mere  ran 
dom  products,  but,  like  the  copper  orria 
ments,  the  earthenware  decorations,  am 
the  shell  engravings  of  the  (inlf  states- 
were  evidently  made  by  skilled  artist 
practising  a  well-matured  art  which  die 

BL'LL.  30] 



tinctly  suggests  the  work  of  the  semiciv- 
ilized  nations  of  Mexico  and  Central 
America.  These  plates  may  be  regarded 
as  furnishing  additional  proof  that  the  in 
fluence  of  the  culture  of  middle  America 
has  been  felt  all  along  the  northern  shores 
of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  and  has  passed  with 
diminished  force  still  farther  to  the  N. 

Consult  Clark,  Prehist.  Remains,  1876; 
Farquharson  in  Proc.  Davenport  Acad. 
Sci.,  n,  1877-80;  Fewkesin22d  Rep.  B.  A. 
E.,  1904;  Fowke,  Arclueol.  Hist.  Ohio, 
1902;  Henderson  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1882, 
1884;  Holmes  (1)  in  2d  Rep.  B.  A.  E., 
1883,  (2)  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  viu,  no.  1, 
1906;  Jones,  Antiq.  So.  Inds.,  1873;  Mc 
Lean,  Mound  Builders,  1879;  Moore  in 
Jour.  Acad.  Nat,  Sci.  Phila.,  xin,  1905; 
Moorehead  in  Pub.  Ohio  State  Archteol. 
and  Hist.  Soc.,  v,  1897;  Putnam  and  Wil- 
loughby  in  Proc.  A.  A.  A.  S.,  XLIV,  1896; 
Ran  in  Smithson.  Cont.,  xxn,  1876;  Rus 
sell  in  26th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  1907;  Short, 
N.  Am.  Antiq.,  1880;  Squier  and  Davis  in 
Smithson.  Cont.,  i,  1848;  Stoddardin  Am. 
Antiq.,  xxiv,  no.  3,  1904;  Thomas  in  12th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  1894;  Thruston,  Antiq. 
Tenn.,  1897;  Wilson  in  Rep.  Nat.  Mus. 
1896,  1898.  (w.  H.  ir.) 

Notch-ee-ning-a.     See  Nacheninga. 

Notha  ( '  Ute' ).     A  Navaho  clan. 
Nopa.— Matthews  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  in,  103, 
1890.   Nofa^ine.— Ibid.    Nota.— Matthews,  Navaho 
Legends,  30,1897.    No^aWine'.— Ibid. 

Notomidula.  A  former  village  of  the 
Awani,  about  400  yds.  E.  of  Machito,  in 
Yosemite  valley,  Mariposa  co.,  Cal. 
Notomidoola.— Powers  in  Overland  Mo.,  x,  333, 
1874.  No-to-mid-u-la. — Powers  in  Cont,  N  A 
Ethnol.,  ill,  365,  1877. 

Notre  Dame  de  Foye.  A  former  mission 
village  near  Quebec,  settled  by  some 
Hurons  from  Huronia,  who  removed  to 
Lorettein  1693.— Shea,  Cath.  Miss.,  198, 

Nottoway.  An  Iroquoian  tribe  formerly 
residing  on  the  river  of  the  same  name  in 
a.  E.  Virginia.  They  called  themselves 
Cheroenhaka,  and  were  known  to  the 
neighboring  Algonquian  tribes  as  Man- 
goac  (Mengwe)  and  Nottoway,  i.  e.,  Na- 
dowa  (q.  v. ),  'adders,'  a  common  Algon 
quian  name  for  tribes  of  alien  stock. 
Although  never  prominent  in  history  they 
kept  up  their  organization  long  after  the 
other  tribes  of  the  region  were  practically 
extinct.  As  late  as  1825  they  still  num 
bered  47,  with  a  "queen,"  on  a  reserva 
tion  in  Southampton  co.  Linguistically 
they  were  closely  cognate  to  the  Tusca- 
rora.  (j.  M.) 

Che-ro-ha-ka. — Morgan  in  N.  Am.  Review,  52, 1870. 
Mandoages.— Lane  (1586)  in  Smith  (1629),  Va..  I, 
9Lrepr.  1819.  Mandongs.— Strarhey  (ca.  1612),  Va., 
147,  1849  (misprint).  Mangoacks.— Lane  (1586)  in 
Smith,  Va.,  i,  87,  repr.  1819.  Mangoags.— Smith 
(1629),  ibid.,  75.  Mangoako.— Lane  (1586)  in  Hak- 
l»yt,  Voy.,  in,  314,  1810.  Mangoan^s.— Slrachey 
(ca.1612),  Va.,41, 1849.  Moyoacks.— Martin,  North 
Carolina,  I,  15,  1829  (misprint).  Na'towewok.— 
Gerard  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  vi,  319, 1904  (Cree  name; 

sing.  Xu'toii'eu).  Notowegee.— Logan, 

bk.  3,  63,  1705.  Nottoway.  —  Luwson  ( 17U')i  'North 
Carolina,  3S3, 1860.  Ontationoue  -N  Y Do,  r, 
Hist.,  ix,  1057, 1855.  Tciruen-haka.-Hewitt  inf'n 
1889  (common  name  as  given  bvthe  IroquoN-  ,,„«: 
sibly'fork  of  a  stream'). 
North  Carolina,  i.  14,  ]82y  (misprint). 

Nouista.  An  unidentified  village  or 
tribe  in  alliance  with  the  Kadohadaeho 
in  1(>87. — Joutel  in  Margrv,  Dec  in  41  o 

NoutchaofF.    An  unidentified  Bellacoola 
town  on  a  river  of   the  same    name   in 
British  Columbia. 
Nout-chaoff. — Mayne,  Brit.  Col.,  117,  isu-j. 

Novaculite.  A  very  line-grained  and 
compact  chalcedonic  (quartz)  rock,  ordi- 
dinariiy  white  or  whitish  in  color,  and 
often  distinguished  by  the  archeoloj-ist 
by  its  somewhat  translucent  waxen  'ap 
pearance.  It  occurs  in  vast  bodies  in 
connection  with  Ordovician  (Lower Silu 
rian)  strata  in  Arkansas,  especially  in  the 
vicinity  of  Hot  Springs,  where  "it  was 
extensively  quarried  by  the  aborigines. 
The  ancient  excavations  here  cover  many 
hundreds  of  acres  of  the  mountain  ridge's 
and  are  surrounded  by  large  bodies  of 
refuse — the  result  of  roughing-out  imple 
ments  by  flaking  processes.  As  with  the 
great  quarries  of  Flint  Ridge,  Ohio,  and 
other  localities,  the  principal  product  was 
the  leaf-shaped  blade,  from  which  arrow- 
and  spear-heads  and  knives  were  to  be 
specialized,  but  the  material  was  used  also 
for  axes,  celts,  ceremonial  objects,  and 
ornaments,  in  the  manufacture  of  which 
the  flaking  work  was  supplemented  by 
pecking  and  grinding.  See  Chalcedony, 
M^ines  <nid  Quarries,  (Jnart~,  Sloneiuork. 

Consult  Griswold  in  Rep.  Geol.  Surv. 
Ark.,  in,  1890-2;  Holmes  in  Am.  An 
throp.,  v,  Oct.  1891;  Kunz,  (jemsand  Pre 
cious  Stones,  1890;  Merrill,,  Rocks,  Rock- 
weatherinsj:  and  Soils,  1S97.  (w.  n.  n.) 

Novaia.  An  Ingalik  village  on  the  lower 
Yukon,  Alaska;'  pop.  ;~2  in  18SO.  — IV- 
troff,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  (12,  1881. 

Novoktolak.  A  Kuskwogmiut  Eskimo 
villageinthe  Kuskokwim district,  Alaska; 
pop.  55  in  1890. 

Novokhtolahamiut. — Eleventh     Census,     Alaska, 
164,  1893. 

Nowadaga.  A  former  Mohawk  vil 
lage  on  the  s.  bank  of  Mohawk  r..  at  the 
mouth  of  Xowadagacr. ,  on  <  he  site  of  Dan 
ube,  HoT-kimor  co.,  X.  V.  It  was  the 
principal  Mohawk  settlement  about  1750. 
A  part  of  the  band  here  had  another  vil 
lage  a  little  lower  down  the  stream,  oppo 
site  the  mouth  of  East  Canada  cr.  No- 
wadaga  was  long  the  home  of  Joseph 
Brant  (Thayendanegea). 
Nowadaga.— Macaulcy,  N.  Y.,  n,  226,  1*29.  No- 
wodaga.— Ibid.,  181. 

Nowe.  Mentioned  by  Bartram  (  Trav 
els,  371,  1792)  as  a  Cherokee  settlement, 
about  1775,  one  of  four  towns  "inland  on 
the  branches  of  theTanase  [Tennessee]." 
It  can  not  be  certainlv  identified. 



Nowi.  A  Yukonikhotana  village  on 
the  s.  side  of  Yukon  r.,  at  the  mouth  of 
Xowikakat  r.,  Alaska,  having  107  inhabi 
tants  in  1SSO. 

Newi-cargut.— Wymper,  Trav.  and  Advent.,  map, 
isc.'.t.  Newikareut.— Raymond  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doe.  12, 
42dCon^.,  l>t  sess.,  2H.  1871.  Nowikakat.— PetrofT, 
ifri.  on  Alaska,  C.2.  18S1.  Noya-kakat.  —  1'etrofT, 
map  of  Alaska,  ISsO.  Noyokakat.  —  PetrotY  in  10th 
Census.  Alaska,  12,  1884. 

Noxa.  Mentioned  by  Oviedo  (Hist, 
(Jen.  Indies,  in,  H28,  1853)  as  one  of  the 
pro\inces  or  villages  visited  by  Ayllonin 
1/J20;  probably  on  the  South  Carolina 

Noyuki  ( 'southern  aliens' ).  The  name 
applied  by  their  northern  neighbors  to  a 
Maidu  tribe  formerly  occupying  the  ter 
ritory  about  the  junction  of  Yuba  and 
Feather  rs.,  Yuba  co.,  Cal.  Oneof  their 
villages,  Ynpu,  was  on  the  site  of  the 
present  Yuba  city. 
Noi-Yucans.— Giegerni  Ind. AIT.  Rep.  18r>9, 438, 1860. 

Npapuk  (  S' i>d'j»ilr}.  A  Squawmish  vil 
lage  community  on  the  K.  side  of  Howe 
sd..  I'.rit.  Col.— Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Brit. 
A.  A.  S.,  474,  1900. 

Npiktim  ( 'white  hollow ').  A  village  of 
the  Ntlakyapamuk,  so  called,  according 
to  Hill-Tout,  because  it  was  the  place 
where  the  Indians  obtained  the  white 
clay  they  burnt  and  used  for  cleaning 
wool,  etc.  Pop.  19  in  1S97,  the  last  time 
the  name  ollicially  appears. 

Mpaktam.— Can.  Ind.'  AIT.  issd.  '230,  1887.  N'pi.k'- 
tKm.— Hill-Tout  in  Kcp.  Kthnol.  Snrv.Can.,  5, 1899. 
Npikti'm.— Trit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n, 
Iti'.i.  I'.HK).  S'inpukti'm. — Ibid. 

Npokwis  (.\"i>u!rn-ix).  A  Squawmish 
village  community  on  the  right  bank  of 
Squawmisht  r.,  Brit.  Col.  —  Hill-Tout  in 
Hep.  I'.rit.  A.  A.  S.,  474,  1900. 

Npuichin  (\)n<'tt<-'i'n,  'low  ridge  shore' ). 
A  village  of  the  Lytton  band  of  Xtlakya- 
pamuk  on  the  w.  side  of  Fraser  r.,  s'm. 
above  Lytiori;  Brit.  Col.— Teit  in  .Mem. 
Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n,  172,  1900. 

Nra  Sra.  For  all  references  beginning 
with  this  abbreviation,  or  with  X.  S.,  see 

Nsisket  (  AW*///;/,  'the  little  split  or  di 
vide',  perhaps  because  near  a  deep  or 
rocky  gulrh).  A  village  of  the  Nicola 
band  of  Ntlakyapamuk  near  Nicola  r., 
a  few  miles  from  the  w.  end  of  Nicola 
lake,  I'.rit.  Col.  Pop.  L'l  in  1901,  the 
last,  time  the  name  is  given. 

Hun  ka  sis-ket.  — - <  'an.  Ind.  AIT.  I8,s;;  lit  1  I'll  1881 
N'cickt.  Hill-Tout  in  R.-p.  Ktlmol.  Surv.  Can.  A 
lyt'.t.  Neyiskat.— Can.  Ind.  AIT.  iv.U,  '277  1895 
Nsi'sqKt.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mns.  Nat.  Hist  n, 
171,  I'.HIO.  Nyiskat.— Can.  Ind.  AIT.,  Ml  Ix'.if.' 
Nzis-kat— Ibid.,  ISM;,  pt.  1,  2:52.1887  Nzvshat — 
Ibid.,  pt.  ii,  n;t;.  pun. 

Nskakaulten  (  \x<iu',j<intti-:n,  'little  look 
ing-for-game   place').      A     village  of    the 
Ntlakyapamuk  on  the  s.  side  of  Thomp 
son  r..  2:5  m.  above  Lytton,  and  ),  m.  below 
Spences  Bridge,   Brit.  (  'ol. 
Nsqa'qaulti;n.— Trit  in  Mnn.  Am    Mns  Nat    Hist 
M    172.  I'.MMi.     Spences  Bridge  [Indians]  .—Can.  Ind'. 

Ntekem  (Xtc'qRm,  'to  make  muddy',  or 
' muddy  creek ' ).  A  village  of  the  Spences 
Bridge  band  of  Ntlakyapamuk  on  the  N. 
side  of  Thompson  r.,  about  1  m.  back 
from  the  stream  and  39  in.  above  Lytton, 
Brit.  Col. 

N'tai'kum.—  Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv.  Can., 
4,  1899.  Nte'qF.m— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mns.  Nat. 
Hist.,  ir,  173,  1900.  Oregon  Jacks.— Name  given  by 

Nthaich  ( X'qai'tc}.  A  Squawmish  village 
on  the  right  bank  of  Squawmish t  r.,  Brit. 
Col.— Hill-Tout  in  Kep.  Brit.  A.  A.  S., 
474,  1900. 

Ntlaktlakitin  ( Xuifj  La'kfttn,  '  the  cross 
ing  place',  'place  for  crossing  the  river' ). 
A  village  of  the  Lytton  band  of  Ntlakya 
pamuk  at  Kanaka  Bar,  Fraser  r.,  about 
11  m.  below  Lytton,  Brit.  Col.,  with  55 
inhabitants  in  1906.  Some  Indians  class 
it  with  the  Lower  Ntlakyapamuk. 
Hlakklaktan.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.  1892,  312,  1893.  Hlu- 
hlu-natan.— -Ibid.,  pt.  n,  164,  1901.  Hlukhluka- 
tan.—  Ibid.,  280,  I88fi.  Hluk-kluk-a-tan.— Ibid., 
1885,  pt.  1,  196,  18S6  Kanaka  Bar.— Ibid.,  1897, 
363,  1898.  NLaqLa'kitin.— Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus. 
Nat,  Hist.,  II,  171,  1900. 

Ntlakyapamuk.  One  of  the  four  great  Sal- 
ish  tribes  inhabiting  the  interior  of  British 
Columbia  and  popularly  called  Thompson 
Indian;-1,  from  the  river  on  which  a  large 

NTLAKYAPAMUK    MAN.        (AM.   Mus.   N 

part  of  them  live.  Internally  they  are 
divided  into  the  Lower  Thompsons,  liv 
ing  from  a  short  distance  below  Spuz/uii) 
on  Fraser  r.,  nearly  to  the  village  of  Cisco, 
and  the  Upper  Thompsons,  whose  towns 
extend  from  the  latter  point  nearly  tc 
Lillooet  on  the  Fraser,  to  within  a  short 
distance  of  Ashcroft  on  the  Thorn pson, 
and  overall  of  Nicola  valley.  The  Upper 
Thompsons  are  subdivided  by  Teit  intc 

BtTLL.  30] 


4  minor  bands,  the  Lyttoii  band,  the 
Nicola  band,  the  Spences  Bridge  band, 
and  the  Upper  Fraser  band.  In  addition 
the  following  subdivisions  are  mentioned : 
Ainslie  Creek,  Boothroyds,  Canoe  Lake 
Indians,  Cooks  Ferry,  Rhaap,  Skowtous, 
and  Snakaim.  Total  population  1,826  in 
1902,  1,776  in  1906.  The  following  list  of 
villages  was  obtained  principally  from 

Villages  of  the  Lower  Thompson*:  Che- 
tawe,  Kalulaadlek,  Kapachichin,  Kapas- 
lok,  Kimus,  Kleaukt,  Koiaum,  Nkakim, 
Nkattsim,  Nkoiam,  Noieltsi,  Npiktim, 
Ntsuwiek,  Sintaktl,  Skohwak,  Skuzis, 
Skwauyik,  Spaim,  Spuzzum,  Stahehani, 
Suk,  Taqwayaum,  Tikwalus,  Tliktlak- 
etin,  Tzauamuk. 

Villages  of  the  Lytton  band:  Anektettim, 
Cisco,  Kittsawat,  Natkelptetenk,  Nchek- 
chekokenk,  Nehowmean,  Nikaomin,  Nko- 
ikin,  Nkya,  Noot,  Npuichin,  Xtlaktlak- 
itin,  Staiya,  Stryne,  Tlkamcheen,  Tuh- 

Villages  of  the  Upper  Fraser  band :  Ahul- 
ka,  Nesikeep,  Nkaktko,  Ntli]->paem,  Skek- 
aitin,  Tiaks. 

Villages  oj  tJte  Spences  Bridge  band:  At- 
chitchiken,Klukluuk,  Nkamchin,  Nkoeit- 

NTLAKYAPAMUK   WOMAN.        (AM.   MUS.   NAT.   HIST.  ) 

ko,  Nokem,  Nskakaulten,  Ntekem,  Xu- 
kaatko,  Pekaist,  Pemainus,  Semehau, 
Snapa,  Spatsum,  Stlaz,  Tlotlowuk,  Zak- 

Villages  of  the  Nicola  band:  Hanehe- 
wedl,  Huthutkawedl,  Koiskana,  Kwil- 
chana,  Naaik,  Nchekus,  Nsisket,  Ntstlat- 
ko,  Pettitek,  Shahanik,  Tsulus,  Zoht. 

To  these  the  following  names  must  be 
added,  although  one  or  two  of  them 

may  possibly  be  synonyms:  Cheuek,  K,,- 
koiap,   Nhaiiken,    Nkahlimiluh,    Xkaih 
Nzatzahatko    Paska,  Sc-hac-ken,  Shkuet' 
bhkuokem    Shuimp,    Skappa,  Snakaitu 

Spapium,  Timetl,  . 

For  detailed  information  consult  'IVit  in 
Mem.  Am.  .Mus.  Xat.  Hist  n  ,,t  Iv 
1900,  and  Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv! 
Can.,  Brit.  A.  A.  S.,  1889  f.j.  K  s 

n'lfeTgnnTrn1  intMem-  Al11'  Mu^Kat*.  liist., 
ii,  167.  1900  (Lillooet  name,  fn^n  naineof  Thomp- 

?Hr-)P  .Clun8US--Bancroft,  Nut.  Races  I  311 
}*£'  ?-°ut?aux--Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  .Juiv  ly' 
1862.  Klackarpun.-Survey  niup,  Ily.lrog.  (>iH(.t. 
U.&.N  1882.  Knife  Indians.—  Tt-it,  on.  c-it  fn-iiiu' 
given  )>y  employees  Hudson  BayCo.  .  Knives  - 
Anderson  quoted  by  Gibbs  in  JJist.  i\HK  vu  7,; 

1803  lukatimu'x.—  Teit,op.cit.(0kinagannaim-),' 
Neklakapamuk.—  Can.  Ind.  Ail'.,  15  ]s?y  Nekla 
kussamuk  —  Brit.  Col.  maj).  Ind.  Air..  Victoria 
18/2.  Xf-nla-kapm-uh.—  Mackayquoti-d  by  Dawson 
in  1  rans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  see.  ir.  <;,  ls«»l.  '  Nicouta- 
meens.—  Mayne  Brit.  Col.,  2U6,  iMi'J.  Nicouta- 
much.—  Il)id.  Nicute-much.—  Anderson  op  (-it 
^tlakaPamuk.—  Good,  Ottices  in  Xitlakapann.^ 
1880.  Nko'atamux.—  Teit,  op.  eit  10 

.  ,        . 

wap  name).  N-ku-tam-euh.—  Mackay,  op.  cit  .r> 
Nkutemivu.—  Gatschet,  MS.,  15.  A.  K'.  (okinaga 
name).  NLak'a'pamux.—  Teit.op.  cit.  (<>\vn  name 
sometimes  given  to  Lytton  band  alone).  N'tlaka'- 
pamuQ.—  Hill-Tout  in  Rej).  Ethnol.  Surv.  Can.,  lu, 
1889.  N-tla-ka-pe-mooh.  —  Dawson  in  Trans.  Roy! 
Soc.  Can.,  see.  n,  0,  181)1.  Ntlakya'pamut^.—  P.oas 
in  5th  Rep.  N.W.  Tribes  Can.,  10.  IMS<J.  Sa'lic.— 
Teit,  op.  cit.  (Okinagan  name).  Saw-meena.  _ 
Anderson,  op.  cit.,  71  (so  called  bytbeTait,  a  Cowi- 
chan  tribe).'mila.—  Teit,  op.  cit.  (so  called 
by  the  Cowichan  of  Fraser  delta).  Ske-yuh.— 
Mackay,  op.  cit.  ('the  peoj)le':  own  name).  So- 
mena.—  Ibid,  ('inland  hunters':  Cowiclian 
name).  Thompson  River  Indians.  —  Dawson,  ibid.,  (i 
(name  given  by  whites).  Thompsons.—  1  hid. 

Ntlippaem  (NLip'pa'Em,  Mo  extract 
marrow',  according  to  Teit;  'ck'cp',  ac 
cording  to  Hill-Tout).  A  village  of  flu- 
Upper  Fraser  band  of  Ntlakyapamuk  on 
the  w.  nide  of  Fraser  r.,  "2'2  in.  above  Lyt 
ton,  Brit.  Col. 

Nick-el-palm.  —  Brit.  Col.  map.,  ind.  AIT.,  Victoria, 
1872.  Nitlpam.  —  Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  78,  1878.  N'k'lpan.  — 
Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv.  Can.,  I.  l.s«,H». 
Niip'pa'Em.  —  Teitin  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n, 
172,  1900. 

Ntlkius  (XLki'-us).  •  An  Okinagan  town 
on  Similkameen  r.,  .Brit.  Col.  —  Teit  in 
Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist,,  n,  174,  1900. 

Ntshaautin  ('])eople  down  against  the 
island').  A  Takulli  sept  dwelling  along 
Blackwater  r.  and  n])|>er  Xcchaco  r.,  F>rit. 
Col.,  in  the  villages  of  Tluskex,  Ilkatsho, 
and  Peltkatchek.  Former  villages  were 
Tsitsi  and  llrak,  now  abandoned.  Pop. 

135  in  1893. 

Natcotetains.—  Domenech,  Deserts  X.  Am.,  i,  112, 
18(iO  Nazeteoten.—  Smet,  Oregon  Miss.,  UK),  1M7. 
Nechao-tin.—  Brit.  Col.  map,  Ind.  AIT.,  Victoria, 
1X72.  Neguia  Dinais.—  Mackenzie,  Voy.,  SOU,  1x01. 
Neotetain.—  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  v,  ,">9,  1855. 
Ntshaantin.—  Domeneeh,  Deserts  N.  Am.,  n,  «'_', 
18(10.  Ntshaautin.—  Hale,  Killing,  and  Philol., 
202,  1816.  Nu-tcah-'tenne.—  Morice  in  Trans.  Can. 
Just.,  IV,  25,  18915.  Nu-tca-'tenne.  —  Ibid. 

Ntsiyamis  (Nlsi-i/a'-mlts).  A  former 
Kuitsh  village  on  lower  I'mpMua  r., 
Qreor._Dorsey  in  Jonr.  Am.  Folk-lore, 
in,  231,  181)0." 

Ntstlatko  (  Xtxui'tL-o,  'cold  water').  A 
village  of  the  Xicola  band  of  the  Ntlak- 


yapainuk  near  Nicola  r..  a  few  miles  from 
the  w.  i-nd  <»f  Nicola  lake,  Brit.  Col. 
Coldwater.—  Teit  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  II 
171,  I'.UO  t,  white  man's  name).     Ntsa'ia'tko.  —  Ibid. 
Ntsi.a'tko.—  ll.i.l. 

Ntsuwiek  (  A7x//  //•/'<"•£).  A  village  oi  the 
Ntlakya]iaintik  on  the  \v.  side  of  Fraser  r., 
27  m.  above  Yale,  Brit.  Col.  —Teit  in  Mem. 
Am.  Mus.  Nat.  I  list.,  n,  H19,  1900. 

Nuaguntits  (Xu-a'-ynn-tit*).  ^A  Paiute 
hand  formerly  living  near  Las  Vegas,  s.  K. 
Nevada:  pop.*  1(51  in  1S73.  —  Powell  in  Ind. 
Aft'.  Rep.  1873,50,  1874. 

Nualik.  A  ruined  Kskimo  village  on 
the  i-:.  coast  <rf  (ireenland,  lat.  t>7°  W.  — 
Meddclelser  oin  (  ironland,  xxvn,  map, 

Nubviakchugaluk.  A  Malemiut  Eskimo 
village  on  the  x.  coast  of  Norton  sd., 
Alaska;  ]>op.  MO  in  1SSO. 

Nubviakhchugaluk.  —  IVtrolY       in      10th      Census, 
Alaska,  11,  issi. 

Nucassee  (X'/'kiraxI,  or  A7  /;//•',  sv 
ing  lost  )  .  An  important  ancient  Cherokee 
settlement  on  Little  Tennessee  r.,  where 
no\v  is  the  town  of  Franklin,  in  Macon 
co..  X.  C.  A  large  mound  marks  the  site 
of  the  townhouse. 

Nikwasi.  —  Mooney  in  HUh  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  527,  1'.HK) 
(or  Xik\v'si').  Nucasse.  —  Bartram,  Travels,  371, 
IT'.cj.  Nuckasee.—  Doc.  of  17.VS  quoted  by  Royee  in 
.">th  Rep.  H.  A.  K.,  142.  is,s7.  Nukeza.—  Doc.  of  179>.>, 

Nuchatl.  The  principal  village  of  the 
Nnchatlitx  on  Fspcranza  inlet,  w.  coast  of 
Vancouver  id.—  Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  264,  1902. 

NuchatlitzC  mountain  house/'  —  Sproat). 
A  Nootka  tril)e  occupying  the  village  of 
Nnchatl  and  others  on  Xuchalitz  and 
Kspcranza  inlets,  w.  coast  of  Vancouver 
id.  Pop.  74  in  1902,  62  in  1904,  52  in 

Neu-chad-lits.—  Jewitt,  Xarr.,  3(5,  repr.  1S49.  Neu- 
chalits.—  Armstrong,  Oregon,  13(5,  1S57.  Neuchal- 
let.—  Maync,  Hril.  Col.,  2f>l,  lS(i2.  Noochahlaht.— 
Sproat,  Savage  Life,  MO*,  isc.s.  Nooch-aht-aht.— 
•'an.  In,!.  A  IV.  iv.M,  3.-)7,  1*yr>.  Nooch-ahtl-aht.— 
lbi.1.,  ].s«»(;,  i:;o,  IV.IT.  Nooch-alh-laht.—  Ibid.,  iss:?. 
ls>.  lvx|.  Noochartl-aht.—  Ibid.,  1X91,  27(i.  IS'J.") 
Noochatl-aht.—  Ibid.,  r>2,  1*75.  Nutca'tlath.—  Boas 
in  tith  Rep.  N.W.  Tribes  Can.  ,31,  ls<)(). 

Nuchawayi.  The  ]>lural  of  Nnta,  the 
name  applied  hy  the  Yokuts  in  the  plains 
to  the  Vokuts  and  Shoshonean  tribes  of 
the  Sierra  Nevada  to  the  K.  in  California. 
The  Xuchawayi  are  mentioned  as  a  party 
t«.  the  treaty  of  Apr.  2'.),  1S51. 
New-chow-we.—  Royce  in  1Mb  Rep.  H.  A.  K.,  7s'J, 
IVJ.  Nu-chow-we.  —  Harbour  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doe  4 
:i'2d  Cong.,  spec,  sess.,  2V),  IN:,;}. 

Nuchek.  A  Chuuacliigmiut  Eskimo 
village  where  the  Russians  established  a 
stockade  and  trading  ]>ost,  about  179)!, 
kiiownas  l-'t  Konstantine,  at  Port  Etches, 
Hinchinbrook  id.,  Prince  William  sd., 
Alaska.  Pop.  74  in  18SO,  145  in  LH90 
Natcheek.—  H.iker,  (Jeog.  Diet.  Alaska  171  190!i 
Noocheek.-lbi.l.  Nuchek.—  Ibid,  (proper  form)! 
Nuchig'mut.  Dsill  in  Coin.  \.  A.  Kthnol.,  i,  i>l. 
jx"7  (tin-  jicoplei.  Nuchusk.  —  Mabony  in  In'd  AIV 
Rep.  ixr.'.t,  -,7...  IVTO.  Nutechek.—  Baker,  op.  cit. 

Nuchschi  ('descended  from  heaven'). 
A  Knaiahkhotana  clan  of  Cook  inlet 

Alaska. — Richardson,  A  ret.  Exped.,  i, 
407,  1851. 

Nuchu.  A  Mi  wok  division  on  the  s. 
fork  of  Merced  r.,  Cal. 

Nut'-chu. — Powers  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  in,  349, 

Nuchumatuntunne  ( '  people  in  the  tim 
ber  country').  A  former  Tutntni  village 
on  the  x.  fide  of  Rogue  r.,  Greg.,  near  the 

Nu'-tcu-ma'-tun^un'ne. — Dorsey  in  Jour.  Am.  Folk 
lore,  in,  2:5:'»,  1SHU. 

Nucliwugh.  A  band  of  Salish,  perhaps  of 
the  Lummi,  on  L.  Whatcom,  Wash. 
Neuk-wers.— Ind. Aff. Rep.  1857, 326.329, 1858.  Nuch- 
wugh.— Gibbs,  MS.  no.  248,  15.  A.  K.  Sticks.— Fitz- 
hngh  in  Ind.  All'.  Rep.,  32H,  1857.  Wood  Indians.— 
Simmons,  ibid.,  224,1858. 

Nuculaha.  A  subdivision  or  clan  of  the 
Apohola  or  Bn/zard  phratry  of  the  an 
cient  Timncua  of  Florida. — Panja  (ca. 
1613)  quoted  by  Gatschet  in  Proe.  Am. 
Philos.  Soc.,  xvir,  492,  1878. 

Nuculahaquo.  A  subdivision  or  clan  of 
the  Apohola  or  Buzzard  phratry  of  the 
ancient  Timucua  of  Florida.  —  Pareja  (ca. 
1()13)  quoted  by  Gatschet  in  Proc.  Am. 
Philos.  Soc.,  XVI i,  492,  1878. 

Nuculaharuqui.  A  subdivision  or  clan 
of  the  Apohola  or  Buzzard  phratry  of  the 
ancient  Timucua  of  Florida. — Pareja  (fa. 
1(U3).  quoted  by  Gatschet  in  Proc.  Am. 
Philos.  Soc,,  xvn,  492,1878. 

Nudlung.  A  summer  settlement  of  the 
Akudnirmiut  Eskimo  on  Howe  bay, 
Baffin  land. 

Noodlook.— McDonald, Discov.  of  Hogarth'sSd., 86, 
1S41.  Nudlung.— Boas  in  tith  Rep.  15.  A.  E.,  441, 
1 SS8. 

Nuestra  Seliora  de  Guadalupe.  A  Fran 
ciscan  mission  established  by  order  of 
the  Viceroy  of  Mexico  on  Guadalupe  r., 
Tex.,  about  1755,  with  the  purpose  of 
gathering  the  dispersed  neophytes  who 
had  been  at  the  San  Xavier  missions  on 
San  Gabriel  r.  Some  of  the  Mayeye  from 
San  Xavier  de  Ilorcasitas  mission  were 
congregated  there  for  a  time  and  t\vo  mis 
sionaries  settled  among  them ;  but  it  does 
not  appear  that  any  mission  buildings 
were  erected,  nor  is  it  certain  that  the 
mission  was  ever  formally  founded.  Soon 
afterward  the  missionaries  were  ordered 
to  San  Saba  and  the  place  was  abandoned 
( Inforrne  de  Misiones,  1762,  MS.  in  Mem. 
de  Nueva  Espafia,  xxvin,  ISO;  Bonilla, 
Breve  Compendio,  in  Tex.  Hist.  Ass'n 
Quar.,  vni,  50-51,  1905;  Arridvita,  Cron- 
ica,  TI,  837,  1792).  (n.  E.  B.  ) 

N.  S.  de  Guadalupe.— Informe  de  Misiones,  17(12, 
MS.,  op.  cit. 

Nuestra  Seiiora  de  Guadalupe.  A  mis 
sion  established  by  Padres  Ugarte  and 
Helen  in  1720-21  on  the  w.  coast  of 
Lower  California,  lat.  27°.  It  had  5 
visitas  in  the  vicinity  in  1720,  and  4  in 
1745,  the  others  no  doubt  having  become 
a  part  of  one  of  the  missions  founded  in 
the  meantime.  In  17(>7  the  mission 
counted  530  baptized  natives,  speaking  a 

BULL.  30] 


dialect  of  Cochimi,  according  to  Hervas 

(Saggio,  79-80,  1787). 

Nuestra  Senora  de  Guadalupe.— Venegas,  Hist. 
Cal.,  II,  198, 1759.  Nuestra  Seiiora  de  Guadelupe  del 
gur. — Buschrnann.  Spuren,  751,  1*59.  Santa  Maria 
de  Guadelupe. — Ibid. 

Nuestra  Seiiora  de  Guadalupe  de  los  Na 
cogdoches.     A   mission   founded   July  9, 
1716,  by  the  Franciscans  of  Zacatecas,  at 
the  Nacogdoche  village  and  for  the  Na- 
cogdoche  and  Nacao  tribes.     The  site  was 
evidently  that  of  the  present  city  of  Xa- 
cogdoches,  Tex.     It  was  the  head  Zaca- 
tecan  mission  in  E.  Texas,  being  at  first 
in  charge  of  the  president,  Fray  Antonio 
Margil  de  Jesus.     After  him,   the  most 
noted  missionary  there  was  Joseph  Cal- 
ahorra  y Saenz  (cci.  1750-1770).     In  1719 
the  mission  was  abandoned,  like  the  others 
of  E.  Texas,  and  when  in   17:21  Aguayo 
and  Margil  de  Jesus  went  to  reestablish 
it,  not  a  sign  of  church  or  dwelling  re 
mained.      On    Aug.   18   the    new  church 
was  dedicated;  Fray  Jose  Rodriguez  was 
put  in  charge,  and  390  Indians  were  given 
presents,  having  promised  to  settle  in  a 
pueblo,  a  promise  which  they  evidently 
never  fulfilled.     When    in   F730-31    the 
Queretaran  missions  near  by  were  trans 
ferred  to  San  .Antonio,  this  with  the  other 
Zacatecan  missions  was  retained,  but  it 
was  never  successful.     More  than  once  it 
was   in    danger  of    destruction    by   the 
Indians,  who  were  made  hostile  to  the 
Spaniards  by  the  influence  of  the  French. 
By   1752  the  Nacogdoche  Indian  village 
had  been  removed  some  3  leagues  north 
ward.     In  1767  Rubi  reported  the  mission 
to  be  without  a  single  neophyte,  either 
baptized  or  under  instruction.     The  next 
year  Solis  reported  that  there  were  an 
adobe  church  and  several  wooden  build 
ings  at  the  mission,  but  found  in  the  books 
the  record  of  only  12  baptisms,  8  burials, 
and  5  marriages.     With   the   cession  of 
Louisiana  to  Spain  in   1762   one  of  the 
chief  reasons  for  the  mission's  existence 
was  removed,  and  accordingly,  on  recom 
mendation  by  Rubi  in  1767,  its  abandon 
ment,  together  with  that  of  the  neighbor 
ing  establishments,  was  ordered  in    1772 
and  effected  in  1 773.     Part  of  the  settlers 
who  had  been  removed  in  the  latter  year 
from   E.   Texas   settled    in   1774   on  the 
Trinity,  at  a  place  called  Filar  de  Buca- 
reli;  but,  because  of  a  flood  and  attacks 
by  the  Comanche,  they  migrated  in  1779 
to   the  site  of  the   Nacogdoche  mission, 
apparently  occupying  some  of  its  build 
ings,  and  became  the  founders  of  modern 

Besides  the  authorities  cited  below,  see 
Ramon,  Derrotero,  1716,  MS.  in  Mem.  de 
Nueva  Fspafia,  xxvn,  157;  Hidalgo  to 
Mesquia,  Oct.  6, 1716,  MS.  in  the  Archivo 
General;  De  Soto  Bermudex,  Investiga 
tion,  1752,  MS.  in  the  Archivo  General; 
Rubi,  Dictamen,  fi25,  1767,  MS.  in  the 

Archivo  General;  Tex.  Hist.  Ass'n 
ix,  67-137,  1906.  (H.  K.  H.  ) 

Guadalupe.  —  Bancroft,  X<>.  Mex.  States,  i.  til  1  issf, 
Guadalupe  de  los  Nacogdoches.  —  1  hid  ,  025.  Mision 
de  Nacogdoches.—  Solis.  Diano,  I7to,  Ms.  in  Mem 
de  Xueva  Kspafia,  xxvn.  ±il.  Nacogdoches.— 
Bancroft,  op.  cit..  f.i;r,.  N.  S.  de  Guarlalupe  - 
Ramon,  Represeiitacion,  171<i,  in  Mem.  de  Nncva 
Espana,  op.  cit.,  l.V.t.  N.  S.  de  Guadalupe  de  Albur- 
querque  de  los  Nacogdoches  —Solis,  ITiis,  op.  <-it.? 
I'M'J.  N.  S.  de  Guadalupe  dc  los  Nacogdoches  1  Vim' 
Diario,  17iM,  MS.  in  Mem.  de  Nueva  Espafia, 
xx  vin.  41.  N.  S.  de  Guadalupe  de  Nacogdoches.— 
Ibid.,  4'2. 

Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Candelaria.  (  >ne 
of  three  Franciscan  missions  established 
about  1747-4S  on  San  Xavier  (no\v  San 
Gabriel)  r.,  Tex.  For  the  circumstances 
of  its  founding,  see  Sun  Fran<-iw<>  <!,'  llnr- 
<-a><it<is  and  consult  also  Sun  ffdfionxo. 
This  was  the  last  of  these  three  missions 
to  be  put  in  operation,  but  it  is  not  known 
exactly  when  the  neophytes  arrived. 
The  principal  tribe  at  the  mission  was 
the  Coco  from  the  lower  Colorado  (Ar- 
ricivita,  Cronica,  n,  336,  337,  1792). 
Some  time  before  Mar.  11,  1751,  ('apt. 
Joseph  de  Kca  y  Musquiz  inspected  the 
mission  and  reported  at  service  102  neo 
phytes  (ibid.,  328;  Viceroy's  decree,  Mar. 
11,  1751,  .MS.  in  Lamar  papers).  This 
mission  had  an  unfortunate  career.  About 
Dec.  1751,  ('apt.  Rabago  y  Tenin  reported 
the  neophytes  as  already  reduced  to  25 
(Bonilla  in  Tex.  lli>t.  Ass'n  (,)uar.,  VIM, 
49,  1905).  Early  in  1752  the  Coco  took 
umbrage  at  the  punishment  of  a  slight 
offense  and  left  in  a  body  for  their  home 
on  the  Colorado  (  Arricivita,  op.  cit.,  333). 
A  few  days  afterward  Father  Cun/abal, 
minister  at  San  Ildel'onso.  who  had  quar 
reled  with  the  captain  of  the  presidio, 
was  murdered  in  the  door  of  the  Cande 
laria  mission  by  an  unknown  person. 
Later  the  Coco  promised  to  return  to  their 
mission,  but  apparently  they  neverdid  so, 
for  the  last  of  the  three,  San  Xavier  de 
Horcasitas,  was  soon  abandoned  (il»id.. 
333,  3.36).  They  were  taken  instead,  it 
seems,  to  San  Antonio  de  Valero  mission, 
for,  beginning  in  1755,  there  were  numer 
ous  burials  there  of  Coco  who  had  been 
baptized  at  Candelaria  on  Rio  San  Xavier 
(Valero,  MS.  Fntierros,  entries  for  the 
years  1755-1765).  (H.  K.  n.  ) 

Candelaria.—  Bancroft,    No.    Mex. 

Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Candelaria.  A  mis 
sion  founded  Feb.  8,  17«i2,  by  Capt. 
Phelipe  Rabago  y  Teran  and  Fray  Diego 
Ximine/,  on  the  w.  side  of  San  Joseph  r., 
now  the  upper  Xueces  (not  the  >NIM 
Antonio,  as  has  been  conjectured),  near 
a  site  called  El  Canon.  This  mission  and 
San  Loren/o,  which  was  4  leagues  away, 
were  founded  for  the  Lipan  after  they 
had  been  frightened  from  the  San  Pa  ha 
mission  by  the^attack  of  the  Comanche 
and  others  in  1758.  The  chief  who  as 

for  this  mission  and   was  made 


1)K    LA    PURI8IMA    CONCEPCION  [B.  A.  E. 

HIT"  of  it  was  Texa.  or  Turnio,  who  had 
a  foll.iwini:  of  nil »n'  than  .">00  people  (  Re 
port  of  IMbago  y  Teran,  Feb.  7  and  8, 
MS.  in  Aivhivo  ( leneral;  also  Arricivita, 
Cro'uica,  n,  :>S5,  386,  1792).  The  mis 
sion  was  attached  to  those  of  the  Rio 
<irande.  Before  1767  it  was  abandoned 
through  the  desertion  of  Tnrnio  and  his 
people  (Arricivita,  ibid. ,391).  For  fur 
ther  details,  Pee  *S'a»  Lorenzo,  (n.  E.  K.  ) 
Candelaria.— Bancroft,  N<>.  Mox.  States,  i,  650, 
l>Mi.  Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Candelaria. —  Rabagp  y 
Ten'in,  Kt'i""'1  o1'  I|K'  l'"iiii(lini,r,  1-Vb.  7,  S,  1702, 
MS.  in  Archivo  (icnerai. 

Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Luz.  A  Franciscan 
mission  established  by  the  Zacatecan 
friars,  among  the  Arkokisa,  on  the  left 
Lank  of  lower  Trinity  r.,  Tex.  A  mis- 
sioir  for  the  Arkokisa  was  proposed  as 
early  as  1747  by  ('apt.  Orobio  y  Basterra, 
who  reported  that  this  tribe,  livingin  live 
rancher-ias  or  pneblos  and  nunil)ering  300 
families,  had  expressed  a  desire  to  settle 
in  a  mission  between  the  Sabine  and  the 
Trinity,  "their  fatherland."  Some  years 
afterward  the  plan  was  carried  out,  the 
miss'mn  beintr  placed  at  a  site  known  as 
( )rcoquisac,  some  distance  below  modern 
Liberty.  Near  it  stood  the  presidio  of 
San  Agustin  de  Ahumada.  Within  a  few 
years  both  were  moved  a  short  distance 
upstream  to  a  place  called  Los  Horcon- 
sitos.  The  mission,  from  the  first  unsuc- 
ces<ful.  wasabandoned  about  1  770,  and  in 
177'J  the  suppression  of  the  presidio  was 
ordered.  (  II.  E.  H.  ) 

Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Purisima  Concep- 
cidn.  A  Franciscan  mission,  founded  July 
7.  17U).  at  the  principal  Ilasinai  village, 
that  of  the  I  lainai,  on  t  he  K.  side  of  Ange 
lina  r. ,  Tex.,  and  nearl  v  w.  of  modern  Na- 
cogdoches.  It  was  founded  by,  and  re 
mained  for  several  years  in  charge  of,  the 
president  of  the  (^ueivtaran  missions 
among  the  Ilasinai,  Frav  Ysidro  Felis  de 
Fspinosa,  later  author  of  the  famous  work 
on  Franciscan  missions,  the  ( '/n'l'micn  A  }><»<- 
t.'tfirn  ,f  ,sv/-, '////,;,•,,  (1746).  The  Hainai 
settlement  at  the  time  the  mission  was 
founded  consisted,  it  is  said,  of  ''an  in 
finite  number  of  ranches,  with  their 
patches  of  mai/e,  melons,  watermelons, 
beans,  tobacco,"  and  sunflowers  (  Ramon, 
henotero,  1716,  MS.  in  Nueva 
F-pana,  xxvn,  15s  i.  This  village  was 
lorthe  missionaries  a  strategic  point  in 
the  Ilasinai  country,  for  at  the  Hainai 
village  was  the  chief  temple  of  the  con 
federacy,  presided  over  by  the  high  priest, 
the  Lr,vat  A'////'x/  (Jesus  Maria,  Kelacion, 
1691 ,  MS.  i,  consequent  ly  ( 'oncepcion  was 
made  the  head  mission.  Before  its  re 
moval  to  San  Antonio  the  mission  was 
sometimes  called  Nuestra  Senora  de  la 
Purisima  ( 'oncepciori  de  los  Aynais. 
The  lir>t  church  and  dwellings  were  built 
by  the  Indians  of  wood  and  grass,  after 
the  manner  of  the  Ilasinai  grass  lodges, 

but  soon  the  soldiers  and  the  mission 
aries,  with  their  own  hands,  constructed 
more  commodious  ones  (Ramon,  op.  cit., 
159;  Espinosa,  Diario,  1716,  MS.;  and 
(Ti ronica,  4 IS,  419,  1746). 

The  Ilasinai  Indians  were  friendly,  but 
they  refused  to  settle  permanently  in 
pueblos,  and,  through  the  strong  influ 
ence  of  their  priesthood,  were  slow  to  ac 
cept  baptism.  However,  within  a  year 
Kspinosa  succeeded  in  baptizing,  on  his 
deathbed,  the  Hainai  chief,  which,  be 
cause  of  this  person's  exalted  position  in 
the  confederacy,  presumably  made  other 
conversions  easier  (Kspinosa,  Chronica, 
440).  But  success  was  slight.  Supplies 
for  this  and  tne  neighboring  missions 
failed  to  come,  some  of  the  soldier  guard 
deserted,  and  finally,  in  1 719,  the  mission 
aries  and  soldiers,  unaided  by  home  au 
thorities  and  fearful  of  a  French  attack 
from  Natchitoches  incident  to  the  rup 
ture  between  France  and  Spain,  retired 
with  the  church  ornaments  to  San  An 
tonio,  much  to  the  regret  of  the  Indians 
( Espinosa,  Chronica,  451-453;  see  also 
docs,  in  French,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  in,  67- 
72,  1851). 

In  1721  the  Marques  de  San  Miguel  de 
Aguayo  was  sent,  wTith  Espinosa  and 
Father  Margil,  to  reestablish  the  missions 
and  to  erect  presidios  for  their  defense. 
Espinosa  was  again  put  in  charge  of  Con 
ception,  which  reoccupied  the  old  church 
after  some  repairs  were  made.  On  Aug. 
8,  1721,  the  mission  was  formally  re 
established,  and  to  Cheocas,  chief  of  the 
Hainai  and  head  civil  chief  of  the  Ilasi 
nai,  Aguayo  gave  "the  best  suit  that  he 
had — blue,  heavily  embroidered  with 
gold,  with  waistcoat  of  gold  and  silver 
lace."  Cheocas  collected  the  Hainai 
people,  and  Aguayo,  after  exhorting  them 
to  come  and  settle  a  pueblo,  gave  pres 
ents  of  clothing  and  trinkets  to  400  per 
sons,  including  perhaps  the  80  Kadoha- 
dacho  visitors  who  chanced  to  be  there 
(IVfia,  Diario,  1721,  MS.  in  Mem.  de 
Nneva  Espafia,  \xvin,  42).  Near  by 
Aguayo  established  an  ill-made  presidio 
called  Nuestra  Senora  de  los  Dolores  de 
los  Texas  (IVna,  ibid.;  and  Rivera,  Di 
ario,  leg.  2140,  173(5;  also  Rivera,  Pro- 
yecto,  1728,  MS.). 

Success  was  no  greater  now  than  for 
merly,  and  in  1731  Mission  Concepcion, 
together  with  San  Joseph  de  los  Nasones 
and  San  Francisco  de  los  Texas  (or 
Neches),  was  reestablished  on  San  Anto 
nio  r.  It  was  first  planned  to  place  them 
on  the  San  Marcos,  and  there  is  some  in 
dication  that  they  may  have  been  tem 
porarily  located  there  (MS.  in  the  city 
clerk's  office,  San  Antonio,  dated  Aug. 
12,  1771  ).  Concepcion  was  placed  on  the 
bank  of  San  Antonio  r.,  about  2  m.  below 
San  Antonio  de  Valero,  which  is  now  at 

BULL.  30] 


the  center  of  the  city  of  San  Antonio. 
According  to  the  surviving  book  of  mar 
riage  records,  it  was  founded  May  5,  1731. 
The  site  selected  was  that  which  formerly 
had  been  assigned  to  the  Ervipiame  mis 
sion  of  San  Xavier  de  Naxera  (q.  v. ). 
The  pueblo  was  called  Acuna,  and  of  it 
the  Pajalat  chief  was  made  the  first  gov 
ernor  ( Testimonio  de  Asiento  de  Misiones, 
1730-31,  MS.).  The  mission  now  some 
times  took  the  name  Nuestra  Sefiora  de 
la  Purfsima  Concepcion  de  Acuna. 

The  tribes  served  by  it  were  in  the  main 
of  the  Coahuiltecan  stock.  Their  lan 
guage  is  preserved  in  the  Manual  of  Bar- 
tolorne  Garcia  (1760),  who  was  stationed 
at  the  neighboring  mission  of  San  Fran 
cisco  de  la  Espada.  The  first  marriage 
recorded  was  that  of  "Joseph  Flores,  of 
the  Patumaco  nation,  present  governor  of 
this  pueblo,  and  chief  of  the  Pajalates, 
Siguipiles,  Tilpacopales,  and  others." 
The  marriage  records  show  that  about  30 
so-called  tribes  (naciones)  were  repre 
sented  at  this  mission  before  1790.  They 
are  here  given,  with  the  date  of  the  lirst 
appearance  of  each  new  name  or  group  of 
names  following:  Pajalat,  Siquipil,  Til- 
pacopal,  Patumaco,  Pachalaque,  Patalca, 
Tiloja,  Xarame  (1733);  Pamache  (Pama- 
que?),  Cujan  (1734);  Pacaba  (Pacoa? 
1735);  Guapica  (Guapite?),  Pausana 
1738);  Payaya  (1739);  Pastia  (1741); 
Pacao,  Tacame;  Orejon  (1742);  Chayopin 
(1745);  A7enado  (1746);  Apache  (1747); 
Lipan  (1751);  Sanipao  (1755);  Piguiqni, 

che  (1770);  Pamaque  (1775).  Of  these 
the  Pajalates,  Orejones,  Pacaos,  Pacoas, 
Pausanas,  Tacames,  Venados,  Pamaques, 
Pihuiques,  Borrados,  Sanipaos,  and  Ma- 
nos  de  Perro  are  named  inGarci'a's  Man 
ual  as  among  those  speaking  Coahuilte 
can,  and  several  others  are  known  to 
have  been  likewise  Coahuiltecans.  It  is 
possible  that  two  or  three -pairs  of  the 
names  given  above  are  those  of  identical 
tribes.  It  is  also  to  be  noted  that  the 
Apache  and  the  Yojuane  in  most  cases 
were  captives,  while  the  Pacoa  and  Chay 
opin  in  the  list  represent  neophytes  of 
neighboring  missions  who  intermarried 
witli  the  neophytes  of  Concepcion  (Libro 
de  Casamientos,  MS.  in  the  custody  of 
the  Bishop  of  San  Antonio). 

By  Feb.  20,  1740,  250  neophytes  had 
been  baptized;  but  at  this  date  only  120 
remained,  of  whom  all  but  6  were  un- 
baptized.  The  explanation  is  that  in  the 
latter  part  of  1739  a  severe  epidemic  had 
ravaged  all  the  missions,  immediately 
after  which  a  fresh  supply  of  gentiles 
was  brought  in  (Description  de  Mi- 
clones,  Feb.  20,  1740,  MS.  in  Mem.  de 
Nueva  Espana,  xxvm,  203).  By  Mar.  6, 

1/6  there  had  been  792  baptisms  and 
008  burials— a  commentary  on  mortality 
at  the  missions.  At  this  time  there  were 
£07  persons  remaining,  largely  Pajalates, 
Tacames,  and  Sanipaos.  There  wen-  now 
a  substantial  church,  apparently  the  one 
still  standing,  a  sacristy,  cloisters,  a  work 
room  where  neophytes  made  cotton  fab 
rics  and  a  blacksmith  simp.  The  Indian 
pueblo  near  by  consisted  of  two  rows  of 
stone  huts  and  jacales,  surround, -<l  by  a 
wall.  The  fields  were  irrigated  by  means 
of  an  acequia  leading  from  a  reservoir. 
On  the  ranch  were  200  marcs,  1 10  horses 
610  cattle,  and  2,200  sheep  and  goats 
(Ynfprme  de  Misiones,  Mar.  6,  17(52 
MS.  in  Mem.  de  JS'ueva  Espafia,  xxvnij 
168-169).  The  acequia,  known  as  the 
"Pajalache  or  Conception  ditch,"  is  said 
to  have  been  in  use  until  1869  (Corner, 
San  Antonio  de  Bexar,  43,  1890). 

Late  in  1772  or  early  in  1773  the  <,)uerc- 
taran  friars  transferred  the  mission  to  the 
Zacatecans,  as  was  true  also  of  the  neigh 
boring  missions  (Libro  de  Casamientos, 
MS.,  first  entry  for  177:5).  But  tlieaetive 
period  of  the  mission  was  now  past,  and 
the  subsequent  history  was  that  of  de 
cline.  Neophytes  were  difficult  to  get, 
government  support  was  withdrawn,  and 
the  citi/ens  of  San  Fernando  encroached 
upon  the  mission  lands.  In  1794  the 
mission  was  seculari/ed.  By  1790  the 
total  number  of  marriages  had  reached 
249,  of  which  210  had  been  contracted 
before  1 770  ( Libro  de  Casamientos).  The 
mission  church  and  vivienda  are  still 
fairly  well  preserved.  •  (U.K.  u.) 

Nuestra  Sefiora  de  la  Soledad.  The  thir 
teenth  Franciscan  mission  founded  in 
California.  Father  Lasuen  himself  had 
explored  the  region,  already  known  to 
the  Spanish  as  Soledad,  and  personally 
selected  the  site,  which  was  situated  in 
the  Salinas  valley,  about  4  m.  from  the 
present  town  of  Soledad,  Monterey  co. 
The  native  name  was  Chnttnsgelis. 
Some  shelters  were  erected  by  neophytes 
from  San  Carlos,  and  on  Oct.  9,  1791, 'the 
mission  of  Nuestra  Sefiora  de  la  Soledad 
was  formally  established.  A  few  natives 
witnessed  the  ceremonv.  I>v  the  end  ol 
the  year  there  were  12  converts,  and  -49.') 
by  1800.  In  1797  they  had  completed  an 
adobe  church  with  straw  roof.  The  great 
est  number  of  neophytes,  727.  was  reached 
in  1805.  In  1810  there  were  600,  in  1820 
435,  and  about  300  in  1S34.  The  total 
number  of  natives  bapti/ed  was  3,09(5,  of 
whom  1,306  were  children.  The  total 
deaths  were  2,502,  of  whom  1,137  were 
children.  The  mission  was  successful  in 
its  agricultural  operations  and  well  sup 
plied  with  stock.  In  1810  it  had  nearly 
3,000  cattle,  286  horses,  and  8,000  sheep, 
with  an  average  crop  for  the  last  decade 
of  3,660  bushels.  By  1820  the  livestock 


had  increased  considerably,  but  the  crops 
were  smaller.  Soledad  did  not  decline  so 
rapidly  as  some  of  the  other  California 
missions,  and  in  1834  it  still  had  about 
<>,000  cattle  and  5,000  sheep.  The  crops, 
however,  were  not  very  good,  though 
there  was  a  certain  aim  unit  of  irrigation. 
After  secularization  the  decline  was  rapid, 
so  that  in  1840  there  were  only  about  70 
natives  left,  and  the  livestock  had  almost 
entirely  disappeared.  In  18-H>  the  mis 
sion  was  sold  for  8800,  but  its  buildings 
were  then  in  ruins.  Portions  of  adobe 
walls,  some  of  them  3  ft  thick,  still  remain 
on  the  site.  The  Indians  in  the  neigh 
borhood  of  Soledad  were  Chalones,  be 
longing  to  the  C'ostanoan  linguistic- stock. 
In  1817.  or  thereabouts,  according  to  in 
formation  given  to  Taylor  (Cal.  Farmer, 
Apr.  20,  18tiO),  approximately  a  fourth  of 
the  neophytes  were  Chalones,  one-fourth 
Ksselen,  and  one-half  from  the  Tulare 
lakes.  The  latter  were  probably  Yokuts 
( .Mariposan).  See  California  Indians, 
Costano(tn  j^annli/,  Mission  Indians  of  Cali 
fornia,  J//X.S-/OJ/X.  (.\.  B.  L.  ) 

Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Soledad.  An  Apa- 
lachee  mission  settlement  established  in 
1718  near  Pensacola,  Fla.,  by  Juan  Mar 
cos,  chief  of  the  tribe,  with  refugees 
rescued  from  captivity  among  the  Creeks, 
I>v  whom  they  had  been  carried  away  on 
thedestruction  of  the  Apalachee  missions 
by  <  iov.  Moore  and  his  Indian  allies  in 
17d4.  The  effort  seems  to  have  been 
abandoned  In-fore  1722.  (.1.  M.) 

Nuestra  Seriora  de  la  Soledad. — ttarcia,  Ensayo,  349, 
ITi'lv  Our  Lady  of  Loneliness. — Shea.  Oath.  Miss., 
7.">.  18.V).  Soledad.— Bareia,  op.  cit..  842. 

Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Victoria.  A  Fran 
ciscan  mission  founded  in  1()77  at  Nada- 
dores,  within  the  territory  of  the  present 
state  of  Coahnila,  Mexico.  It  was  called 
also  Santa  Ro:  a,  and  familiarly  Nada- 
dores.  Raids  by  the  Toboso,  a  wild  tribe 
of  northern  Mexico,  compelled  removal 
from  its  first  site,  40  leagues  x.  E.  of 
Coahuila,  to  a  position  near  Nadadores  r., 
7  leagues  x.  \v.  of  that  city.  The  Indians 
collected  here  were  the  Cotzales  and  Manos 
Prietas,  to  which,  at'terthe  removal,  8Tlas- 
caltec  families  \\creadded.  (,i.  R.  s. ) 

Nuestra  Senora  de  los  Dolores  de  la  Punta. 
A  mission  founded  by  the  Queretaran 
fathers  within  the  limits  of  the  present 
Mexican  state  of  Xueva  Leon.  The  In 
dians  gathered  here  were  the  Pitas  and 
tin-  Pasalves. 

Nuestra  Senora  de  los  Dolores  del  Norte. 
A  .lesnit  mission  of  Lower  California, 
founded  early  in  the  18th  century.  Ve- 
negas  (Hist.  Cal.,  n,  HJ8-HM),  1759)  says: 
"This  mission  was  joined  with  that  of  San 
Fgnacio.  Within  its  district,  which  lies  30 
leagues  from  S.  Ignacio  [San  Ignacio  de 
Kadakaman]  ;,nd  in  the  latitude  of  29  °, 
were  already  548  bapti/ed  Indians." 
Taylor  states  that  this  mission  was  "made 
as  an  adjunct  to  San  Ignacio,  but  a  few- 

years  afterward  seems  to  have  been  ab 
sorbed  into  this  last  and  abandoned',  as 
were  two  or  three  pioneer  foundations  of1 
the  same  kind,  before  1740."  See  also 
Browne,  Res.  Pac.  Slope,  app.,  50,  18<>9. 
Nuestra  Senora  de  los  Dolores  de  los  Ais. 
A  Franciscan  mission  established  in  1716 
by  the  Spaniards  among  the  Eyeish,  in 
the  vicinity  of  Sabine  r. ,  Tex.,  37  leagues 
from  Natchitoches,  La,  "well  toward 
the  E.,  and  near  the  French  settlements 
already  established  on  Red  r."  of  Loui 
siana.  It  was  abandoned  during  the 
French-Spanish  hostilities  of  1719  aim  the 
mission  property  destroyed  by  the  In 
dians,  but  was  reestablished  in  1721  with 
180  natives.  In  1768  it  reported  only  11 
baptisms,  and  in  1773  was  abandoned, 
probably  on  account  of  the  decimation  of 
the  Kyeish  people.  See  Bancroft,  cited 
below;  Garrison,  Texas,  1903. 

Dolores.— Bancroft,  No.  Mex.  States,  i,615,666,188t%>. 
Dolores  de  los  Adaes.— Ibid . ,  625.  Santisima  Virgen 
de  los  Dolores. — Austin  in  Tex.  Hist.  Ass'ri  Quar., 
vin,  2S4,  1905. 

Nuestra  Senora  del  Pilar  de  los  Adaes.  A 
presidio  established  in  Sept.  and  Oct. 
1721 ,  by  the  Marques  de  Aguayo,  close  to 
the  mission  of  San  Miguel  de  Linares  (or 
de  los  Adaes),  in  Texas,  and  about  three- 
quarters  of  the  way  from  the  Sabine  to 
Natchitoches,  La.  It  was  occupied  until 
1773,  when  the  whole  eastern  frontier  was 
abandoned.  In  1 774,  however,  part  of  the 
citizens  returned  from  San  Antonio  to  the 
Trinity  and  there  founded  a  village  which 
was  called  Pilar  de  Bucareli.  ( n.  E.  H.  ) 

Nuestra  Seiioradel  Pilar.— IVfia,  MS.  Diario,1721,in 
Mem.  de  Xueva  Kspana,  x  xvm.  52.  Nuestra  Se 
nora  del  Pilar  de  los  Adaes.— Bouilla,  Breve  Com- 
pendio,  1772,  in  Tex.  Hist.  Ass'n  Quar.,  vm,  34, 
1905.  Pilar.— Bancroft,  No.  Mex. States,  i,  62(1, 1886. 

Nuestra  Senora  del  Kefugio.     A  mission 
founded  in  1791  by  Fray  Manuel  de  Silva, 
near  the  mouth   of   Mission  r.,   flowing 
into  Aransas  bay,  Tex.     It  had  62  Karan- 
kawa  neophytes  in  1793.     It  was  main 
tained  until  1828,  but  in  1824  the  mission 
buildings  were  abandoned  because  of  the 
hostility  of  the  Comanche,  the  baptism  of 
neophytes  subsequent  to  this  time  being' 
performed  at  the  parochial  church.     Be-i 
tween    1807   and    1828    the   missionaries1 
laboring  at  Refugio  were  Fr.  Jose  Manuel  | 
(iaitan,  Fr.  Juan  Maria  Zepulveda  ( buried  j 
there  June   28,  1815),  Fr.  Jose   Antonio 
Diaz  de  Leon,  and   Fr.    Miguel  Munoz. 
During  this  period  the  total  number  of 
baptisms  was  204,  the  tribes  represented 
being  the  Karankawa,  Piguique,  Copane, 
Coapite,  Pamoque,  Cujan,  Malaguite,  Pa- 
jalache,    Toboso,    Coco,    Araname,    and 
Li  pan  (Libro  n  de  Bautismos,  1807-28,  in 
the  archives  of  the  parochial  church  of 
Matamoros,  Mexico).  (n.  E.  B. ) 

Refugio.— Bancroft,  No.  Mex.  States,  I,  6C6,  668, 


Nuestra  Seiiora  del  Rosario.  A  Francis 
can  mission  founded  in  the  fall  of  1754 
about  4  m.  s.  w.  of  Espiritu  Santo  de 

BULL.  30] 



Zuiliga  mission,  nearly  opposite  modern 
Goliad  and  £  in.  from  San  Antonio  r.,  for 
the  Karankawan  tribes,  particularly  the 
Cujanes  ( Kohani ) ,  of  theTexas  coast  below 
this  point.  Early  missionary  efforts  among 
the  Karankawan  tribes  had  been  made  at 
Espi'ritu  Santo,  founded  in  1722  by  the 
Zacatecan  Franciscans  near  the  site  of 
La  Salle's  settlement  on  Lavaca  r.  The 
hostility  of  these  tribes  soon  caused  the 
removal  of  the  mission,  and  subsequently 
the  neighboring  presidio,  Bahi'a  del  Espi 
ritu  Santo,  to  Guadalupe  r.  The  site 
is  now  marked  by  ruins  in  Mission  val 
ley,  Victoria  co.  From  this  time  until 
1750  the  Karankawan  tribes,  except  the 
Coco,  some  of  whom  before  this  were 
attracted  to  Candelaria  mission,  were  al 
most  unaffected  by  mission  influence;  but 
in  the  year  named,  in  consequence  of  Jose 
de  Escandon's  plan  to  colonize  the  whole 
coast  country  from  P;inuco,  Mexico,  to 
San  Antonio  r.,  renewed  efforts  were 
made  to  missionize  them.  At  first  the 
government  ordered  that  an  attempt  l>e 
made  to  gather  them  into  Espiritu  Santo 
de  Zuniga  mission,  which,  at  Escandon's 
instance,  had  been  moved  in  1749  with 
the  presidio  of  Bahi'a  to  San  Antonio  r. 
At  the  same  time  the  Queretaran  mis 
sionaries  at  San  Antonio  made  an  effort 
to  gather  them  there.  A  quarrel  ensued, 
with  the  result  that  Espiritu  Santo  mis 
sion,  profiting  by  the  efforts  of  the  Que~ 
retarans,  succeeded  in  1751  in  gathering 
temporarily  a  number  of  Karankawans, 
mainly  Cujanes.  They  deserted  in  a  few 
weeks,  but  the  missionaries  and  Captain 
Ramirez  de  la  Piszina  of  the  presidio  con 
tinued  making  efforts  to  win  the  Cujanes, 
Karankawa,  Coapites,  and  Copanes  (Ko- 
pano ) . 

It  being  found  objectionable  to  attempt 
to  put  these  tribes  into  the  Espiritu  Santo 
mission  with  the  Aranames  and  Tami- 
ques,  "since  they  are  of  different  lan 
guages,  incompatible  dispositions,  and  do 
not  like  to  be  in  their  company,"  an 
effort  was  made  and  permission  obtained 
to  transfer  mission  Nuestra  Sefiora  de  los 
Dolores  de  los  Ais  from  E.  Texas  to  the 
neighborhood  of  Espiritu  Santo,  there  to 
reestablish  it  for  the  Karankawan  tribes. 
Objections  from  E.  Texas,  however,  re 
sulted  in  an  order  ( Apr.  7,  1755)  to  found 
a  new  mission  for  the  Cujanes  (Kohani), 
Coapites,  and  Karankawa.  The  Copanes 
(Kopano)  do  not  seem  to  have  been  in 
cluded.  Already,  in  consequence  of  the 
former  plan,  the  founding  of  a  new 
mission  for  these  tribes  had  been  begun 
(Nov.  1754)  by  Father  Camberos  and 
Captain  Ramirez  de  la  Piszina.  Without 
waiting  for  the  government  to  supply 
funds,  work  was  begun  with  private  do 
nations  and  borrowed  means.  The  name 
*iven  the  mission  was  Nuestra  Sefiora 
iel  Rosario,  with  the  addition,  sometimes, 

of  I'de  los  Cujanes,"  the  addition  indi 
cating  the  prominence  of  the  Cujan  tribe 
in  the  mission,  and  also  the  prevalent 
usage  of  the  name  of  this  tribe  as  a  generic 
term  for  the  Karankawan  group.  As  first 
constructed,  the  church  was  built  of  wood, 
and  was  surrounded  by  a  stake  palisade. 
Later  this  church  was  "replaced  by  one  of 
stone.  Conversions  were  slow,  the  total 
number  of  baptisms  after  four  years'  work 
being  only  21.  The  Cujanes  in  particular 
were  hard  to  manage,  and  with  difficulty 
were  kept  from  deserting.  Adequategov- 
ernment  support  for  the  mission  was  de 
layed  until  Apr.  1758,  when  the  supplies 
that  had  been  asked  for  were  granted,  and 
10  additional  soldiers  were  added  to  the 
garrison  at  the  neighboring  presidio. 
With  this  aid  the  mission  became  more 
prosperous.  In  1768  it  was  able  to  report  a 
total  of  about  200  baptisms,  and  the  indi 
cations  are  that  at  this  time  from  100  to 
200  Indians  lived  intermittently,  at  least, 
at  the  mission.  Father  Soli's  inspected 
the  mission  in  that  year  and  reported  it 
in  good  material  condition,  but  said  that 
the  Indians  were  very  hard  to  subdue, 
and  that  the  Copanes,  some  of  whom  had 
joined  the  other  tribes  there,  had  en 
tirely  deserted  it.  In  the  same  year 
charges  were  made  to  the  government 
that  the  Indians  were  being  seriously 
mistreated  by  the  missionary,  Father 
Escobar,  and  for  that  reason  were  de 
serting.  Soli's,  however,  gave  a  contrary 
report.  (For  a  study  of  the  history  of 
Mission  Rosario  to  this  point,  with  eita- 
tation  of  authorities  for  the  above  state 
ments,  see  Boltoii  in  Texas  Hist.  Ass'n 
Quar.,  Oct.  1906.)  The  subsequent  his 
tory  of  this  mission  has  never  been  in 
vestigated.  Viceroy  Revilla  Gigedo  tells 
us  that  it  was  completely  abandoned  in 
1781;  that  efforts  were  made  at  once  to 
reestablish  it,  but  without  success  until 
1791  (Carta  dirigida  a  la  Corte  de  Es- 
pana,  Dec.  27,  1793).  Portillo  (Apuntes 
para  la  Historia  Antigua  de  Coahuila  y 
Texas,  310-1 1 ),  an  unreliable  writer,  who 
however  had  access  to  documents,  says 
that  in  1794  it  had  62  neophytes  (some  of 
them  apparently  Coco),  and  that  three 
years  later  97  Coco  and  Karankawa 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Colorado,  after 
failing  to  gain  admission  to  Espiritu 
Santo,  entered  Rosario  mission  Ruins 
of  the  latter  are  still  to  be  seen,  but  little 
remains  of  its  walls. 

Nuestra  Seiiora  del  Kosario.  A  former 
Cora  pueblo  and  seat  of  a  mission  which 
had  Corapa  as  a  visita.  Situated  near  the 
w  bank  of  Rio  San  Pedro,  lat.  22°  15',  Ja 
lisco,  Mexico.— Orozco  y  Berra,  Geog., 
280,  1864. 

Nuestra  Sefiora  del  Valle  Humbroso.     A 
Temoris  pueblo   in  Chinipas  valley,  w 
Chihuahua,    Mexico.— Orozco    y    Berr 
Geog.,  324,  1864. 



Nugsoak.      A    missionary    station    and 
trading  p">t  opposite  Disko  id.,  w.  Green 
Noogsoak.— ('rant/.  Hist.  Greenland,  I,  16, 1767. 

Nugumiut  i  '  inhabitants  of  the  cape')- 
An  Kskimo  tribe  occupying  the  peninsula 
between  Frobisher  bay  and  Cumberland 
sd.,  P.atlinland.  Sealing  on  the  noes  with 
the  harpoon,  killing  \valrns  at  the  floe 
ed-je.  and  hunting  deer  in  the  summer  are 
their  occupations.  Their  permanent  vil 
lages  are  Nugumiut,  Operdniving,Tornait, 
Tuarpukdjuak,  and  Tkadlik.  Other  set 
tlements  are  Akbirsiarbing,  Ekaluin,  Kas- 
sigiakdjnak,  Kekertukjuag,  Kodlimarn, 
and  Xnvuktualnng.  Pop.  about  80  in 

New  Gummi  Lurk.— Hrilish  Admiralty  chart.  Nu- 
gumeute.  —  Kumlien  in  Hull.  Nat.  Mus.  no.  15,  15, 
l^TU.  Nugumiut.  —  Unas  in  fith  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  422, 

Nugumiut.  A  winter  village  of  Nugu 
miut  Kskimo  at  the  entrance  to  Frobisher 
bay,  r.atlin  land.  —  Boas  in  6th  Rep.  B.  A. 
]•].!  map.  1SS8. 

Nuhalk  (  Xii.ra'lk:').  A  Bellacoola divi 
sion,  embracing  the  following  8  villages, 
at  the  month  of  Bellacoola  r.,  Brit.  Col.: 
At  Iklaktl,  Komkntis,  ( )smakiniketlp,  Pei- 
srla,  Sakta.  Selkuta,  Stskeitl,  and  Tkeikts- 
kune.  They  include  the  Keltakkaua, 
Pot  las.  Siatlhelaak,  Spukpukolemk,  and 
Tokoais  gentes. 

Nuchalkmx'.— Buns  in  I'etermanns  Mitt.,pt.  5,  130, 
KNI  ,//x'  -people').  Nuqa'lkH.— Boas  in  7th  Rep. 
X.  \V.  Tribes  Can.,  H.  18'Jl.  Nuqa'lkmn.— Ibid. 
-tun  'people  of).  Nuxa'lk'!.— Boas  in  Mem. 
Am.  Mns.  Nat.  Hist.,  II,  -lit,  1898. 

Nuiku  ( .\i~i'ikn  } .    A  Bellacoola  village  at 
the   head  of    South    Bentinck  arm,  Brit, 
Col.      It  is  one  of  the  Talio  towns. 
Nu'ik'.— Boas  in  7th  Hep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can..  3,1891 
Nu'iku.— Boas  in  Mem.  Am.  Mns.  Nat.  Hist.,  tl,  49, 

Nuimok  ( 'southern  ').    A  Winttin  tribe 
formerly  living   alony    lower   Stonv  cr. 
Coln-a    co.,   Cal. 

Kuronom.— Krochcr,    infn.    ll»03  (Vuki  name  for 
_  Creek  Wintuin.  Npi  Mucks.— Geigerin  Ind. 
AIT.  Rep.,  288, 185X.     Nu' i-mok. — Powers  in  ("out 
N".  A.  Ktlino]..  in.  •_!;;(),  1S77. 

Nuk  ('the  point').  A  village  of  the 
Kiiuijruniiut  Kskimo  at  Port  Clarence, 
Ala.-ka.  the  site  of  the  reindeer  station 

Nooke.  -H..,...hi;\  (1*27)   quoted    by  Baker,  Geog. 

l'i<-l.    Ala>ka.  i^O,    p. «»;.     Nookmete.— Jackson    in 

'V11':    M'l'1..    map.   115.     Nookmut.— 

I.   Alaska,   -Ins.  1*70.     Nookmute.— Klliott    Our 

I'n.v..    map.   I.SNC,.     The  Nook.— Baker,  op. 

rit.  •  name  giv«-n  by  "ihcold  timers" j. 

Nukaakmats  (Ni«ia'ti.rm<its}.  A  Bella- 
<-oola  town  on  Bellacoola  r.,  above  A se- 
nan.-,  P.rit.  Col. 

Nuk  a'aqmats.  — B-,as  in  7th  Rep.  N.W.  TrihesCan 
Nuqa'axmats.— Boas   in    Mem.  Am.  Mus 
Nat.  Hist.,  ii,  -lit,  l.v.tx. 

Nukaatko  (.Y///,v///'//.-o,  Nuknii'tqo,  or 
\Ekan' tko,  'one  little  water').  A  village 
"i  the  Spences  Bridge  band  of  Ntlak- 
yapamuk,  on  the  N.  side  of  Thompson  r 
'.'>  m.  above  Lytton,  Brit.  (1ol.—  Teit,  in 
Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist,  n,  173,  ]900 

Nukchu.  Mentioned  as  a  tribe  of  s. 
central  California,  apparently  living  be 
tween  San  Joaquin  and  Kings  rs.  There 
may  be  some  confusion  with  a  southern 
Moquelumnan  tribe  called  Nuchu;  or  the 
term  may  be  a  synonym  of  Nuehawayi  or 
Nutunntu  (<j.  v. ).  The  Nukchu  entered 
into  a  treaty  with  the  United  States,  Apr. 
29,  1851,  and  were  placed  on  a  reserve 
between  Chowchilla  and  Kaweah  rs. 
Nook-choo.— Royee  in  18th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  7S2, 1899. 
Nook-choos. — .Johnson  ^1851)  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doe.  61, 
32d  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  22,  1852. 

Nukhe  ('reddish-yellow  buffalo').  A 
gens  of  the  Ponca,  q.  v. 

Ice.— Dorsey  in  15th  Rep.  B.A.  E.,  229,  1897  (im 
properly  so  called).  Nuqe. — Ibid.  Nuxe. — Ibid. 

Nukhwhaiimikhl  ( Nukh  -whai-i-mikhl) . 
A  Samish  village  on  the  s.  w.  side  of 
Guemesid.,  N.  w.  coast  of  Washington. — 
Gibbs,  Clallam  and  Lnmmi,  38,  1863. 

Nukhwuchutun  (Nu'-q'wtit-tcu'-tun).  A 
former  village  of  the  Chetco  on  the  s. 
side  of  Chetco  r.,  Oreg. — Dorsey  in  Jour. 
Am.  Folk-lore,  in,  236,  1890. 

Nukits  (Xuk'l'ts).  A  Bellacoola  village 
on  Bellacoola  r.,  above  Snutele,  Brit. 

Nu'kiiits.— Boas  in  7th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  3, 
1891.  Nuk-rts.— Boas  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat. 
Hist.,  ii,  49,  1900. 

ITukitsomk  (Nuxitso'mx}-  A  Wikeno 
village  on  Rivers  inlet,  Brit.  Col. — Boas 
in  Petermanns  Mitt.,  pt,  5,  130,  1887. 

Nukkehkummees.  A  village  of  Praying 
Indians,  probably  subject,  to  the  Wam- 
panoag,  near  the  site  of  Dartmouth, 
Mass.,  containing  about  120  inhabitants 
in  1698. — Kawson  and  Danforth  (1698)  in 
Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  x,  132,  1809. 

Nuklako.  A  Hankutchin  village  of  82 
inhabitants  on  Yukon  r.,  near  the  mouth 
of  Klondike  r.,  just  w.  of  the  boundary 
line  between  Alaskaand  British  Columbia. 

FortReliance. — PetroiTin  10th  Census,  Alaska,  map, 

1884.  Nu-kla-ko.— Schwatka,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  86, 

1885.  Takon  Indians.— Ibid.,  84.     Tchi-car-gut-ko- 
tan. — Ibid.,  8f>  Ungalik  name). 

Nuklit.  A  Malemiut  Eskimo  village 
near  C.  Denbigh,  Norton  sd.,  Alaska. 
Noklich. — /a,!,roskin  in  Nouv.  Ann.  Voy.,  5th  8., 
xxi,  map,  1850.  Noocleet.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet. 
Alaska,  473,  1906  (quoted  form).  Nucleet.— Ibid. 
Nuklit.— Zagoskin,  Deser.  Rnss.  Poss.  Am.,  i,  72, 

Nukluak.  An  Ikogmiut  Kskimo  village 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Yukon,  opposite 
Ikogmiut  mission,  Alaska. 
Nuchljuagmjut.— Holmberg,  Ethnog.  Skizz.,  map, 
1855.  Nukluag-miout. — Xagoskin  in  Nouv.  Ann. 
Voy.,  5th  s.,  xxi,  map,  1850. 

Nuklukayet.  A  Tenankutchin  village, 
trading  post,  and  mission  on  the  N.  bank 
of  the  Yukon,  Alaska,  just  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Tanana.  Pop.  107  in  1880, 
120  in  1890.  It  is  visited  for  trade  by 
people  of  various  tribes. 
Nuclucayette.— Raymond  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  12,  42d 
Cong.,  1st  sess.,  23,  1871.  Nuclukayette.— Whym- 
per,  Alaska,  map,  1869.  Nu-klac-i-yat.— Baker, 
Geog.  Diet.  Alaska.  47:5, 190(5  (cited  form).  Nuklak- 
yet.— Ibid.  Nuklukahyet.— Dall,  Alaska,  57,  1870. 
Kuklukaiet.— Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  12, 

BULL.  30] 


1884.  Nuklukayet.— PetrofY,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  62, 
1881.  Nuklukoyet.— Schwatka,  Rep.  on  Alaska, 
97,  188").  Nuklukyet.— Allen,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  86, 
1887.  Nuklukyeto.— Bruce,  Alaska,  map,  1885. 

Nukluktana  (Nukluk-t&na) .  A  Tenan- 
kutchin  division  on  Tanana  r.,  Alaska, 
below  Tutlut  r. — Allen,  Rep.  on  Alaska, 
86,  1887. 

Nukwatsamish.  A  small  body  of  Salish, 
formerly  on  a  branch  of  Skagit  r.,  in 
Whatcorn  co.,  Wash.,  now  on  Swinomish 

Do-qua-chabsh.— Mallet  in  Incl.  Aff.  Rep.,  198,  1877. 
Nook-na-cham-ish.— Ind.  All'.  Rep.,  17,1870.  N'qua- 
cha-mish.— Gibbs  in  Pac.  R.  R.  Rep..  I,  4156,  1855. 
Nu-kwat-samish.— Gibbs  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  I. 

Nulaautin.  A  sept  of  the  Takulli  living 
in  the  village  of  Nulkreh,  on  Noolkelake, 
Brit.  Col. ;  pop.  56  in  1879. 
Nalo-tin.— Brit.  Col.  map,  1872.  Nool-ke-o  tin.— 
Dawson  in  Rep.  Can.  Geol.  Snrv.  1879-80,  30B, 
1881.  Nulaantins.— Domenech,  Deserts  X.  Am.,  II, 
62,  1860.  Nulaautin.— Hale,  Ethnog.  and  Philol., 
202,  1846.  Stony  Creek  band.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  214, 

Nulato.  A  Kaiyuhkhotana  village  and 
trading  station  on  the  x.  bank  of  Yukon 
r.,  Alaska,  about  100  in.  from  Norton  sd. 
and  550  m.  by  river  from  the  ocean.  In 
1838  the  Russian  Malakof  built  a  block 
house  and  stockade  near  here,  but  shortly 
afterward,  during  his  absence,  it  was 
burned  by  the  Indians.  It  was  rebuilt  in 
1842  by  Lieut.  Zagoskin,  who  was  suc 
ceeded  by  Yasili  Derzhavin,  whose  many 
acts  of  cruelty  led  to  the  massacre  of  the 
entire  garrison  by  the  Koyukukhotana  in 
1851.  Later  Xulato  was  moved  2  in.  up 
the  river  to  its  present  site.  It  is  the  seat 
of  the  Roman  Catholic  mission  of  St  Peter 
Claver,  and  contained  168  inhabitants  in 
1880,  118  in  1890. 

Halatos.— Schwatka,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  101,  1885. 
Noulato. — Zagoskin  in  Nouv.  Ann.  Voy.,  5th  s., 
xxi,  map,  1850.  Nulato. — Zagoskin,  Descr.  Rnss. 
Poss.  Am.,  map,  1842.  Nula'to-kho-tan'a.— Dall  in 
Cont.  X.  A.  Ethnol.,  I,  26,  1877. 

Nulatok.  A  Togiagamiut  Eskimo  village 
on  Togiak  r.,  Alaska;  pop.  211  in  1880. 

Nulahtuk.— Petroff,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  49,  1881. 
Nulatok.— Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  17, 1884. 

Nulkreh.  The  Nulaautin  village  'on 
Sbolke  lake,  s.  of  Nechaco  r.,  Brit.  Col. — 
Morice  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  x,  109, 

Nuloktolok.  A  Kaialigmiut  Eskimo 
,-illage  on  the  s.  side  of  Nelson  id., 
Uaska;  pop.  25  in  1880. 

Tulakhtolagamute. — Petroff,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  54, 
881.  Nuloktolgamute.— Nelson  (1878)  quoted  by 
teker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  474, 1906.  Nuloktolok.— 
Jaker,  ibid.  Nulukhtulogumut.— Nelson  in  18th 
lep.  B.  A.  E.,  pi.  n,  23,  1899. 

Num  (Num).  The  Earth  or  Sand  clan  of 
he  Tigua  pueblo  of  Isleta,  N.  Mex. 

famtamin. — Gatschet,  Isleta  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E., 
385.  Num-t'ai'nin.— Lummis  quoted  by  Hodge 
lAm.  Anthrop.,ix,  350,  1896  (f«m'm  =  '  people'). 
Numaltachi.  A  village  formerly  on  Tu- 
lumne  r.,  Tuolumne  co.,  Cal.  Judg- 
ig  from  its  geographic  position,  it  was 
robably  Moquelumnan. 
'ul-lat-te-co. — Johnson  in  Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, 
\  407,  1854  (probably  identical).  Mumaltachi.— 

Latham  in  Trans.  Philol.  Soc.  Loud.,  si,  is5t;.  Nu- 
mal-tachee. — Johnson,  op.  cit. 

yfuma,,  'they  go 
by  the  name  of  the' fish').  A  phratryof 
the  Sank  and  Eoxes,  including  the  Stur 
geon,  Bass,  and  Ocean  gentes;  also  the 
name  of  the  Sturgeon  gens  of  this  phra- 

try-  „  (w.  j.) 

Na-ma-we'-so-uk. — Morgan.  Anc.  Soc.,  170,  1*77 
(the  gens).  Namawisowag'1. — \\'m.  Jones,  inf'n 
1900  (the  phratfyand  the  gens). 

Numeral  systems.     See  ('omitiny. 

Numguelgar.  A  former  Chiinmshan 
village  near  Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — Ban 
croft,"  Xat.  Paces,  i,  45*),  1S74. 

Nummuk  ( '  western  ' ).  A  Wintun  tribe 
that  formerly  lived  on  Ruin  r.,  a  tribu 
tary  of  Cottomvood  r.,  Shasta  co.,  Cal. 
Nommuk. — Powell  in  7th  Rep.  15.  A.  K..  70,  1S91. 
Num'-mok.— Powers  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Kthnol.,  in,  2m 

Numpali.  A  former  division  of  the 
Olamentke  that  probably  resided  not  far 
from  the  Olumpali  of  Marin  co.,  Cal. 

Noumpolis. — Choris,  Voy.  Pitt.,  fi,  Is22.  Numpali. — 
Chamisso  in  Kotzebue,  Voy.,  in,  ">1,  isiM. 

Nun  (A'fm).  The  name  of  an  ancestor 
of  one  of  the  Koskimo  gentes,  sometimes 
applied  to  the  gens  itself. — Boas  in  Peter- 
maims  Mitt.,  pt.  ">,  ].'!1,  1SS7. 

Nuna  ( 'land' ).  A Xunatogmiut  Eskimo 
village  at  Pt  Hope,  Alaska;  pop.  74  in 
1 880." 

Noo-na.— Dall  in  Cont.  X.  A.  Kthnol.,  I,  11,  1*77. 
Noona-agamute. — Petroll'  in  loth  Census,  Alaska, 4, 

Nunaikak.  An  Ikogmiut  Eskimo  vil 
lage  opposite  Koserefski,  on  the  lower 
Yukon,  Alaska;  perhaps  identical  with 

Nunaikagumute. — Raymond  in  Sen.  K\.  Doe.  12, 
42d  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  25,  Is71. 

Nunakitit.  The  northernmost  village  of 
the  Angmagsalingniiut',  on  an  islet  at  the 
entrance  of  Sermiligak  fjord,  Greenland, 
in  lat.  65°  o.'K;  pop.  14  in  1884.— Med- 
delelser  om  Gronland,  AXVII,  22,  1902. 

Nunaktak.    An  Ikogmiut  Kskimovillage 
above  Anvik,  on  Yukon  r.,  Alaska. 
Nunakhtagamute.— Nelson  (187S)  quoted  by  Baker, 
Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  1902.    Nunaktak.— Baker, ibid. 

Nunaktuau  ( Nuna' kluaii}.  An  Utkiavi- 
mint  Eskimo  summer  village  close  to 
Refuge  inlet,  Alaska.— Murdoch  in  9th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  8:5,  1S92. 

Nunamiut.      A  Kaniagmiut  Eskimo  yil- 
la«'e  on  Three  Saints  harbor,  Kodiak  id., 
Alaska;  pop.  160  in  1880,  8t>  in  1890. 
Nuniagmjut.— Holmberg,  Ethnog.  Ski//.,  map,  1 12, 
1S55       Nunochogamute.— Pet  roll'   in    10th    Census 
Alaska,  11,  1SSI.     Old  Harbor.-Ibid..  1  >.     Starui 
gavan.— Eleventh  Census,  Alaska,   11,  LS 
harbor':  Russian  name). 

Nunapithlugak.  A  Chnagmiut  Eskimo 
village  in  the  Yukon  delta,  on  the  right 
bank  of  Apoon  ]>ass,  Alaska. 

Fort  Hamilton.-Haker,  Geog.    Diet    Alas ka    1W 
Nonapeklowak.— Co:»t  Survey  quoted  hy  Baker, 
ibid.,  262,  1 '.««.;.    Nunapithlugak.— Ibid.    Old  Fort 
Hamilton. — Ibid. 

Nunaria.     A  deserted  Eskimo  village «» 
the  Sidarumiut  near  Pt  Belcher,  Alask 
the     occupants    of      which      moved 

3456— Bull.  30,  pt  2—0- 


[B.  A. 

Sedaru. —  Murdoch  in  9th  Uep.  B.  A.  K., 
44,  1S92. 

Nunarsuak.  An  Kskiino  settlement  in 
s.  i:.  Greenland,  lat.  6l)0  43'. —  Xansen, 
First  of  Greenland,  i,  389,  1S90. 

Nunatak.  '  A  crest  or  ridge  of  rock  ap 
pearing  above  the  surface  of  the  inland 
ice  in  Greenland'— Century  Dictionary. 
From  the  Kskiino  language,  in  which  the 
word  has  the  same  form.  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Nunatarsuak.     An   Eskimo   settlement 
in  \v.  Greenland,  near  Ameralik  fjord. 
Nunatarsuak.— Nansen.  First   Crossing  of  Green 
land,    II,    430,    1890.      Nunatochsoak.— Peary,    My 
Arctic  Jour..  1S8, 1893. 

Nunatogmiut  (  'mountain  people').  An 
Kskiino  tribe  inhabiting  the  banks  of 
Xoatak  r.,  Alaska,  who  formerly  ranged 
theinterior  as  farasColville  r.,  and  estab 
lished  settlements  on  the  Arctic  coast. 
They  subsisted  by  hunting  ptarmigan, 
reindeer,  and  mountain  sheep,  and  fishing 
in  the  mountain  streams.  The  coast  they 
visited  only  in  summer  to  sell  the  furs  they 
had  trapped.  They  were  a  tall,  vigorous, 
rugged  people  of  remarkably  fine  phy 
sique.  The  tribe  proper  had  42  members 
in  1S90,  while  Pall  in  1875  estimated  them 
at  300.  Their  villages  are  or  were  Aniyak, 
I pnot,  Nigaluk,  Xoatak,  Nuna,  Shina- 
grua,  and  Tiki/at. 

Noatagamutes. — Elliott,  Our  Arctic  Prov..  map, 
ISM;.  Nooatoka  Mutes. — Kelly,  Arctic  Eskimos, 
chart.  IXtO  ctiinl-er  people').  Nooatoks.— Ibid., 
1-1.  Noonitagmioots. — Stone  in  Bull.  Am.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.,  xni.  3f>,  1900.  Noyatagameuts.— Hooper, 
Cruise  of  Cnnviu,  'J6,  1880.  Nunatagmut. — Nelson 
in  1Mb  Rep.  15.  A.  K.,  map,  1*99.  Nuna-tangme- 
un. — Kiclianlson,  Polar  Regions,  300,  1861.  Nuna- 
tahmiun. — Murdoch  in  9th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  44,  1892. 
Nunato'g-mut.— Dall  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  I,  11. 
is".  Nuna-tun'g-meun.  —  Simpson  quoted  by 
Dull.  ibid. 

Nundawao  ( 'great  hill.' — Morgan).  An 
ancient  Seneca  town  near  Naples,  at  the 
head  of  Canandaigua  lake,  Ontario  co., 
X.  V.  The  name  would  seem  to  make  it 
identical  with  the  ancient  Seneca  town 
known  to  the  French  as  Tsonnontouan. 
Conover,  however,  thinks  the  latter  was 
identical  with  Totiakto(q.  v.),  near  Men- 
don,  ( hitario  co. 

Nun'-da-wa-o. — Morgan.  League  Iroq..  (1,  18.r>l. 
Onondowa'.— .!.  N.  B.  Hewitt,  iufn.  1889  (correct 
Seneca  form).  Tenaoutoua. — Charlevoix  (1744), 
New  France,  in,  r_>2,  isr>6.  Tsonnontouan.— For 
lorms,  see  .SVnmj. 

Nunemasekalis  (Nu'nEinEOSfjdlis,  'old 
t'rom  the  beginning').  A  gens,  of  the 
Tlauitsis,  a  Kwakiutl  tribe. 
Nunemasek-a'lis.—  \',<r.\<  in  (iih  Kep.  X.  \V.  Tribes 
Can.,  r.l,  1X1)0.  Nu'nKmasKqalis.— Koas  in  Rep 
Nat.  Mus.  IKK"),  330,  1897. 

f  Nung.  The  Karth  or  Sand  clan  of  the 
Tewaof  llano  pueblo,  Ari/ona.  Its  mem 
bers  numbered  12  in  IS').0,.  (,'f.  Xanri. 
Hue  klic.— stcplien  in  Hh  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  39  1891 
(Navahonarnc).  Nan.— Fewkesin  Am.  Anthrop., 
vii,  166,  ix-.ti  (Tewa  name;.  Kun.— Stephen,  op. 
(Town  name).  Tcu'-kai.— Ibid.  (Hopi  name)' 

Nuniliak.  A  Kaniagmiut  summer  vil 
lage  on  the  s.  w.  shore  of  Afognak  id., 

Malinovskie  lietnik.  — Murasbef  (]«:{'.))  <niote<l  b\ 
Maker,  (Jeog.  |,i,.,.  Alaska,  .17:,,  1906  ('raspberry 

summer  village':  Russian  name).  Nunalik. — 
Tebenkof  quoted  by  Baker,  ibid.  Nuniliak.— 
Ibid,  (native  name). 

Nunivagmiut.  A  tribe  of  Kskiino  in 
Alaska,  occupying  the  main  part  of  Xu- 
nivakjd.  and' a  small  district  about  C. 
Vancouver  on  the  mainland.  They  are 
a  trading  people;  polygamy  is  rare;  the 
women  are  not  fruitful  and  fade  early; 
children  are  taught  to  work,  and  a  youth 
is  not  considered  a  man  until  he  has 
killed  a  deer,  a  wolf,  or  a  beluga.  The 
kaiak  frames  are  fitted  with  the  nicest 
skill  and  covered  with  the  skins  of  the 
great  niaklak  seal.  Kvery  boy  from  the 
age  of  10  has  his  own  kaiak,  and  many 
maidens  and  widows  have  theirs.  They 
make  sealskin  lines  to  barter  with  their 
neighbors  on  the  continent.  The  tribe 
numbered  702  in  1890.  The  villages  are 
Chulik,  Inger,  Root,  Kwik,  and  Tanunak. 
Nunivagmut.— Nelson  in  18th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,map, 
1899.  Nunivagmute.  —  Petroff  in  10th  Census, 
Alaska,  126,  1884.  Nunivak  people.— Worman 
quoted  by  Ball  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  I,  18,  1877. 

Nunkom.  A  term  in  local  use  in  Massa 
chusetts  in  the  youth  of  Rev.  Kdward 
Everett  Hale  (according  to  his  statement 
at  a  meeting  of  the  American  Antiquarian 
Society,  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  Oct.  21, 
190,'!),  in  the  sense  of  'boy.'  From  inm- 
l-omp  (Trumbull,  Natick  Diet.,  96,  228, 
233,  1903),  'a  young  man',  'a boy',  in  the 
Massachuset  dialect.  (A',  r.  r.) 

Nuimahidihi.     See  Path  Killer. 

Nunnepoag.  A  village,  probably  of  the 
Wampanoag,  on  Marthas  Vineyard, Mass., 
in  1(>98,  containing  about  84  inhabitants. 
Numpang.— Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  2, 118,  1848.  Nun 
nepoag. — Rawson  and  Danforth  (1698)  in  Mass. 
Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  x,  131,  1809. 

Nunni    ('fish').      A   clan   of   the    Koi 
phratry  of  the  Chickasaw. 
Nanni.— Morgan   misquoted   by  Gatschet,  Creek 
Migr.Leg.,  1,96.1884.    Nun-ni.— Morgan,  Ano.  Soc., 
1(53,  1877. 

Nunochok.  A  Magemiut  Eskimo  vil 
lage  in  the  Big  Lake  region,  Alaska;  pop. 
40' in  1880,  135  in  1890. 

Nunachanaghamiut,— Eleventh  Census,  Alaska, 
111,  1893.  Nunachara  gamut.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet. 
Alaska,  475, 1906  (quoted from).  Nunachogumut. — 
Nelson  in  18th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  map.  1899.  Nunoch- 
ogamute. — Tenth  Census,  Alaska,  11,  1884.  Nuno 
chok.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  475,  1906. 

Nuntaneuck.  An  unidentified  tribe,  but 
possibly  Siouan,  mentioned  by  Lederer 
(Discov.,  2,  1672)  as  speaking  the  com 
mon  language  of  the  Monacan,  Nahyssan, 
Saponi,  and  others,  and  as  having  occu 
pied  the  piedmont  country  of  Virginia- 
Carolina  jointly  with  those  tribes  after  the 
extinction  of  the  Tacci. 
Nuntaly. — Lederer,  op.  cit. 

Nununyi  ( XnniYTtyl, '  wild-potato  place,' 
from  inmu  'wild  potato').  A  former 
Cherokee  settlement,  sometimes  known 
as  Potato  Town,  on  Oconaluftee  r.,  near 
the  present  Cherokee,  Swain  co.,  N.  C. 
A  large  mound  marks  the  site.  (.r.  M.  ) 
Nuanha.— Hart  ram,  Travels,  371,  1792. 

Nunvogulukhluguk  ('big  lake').  An 
Kskimo  village  of  the  Kaialigamiut  in  the 

BULL.  ,30] 



Big  Lake  region,  Alaska.  —  Nelson  in  18th 
Rep.  B.  A.  K,  map,  1899. 

Nuokan.  A  Yuit  Eskimo  village  at 
East  cape,  Siberia. 

Nukan.—  Humboldt,  New  Spain,  n,  344,  1822.  Nu 
okan.—  Krause  in  Deutsche  Geog.  Bliitt.,  v,  80, 
map,  1882. 

Nuquiage.  A  Cay  uga  village  in  1750  at 
the  N.  E.  corner  of  Seneca  lake,  on  the  out 
let,  in  Seneca  co.,  N.  Y. 

Nuqiage.  —  Conover,  Kan.  and  Geneva  MS.,B.  A.  E. 
Nuquiage.  —  Cammerhoff  (1750)  quoted  byConover, 

Nurata.  A  settlement  of  the  Sikosuil- 
armiut,  E.  of  King  cape,  Baffin  land.  — 
Boas  in  6th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  421,  1888. 

Nuri.  A  pueblo  of  the  Nevome  and 
seat  of  a  Spanish  mission  founded  in  1622; 
situated  on  a  tributary  of  the  Rio  Yaqui, 
lat.  28°,  Ion.  109°,  Sonora,  Mex.  Pop. 
180  in  1678,  41  in  1730.  The  inhabitants, 
also  called  Nuri  or  Nure,  probably  spoke  a 
dialect  slightly  different  from  the  Nevome 

Nures.—  Orozco  y  Berra.  Geog.,  351,1864  ("habita- 
dores  del  pueblo  de  Nuri  "  )  .  Nuri.—  Rivera  (1780) 

quoted  by  Bancroft,  No.  Mex.  States,  i,  514,  1884. 
S.  Joaquin  y  Sta  Ana  (N 
by  Bancroft,  ibid.,  246. 

,        .          .  ,    ,        ,         . 

quin  y  Sta  Ana  (Nuri  j.  —  Zapata  (.1678)  quoted 

Nursoorooka.  A  Tuscarora  village  in 
North  Carolina  in  1701.  Johnson,  a 
Tuscarora,  thinks  the  word  may  be  from 
Xasurakie,  'where  there  are  wild  pars 
nips';  Hewitt  thinks  the  termination 
ooka  refers  to  a  fork  of  a  stream. 

Nursoorooka.  —  Lawson  (1709),  North  Carolina, 
383,  I860.  Nyu'-sa-ru'-kan.—  Hewitt,  inf'ii,  1886 
(Tuscarora  form). 

Nusatsem  (Nusa'tsEm}.  A  Bellacoola 
settlement  at  the  j  unction  of  Nusatsem  and 
Bellacoola  rs.,  Brit.  Col.  —  Boas  in  Mem. 
Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist,  n,  49,  1898. 

Nusehtsatl.  A  division  of  Salish  for 
merly  around  South  bay  (Henderson  in 
let),  Wash.,  now  on  Nisqualli  res.  Pop. 
30  in  1879. 

Noo-seh-chatl.—  Stevens  in  Ind.  AfT.  Rep.,  458,  1854. 
Nov-seh-chatl.—  Gibbs  in  I'ac.  R.  R.  Rep.,  I,  435, 
1855.  Nusehtsatl.—  Gibbs  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol..  i, 
178,  1377.  South  Bay.—  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  242,  1879. 

Nushagagmiut.  An  Eskimo  tribe  of 
Alaska,  inhabiting  the  banks  of  Igushik, 
Wood,  and  Nushagak  rs.  and  the  shores 
of  Nushagak  bay.  Their  villages  are 
near  together  and  have  large  structures  in 
which  great  festivals  are  held.  Women 
as  well  as  men  perform  in  the  masques. 
The  men  are  skilful  hunters  and  good 
ivory  carvers.  In  the  interior  they  build 
comfortable  houses  of  wood  and  use 
birchbark  canoes.  The  tribe  numbered 
170  in  1890.  The  villages  are:  Agivavik, 
Agulukpuk,  Akak,  Akuliukpak,  Akuli- 
nkchuk,  Anagnak,  Angnovchak,  Annu- 
^amok,  Ekuk,  Golok,  Igivachok,  Igushik, 
[nsiachak,  Kakuak,  Kalignak,  Kanaka- 
lak,  Kanulik,  Mulchatna,  Napai,  Nusha 
gak,  Stugarok,  Tikchik,Trinichak,Yuikh- 
ulik,  and  Yaoherk. 

fushagagmut.—  Rink,  Eskimo  Tribes,  32,  1887. 
fushegagmut.—  Nelson  in  18th  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  map, 
899.  Nushergagmutes.—  Dall  in  J'roc.  A.  A.  A. 

.,  267,  1869. 

Nushagak.     A    Nushagagmiut  , 

Russian  Orthodox  mission,  and  trading 
post  at  the  mouth  of  Nushagak  r., 
Alaska.  The  redoubt  and  trade  station 
of  Alexandrovsk  was  founded  then'  by 
Alexander  Baranof  in  Is  19,  and  the  Mo 
ravian  mission  of  Carmel  was  established 
by  Americans  in  1886  at  Kanulik,  1^  m. 
above.  Pop.  178  in  1S80,  268  in  ISM), 
excluding  Bradford  (pop.  K>t>),  Carmel 
(pop.  189),  and  MillertoM  (pop.  165);  in 
cluding  these,  788  in  1900. 
Meshagak.— Baker,  Geog.  Diet.  Alaska  47(1  1906 
(quoted  form).  Nushagak.— Ibid,  (proper  form). 
Nushegak.— 1'etroir,  Rep.  on  Alaska,  4(1.  ]sxi. 

Nushaltkagakni  ('spring  people'). 
A  division  of  the  Modoc  at  the  head 
waters  of  Lost  r.,  s.  w.  Greg.,  near  Bo- 

Nushaltxagakni. — Gatschet  in  Cont.  X.  A.  Kthnol., 
n,  pt.  I,  xxxv,  1890.  Spring-people. — Ibid. 

Nushekaayi  ('people  back  of  the  fort'). 
A  Tlingit  division  among  the  Chilkat,  be 
longing  to  the  Raven  clan.  They  are  said 
to  be  closely  related  to  the  Hlukahadi. 

Nucekaa'yi. — Swanton,  field  notes,  B.  A.  K.,  I'.'Ol. 
Nusche-kaari. — Krause,  Tlinkit  Ind.,  11(1,  I,\s5. 

Nushemouck.  An  Algonquian  village  in 
1608  about  the  mouth  of  Xanjemoy  cr., 
Charles  co.,  Md.—  Smith  (1629),  Ya.,  i, 
map,  repr.  1819. 

Nuskek  ('ij!).  A  Bellacoola  town 
on  North  Bentinck  arm,  Brit.  Col. — Boas 
in  Mem.  Am. Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n,  48, 189S. 

Nuskelst  ( Xusq.'K'lxt ) .  A  Bellan ><  >la  vil 
lage  on  Bellacoola  r.  above  Tskoakkane, 
Brit.  Col.  The  people  of  this  place  were 
subdivided  into  3  gentes,  2  of  which  were 
called  Tlakaumoot  and  Kookotlane. 

Nu'sk-'Elst.— Boas  in  7th  Rep.  N.  \V.  Tribes  Can., 
3,1891.  Nusk-'E'lstEmH.— Ibid.  (-£»zA= 'people'). 
NusqlF/lst.— Boas  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist., 
II,  49,  189S. 

Nussamek.  A  village,  probably  Algon- 
(juian,  on  Potomac  r.,  about  Doncaster, 
Charles  co. ,  Md. ,  in  1 608.  1 1  was  leagued 
with  the  Nacotchtank  and  Moyawance  in 
a  war  against  the  Potomac. 

Nazatica.— Smith  (1(129),  Ya.,  II,  8(1,  repr.  1M9. 
Nussamek. — Ibid.,  I, map.  Pazaticans. — Ibid.,  II.  78. 

Nutltleik  (  XniM~'tj).  A  Bellacoola  vil 
lage  on  Bellacoola  r.  above  Nuskelst,  Brit. 

NuLi.e'ix  —Boas  in  Mem.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n, 
49,189s.  Nutltle'iq.— Boas  in  7th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes 
Can. ,3, 1891. 

Nutnur.  A  former  village  of  the  Kalin- 
daruk  division  of  the  Costanoan  family 
of  California,— Taylor  in  Cal.  1-anner, 
Apr.  20,  1860. 

Nutonto.  A  former  Chumashan  village 
near  Santa  Inez  mission,  Santa  Barbara 
co.,  Cal.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Ivinncr,  Oct.  IS, 

Nutqiu     (Nu'tqiu,     'warriors' 
nn'taq).      The    warrior    organization    of 
the  Cheyenne  (q.  v.),  consisting  of  <»  «»r 
more  societies. 

Nutrecho.  Mentioned  as  a  tribe,  seem 
ingly  Moquelumman,  formerly  on  Fresno 



,.  Cal.__\\Y>sells  in  II.  R.  Kx.  Doc.  7H, 
:>4th  Cong.,  3d  sess.,  150,  1857. 

Nutria  (Span.:  'otter';  also  L«#  Af- 
//•/</>•,  'theotters'  ;  native  name  Td'uiku'in, 
'seed  (corn)  place,'  or  'planting  place'). 
A  '/Aim  farming  village  at  the  headwaters 
of  an  upper  branch  ot'/nni  r.,  about  23  in. 
N.  K.  of  Zuni,  Valencia  co.,  X.  Mex.;  occu 
pied  only  during  the  season  of  planting 
ami  harvesting  except  by  one  or  two  fami 
lies.  In  the  vicinity  there  are  prehis 
toric  ruins,  also  popularly  known  by  the 
same  name.  For  plan  and  description 
of  the  pueblo,  see  Mindeleff  in  8th  Rep. 
B.  A.  K.,  D4,  1891. 

Natrias.— Loe\v  in  Ann.  Rep.  Wheeler  Sury.,app. 
1. 1.,  ITS.  I,s7")  (misprint ).  Neutrias. — Klett  in  Pop. 
Sri.  M<>..  f>ss.  Sept.  ISTI.  Nutria. — Common  map 
form  also  Las  Nutrias  i.  Ta'-ia-kwe.— Gushing  in 
Mill>toiic.  ix..V>,  Apr.  1SM  (•  people  of  the  planting 
town':  Xuni  namei.  Tai'-ya.— Ibid. ,225,  Dec.  1884. 
Tola.— Fewkes  in  Jour.  Am.  Eth.and  Areh.,i,  100, 
Is'.U  (probably  identical).  To-ya. — Bandelier  in 
Revne  d'  Ethnog.,  202.  issti.  To-y-a.— Bandelier 
in  Arch.  lust.  Papers,  iv.  310,  1S92. 

Nutun  (XutiYn).  An  Ita  Eskimo  set 
tlement  on  the  s.  shore  of  Jngleiield  gulf, 
x.  (ireenland. — Stein  in  Petermanns 
Mitt.,  no.  9,  map,  1902. 

Nutunutu.  A  Y«  ikuts  (Mariposan)  tribe 
formerly  living  on  lower  Kings  r. ,  Cal. 
They  \\ereon  the  Fresno  reserve  in  1861, 
and  with  the  AVimilchi  numbered  180. 
Subsei|iiently  they  were  almost  extermi 
nated  by  white  settlers,  but  two  or  three 
Nutunutu  survive  among  neighboring 
tribes.  The  name  is  also  pronounced 
Xntuntu,  and  in  the  plural  is  Nutantisha. 
Mon-to-tos.— Wessells  i  ls.V>)  in  II.  K.  Kx.  Doc.  7(5, 
3ith  3d  sess.,  32.  1X57  (probably  identical). 
Na-too'-na-ta. — Merriamin  Science,  xix,  916,  1904 
i  or.  N:'i -tooii'a-t.-i  I.  No-toan'-ai-ti. — Powers  inCont. 
N.  A.Etlmol.,  in. 370. 1*77.  Notonatos.— Bancroft, 
Nat.  Races,  i,  4 .">(-;,  Is71.  No-ton-no-tos. — Johnston 
•  KM  i  in  Sen.  Kx.  Doc.  ill,  ;>/_><!  Cong-.,  1st  sess.,  23, 
K~>2  (mentioned as  distinct  from  No-ton-toos, but 
apparently  the snnic  i.  No-to-no-tos.— McKee et  al. 
in  Ind.  AiT.Kep.,223,  1S51.  No-ton-toos.— Johnston, 
op.  cit.,  -_"J  (see  Notonnotosi.  Notoowthas.— Hen 
ley  in  ind.  All'.  Rep., 511,  ls:,i.  Notototens.— Tay 
lor  Fanner.  June  22,  1S60.  No-tow-too.— 
Harbonr  (1S52)  in  Sen.  K\.  Doc.  4,  32d,  spec. 
.  'J.i I,  Is.i:!.  Nutonetoos. — 'I'aylor  in  Cal.  Far 
mer.  Junes.  IN;O.  Nutuntu.— A.  L.Kroeber,  inf'n, 
I'.»o6.  Nutunutu.— Krocbrr  in  t'niv.  Cal.  Pnb  Am 
Archa-ol.  and  Kthno].,  n,  :;t',0,  1907. 

Nutzotin.  A  band  of  the  Tenankutcliin 
li\  ing  near  the  headwaters  of  Tanana  r., 
Alaska.  They  occupy  the  villages  of  Nan- 
dell  and  Tetling.— Allen,  Hei).  on  Alaska 
]:;<",  l.ssr. 

Nuvujalung.  A  fall  settlement  of  Talir- 
pingmiut  (>koiniut  Mskimo,  on  the  s.  w. 
shore  of  ( 'uml.erlaud  sd.,  P.allin  land.— 
Boas  intith  Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  map,  bsss. 

Nuvujen  ('the  capes').      An    Okomiut 

;kimo  winter  village  of  the  Talirping- 
miut  on  the  w.  shore  of  ( 'umberland  s<C; 
I'o|..  IT,  in  |  ss:;. 

Newbpyant.—K  urn  lien  in   Bull.  Nat.  Mus     no   15 
.    Nuvujen.— Boas  in  c,th  It.-]..  B.  A.K.,42(>| 

Nuvuktualung.  A  summer  village  of 
th.-  Xnguniint  I'lskimo  «,n  Krobisher  bay, 

s.  E.  BatHn  land.  —  l>oas  in  (5th  Rep. 
B.  A.  K.,map,  1888. 

Nuvung.  An  Aivilirmint  Eskimo  win 
ter  village  on  Melville  penin.,  N.  K.  of  the 
entrance  to  Lyon  inlet. 

Noowook. — Lyons,  Priv.  Jour.,  345, 1S24.  Nuvuk. — 
Boas  in  Bull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  xv,  6,  1901. 
Nuvukdjuaq. — Boas  in  6th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  map,  188s. 
Nuvung.— Ibid.,  449. 

Nuwuak.  A  Kanginaligmiut  Eskimo 
village  at  Manning  pt,  Alaska. — Dall  in 
Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  i,  map,  1877. 

Nuwuk  ('i)oint').  The  principal  vil 
lage  of  the  Nuwnkmiut  at  Pt  Barrow, 
Alaska.  Pop.,  according  to  Dr  Simpson, 
309  in  1853;  according  to  Petroff,  200  in 
1880;  according  to  Murdoch,  150  or  160 
in  1883;  according  to  Kelly,  less  than  100 
in  1890;  152  in  1900,  including  Ongove- 
henok,  a  winter  village  on  Kugrua  r.,  and 
the  refuge  and  whaling  station. 
Kokmullit.— Petroff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  map, 
1884  (corrupted  from  Kunmndlin,  '  distant  ones', 
used  by  the  Eskimo  of  Norton  sd.).  Noowoo. — 
Kelly,  Arct. Eskimos,  14, 1890.  Noo'wooh.— Baker, 
Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  476,  1906  (quoted  form). 
Noowook.— U.  S.  Coast  Surv.  map,  1898.  Nuwuk.— 
Murdoch  in  9th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  43.  1892. 

Nuwukmiut  ('people  of  the  point'). 
An  Eskimo  tribe  of  Pt  Barrow,  Alaska. 
They  belong  in  race  and  language  to  the 
pure  Eskimo  stock,  and  are  small  in  stat 
ure,  robust  and  muscular,  with  full  faces, 
spare  bodies,  shapely  hands  and  feet,  low, 
broad  foreheads,  narrowing  toward  the 
crown;  short,  broad  noses,  high  cheek 
bones,  full  lips,  especially  the  under  one; 
cheeks  often  ruddy,  and  a  skin  of  yel 
lowish  brown,  varying  in  some  to  a  bru 
nette  almost  European,  in  some  to  a 
coppery  hue.  Their  eyes  are  brown,  of 
various  shades,  often  bright  and  hand 
some.  The  hair  is  black,  perfectly 
straight,  and  thick,  but  short;  beards 
scanty.  They  are  not  prolific,  and  are 
dying  out.  Gray  hair  is  uncommon,  but 
wrinkles  appear* early.  The  large,  regu 
lar  teeth  are  worn  away  by  the  various 
uses  to  which  the  Eskimo  put  them,  and 
few  of  either  sex  reach  the  age  of  60. 
Pop.  43  in  1900.  Their  villages  are 
Jsutkwa,  Nuwuk,  Pernyu,  Ongovehenok, 
and  Sinaru. 

Kokmalect.— Kelly,  Arct.  Eskimos,  14,  1890  (given 
as  the  name  of  the  old  Eskimo  dialect  of  the 
Aretie  coast  tribes  from  Icy  cape  to  Pt  Barrow). 
Noowoo  Mutes. — Kelly,  ibid.,  chart.  Nugumut.— 
Zagoskin,  Descr.  Kuss.  POSH",  in  Am.,  I,  74,  1847. 
Nuwukmut.— Dall  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  i,  11, 
1*77.  Nuwung-me-un. —  Richardson,  Polar  Re 
gions.  300,  1861.  Nuwu'nmiun. — Murdoch  in  9th 
Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  i3,  1,S!»2. 

Nyack  (Xa lay,  'point',  'corner').  A 
former  village,  probably  of  the  Unaini 
division  of  the  Delaware^,  on  the  w.  bank 
of  Hudson  r.  about  the  present  Nyack, 
inRockland  co.,  N.  Y.  The  tract  was  sold 
and  the  Indians  were  removed  in  1652. 
Naiack.— Sehoolcraft  in  Proc.  X.  Y.  Hist.  Soc.,  107, 
1844.  Naieck.— Doc.ofl652inN.-Y.DOC.  Col.  Hist, 
xiv.  T.tO,  18s:5.  Najack.— Doc.  of  1660,  ibid.,  XIII, 
167,  issi.  Najeck.— Treaty  of  1660,  ibid.,  148. 
Najeek.— Doc.  of  16">6,  ibid".,  xiv,  365,  1883.  Nay- 

BULL.  30] 



ack.— Deed  of  1657,  ibid.,  394.  Nayeck.— Treat  v 
of  1645,  ibid.,  xui,  IS,  1881.  Neyick.— Doc.  of  1649, 
ibid.,  25.  Nyacks.— Clark,  Onondaga,  i,  18,  1843. 
Nyeck.— Treaty  of  1645  quoted  by  Ruttenber, 
Tribes  Hudson  R.,  118,  1872. 

Nyack.  A  settlement  in  1680,  presum 
ably  of  the  Canarsee,  about  the  present 
site  of  Ft  Hamilton,  Kings  co.,  w.  Long 
id.,  N.  Y.  At  a  later  period  the  occu 
pants  removed  to  Staten  id. ,  near  by.  See 
Ruttenber,  Ind.  Geog.  Names,  92/1906. 

Nyhatta.  An  unidentified  tribe  of  Lou 
isiana,  apparently  populous,  met  three 
days'  journey  up  Tassenocogoula  (Red)  r. 
from  the  Huma  village  in  1699. — Iberville 
in  Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  179,  1880. 

Ny  Herrnhut.  An  Eskimo  settlement 
and  German  Moravian  missionary  post 
near  Godthaab  on  the  w.  coast  of  Green 

New  Hernhut. — Kane.  Arct.  Explor.,  I,  453,  1856. 
New  Herrnhut  —Thompson,  Moravian  Miss.,  203, 
1886.  Ny  Herrnhut. — Nansen,  First  Crossing,  u, 
172,  1890. 

Nyhougoulas.  One  of  the  7  Taensa  vil 
lages  in  the  17th  century. — Iberville  (1699) 
in  Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  179,  1880. 

Nyuchirhaan  ( '  openings ' ) .  The  pres 
ent  Tuscarora  village  near  Lewiston, 
Niagara  co.,  N.  Y.  (j.  x.  K.  H.) 

Ga-a-no'-ga. — Morgan,  League Iroq.,  428,  1851  ('on 
the  mountains':  Seneca  name).  Ga'-a-no-geh.— 
Ibid.,  469.  Ga-a-non-ge'.— J.  N.  B.  Hewitt,  inf'n, 
1886  (Seneca  form).  Ga-o-no'-geh.— Morgan,  op. 
cit.,  432.  Nyu-tcir-ha"an.— Hewitt,  inf'n,  1886  (Tus 
carora  name;  tc=ch}. 

Nzatzahatko  (N*  zatzahatko,  'clear 
water' ).  A  village  of  the  Ntlakvapamuk 
on  Fraser  r. ,  Brit.  Col.,  just  below  Cisco. — 
Hill-Tout  in  Rep.  Ethnol.  Surv.  Can.,  5, 

Oahgwadaiya  (Hot  Bread).  A  Seneca 
chief  who  signed  the  deed  to  the  Tusca 
rora,  Mar.  30,  1808,  being  then  called 
Captain  Hot  Bread.  The  name  of  another 
Hot  Bread  appears  on  this  deed.  Oah- 
gwadaiya  was  short  and  dark,  a  leading 
man  and  orator,  and  was  chief  of  a  village 
opposite  Avon,  N.  Y.,  in  1790,  when  he 
was  called  Gwakwadia.  In  1797  his  name 
appears  as  Ahquatieya.  He  died  of 
smallpox.  (w.  M.  B.) 

Oakfuskee.  A  former  Upper  Creek  town 
on  both  sides  of  Tallapoosa  r.,  Ala.,  about 
35  m.  above  Tukabatchi,  possibly  on  the  s. 
boundary  of  Cleburne  co.,  where  a  village 
of  the  same  name  now  stands.  The  Oak- 
fufekee  Indians  on  the  E.  bank  of  the  river 
came  from  3  villages:  Chihlakonini,  Hu- 
hlitaiga,  and  Chukahlako.  In  1799  Oak 
fuskee,  with  its  180  warriors  and  7  branch 
villages  on  the  Tallapoosa  (with  270  war 
riors) ,  was  considered  the  largest  commu 
nity  of  the  Creek  confederacy.  The  7 
villages  wrere  Atchinaalgi,  Imukfa,  Ipi- 
sogi,  Niuyaka,  Sukaispoka,  Tallahassee, 
Tukabatchi,  and  Tukhtukagi.  (A.  s.  G.  ) 

Akfaski.-Gatsehet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I.  139.  1884; 
II,  185,  1888.  Lower  Oakfuske.—  Bartram,  Trav., 
461,  1791.  Oakbusky.— Finnclson  (1792)  in  Am. 
State  Pap.,  Ind.  Aff.,  I,  289,  1832  (misprint). 
Oakfuskies.— Durouzeaux  (1792),  ibid.,  312.  Oak- 

fusky.— Flint,  Ind.  Wars,  202, 1X33.  Oakiuskees 
Niles  (1-760)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Coll.,  4th  s  v  555  IN;I 
Oakpuskee.— U.  S.  Ind.  Treat.  (1827),  420  '  1837' 
Oc-fus-kee.— Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch,  45'  1*48' 
Ockfuskee.— Jefferys,  Am.  Atlas,  map  5  1776  Oek' 
fusaet.-Lattre,  map  U.  S.,  178-1.  Okfuskl-Gat- 
schet.  Creek  Migr.Leg.,  i,  139, 1884;  u.  1x5  iwx 
Ok-whus-ke.— Adair,  Am.  Inds..  257  1775  TJDDer 
Oakfuske.— Bartram,  Travels,  461,  1791. 

Oakfuskee.  A  Creek  town  on  Deep  fork 
of  Canadian  r.,  Okla. 

Akfaski.—Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg  i  ri'.i  ISM- 
n,  1X5,  isss.  Okfuski.— Ibid. 

Oakfuskudshi  ('little  Oakfuskee').  A 
former  small  Upper  Creek  village  on  Tal 
lapoosa  r.,  4  m.  above  Niuyaka  and  1'4  in. 
above  Oakfuskee,  in  E.  Ala.  The  town 
was  destroyed  by  (Jen.  White  in  LS13. 
It  is  probable  that  the  people  were  colo 
nists  from  Little  Oakfuskee  (Chihlako 
nini)  on  Chattahoochee  r.,  which  was 
destroyed  by  the  Georgians  in  1 793.  See 

Little  Ockfuske.— Piekett,  Hist.  Ala.,  557  ls.96 
Little  Okfuski.— I'ickett,  Hist.  Ala.,  n.  299.  1X51. 
Oc-fus-coo-che.— Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch,  51,  1848! 
Okfusku'dshi.— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg  i  140 


Oapars.  A  former  Papago  rancheria  be 
tween  San  Navier  del  Bac  and  the  ( Jila  r. 
ins.  Arizona;  visited  by  Father (iarces  in 
1775,  and  by  An/a  and  Font  in  1780. 
Ditt-pax. — An/a  and  Font  (17x0 1  quoted  by  Ban 
croft,  Ariz,  and  X.  Mex.,  392,  18X9.  Oapars.— Arri- 
civita,  Cronica  Serafica,  II,  416,  1792.  Oitapars. — 
Anza  and  Font  (1780)  quoted  by  Bancroft,  Ariz. 
andX.  Mex.,  392,  18X9.  Oytapars.— Garccs  (1775), 
Diary.  64, 1900.  Oytapayts.— Anzaand  Font  ( 17X0) 
quoted  by  Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  X.  Mex.,  392.  18X9. 
Pueblo  viejo. — Ibid. 

Oat  (Out).  The  Kaccoon  clan  of  the 
Caddo. — Mooney  in  14th  Rep.  P>.  A.  F., 
1093,  1S96. 

Oatka  ((/-at-k«) .  A  former  small  Seneca 
village  on  the  site  of  Scottsville,  on  the  w. 
bank  of  Genesee  r.,  Monroe  co.,  N.  Y. — 
Morgan  League  Iroq.,  434,  468,  1851. 

O'Bail.     See  Cornpf  (inter. 

Obaldaquini.  A  mission  village,  prob 
ably  on  the  lower  Georgia  coast,  which 
was  among  those  that  revolted  against  the 
Spaniards  in  1(>S7. — Barcia,  Fnsayo,  2S7, 

Obayos.  A  tribe  formerly  living  in  the 
province  of  Coahuila,  x.  E.  Mexico,  and 
gathered  into  the  mission  of  San  Francisco 
de  Coahuila  a  quarter  of  a  league  x.  of 
Monclova  (Oroxco  y  Rerra,  Geog., 
1864).  It  was  probably  of  Coahniltecan 

O'Beal,  O'Beel.     See  Cornphtnter. 

Obidgewong.     A  Chippewa  and  Ottawa 
settlement  on  the  w.  shore  of  L.  Wolseley, 
Manitoulin  id.  in  L.  Huron,  Ontario,  con 
taining  17  inhabitants  in  1884,  but  red  nce(i 
to  7  in  1906.     Their  reserve  consists  ot  4C 
acres.     They  cultivate  the  soil,  are  good 
bu«hmen,  and  in  winter  cut  ties  and  post 
which  tliev  peel  and  sell  in  summer. 


Obodeus.     ("Jiven  by  Ker  (Travels, 
1816),  as  the  name  of  a  tribe  living  on 


[B.  A.  E. 

inm-r.  l\;Vl.  r.,  .aopHivi.iU-  ;n  w.  Texan. 
N'(.'t  identified,  and  probably  imaginary. 

Obozi.  One  of  the  3l>  tribes  of  Texas 
said  by  Juan  Sabeata,a  Jumano  Indian,  to 
have  Hved  in  lt>S3  on  "Xueces"  r.,  3  days' 
journey  eastward  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Coiiclu'is  (Crn/ate  in  Mendoza,  Yiage, 
MS.  in  Archive  General).  It  has  not  been 
identified,  although  some  of  the  others  in 
his  list  have  been!  The  Nueees  r.  men 
tioned  by  him  was  not  necessarily  the 
modern  Nueces.  (n.  E.  H. ) 

Obsidian.  A  volcanic  glass  much  used 
by  the  Indian  tribes  for  implements  and 
ornaments.  It  is  generally  black  or 
blackish  in  color,  but  some  varieties  are 
brownish,  reddish,  and  greenish  in  hue, 
and  sometimes  display  mottled  effects. 
Occasionally  it  is  translucent,  and  in  rare 
instances  fully  transparent.  It  is  not 
found  in  the  United  States  K.  of  the 
Rocky  mts.,  but  occurs  in  enormous 
bodies  in  Yellowstone  Park,  in  Califor 
nia  and  Oregon,  and  to  a  lesser  extent  in 
Idaho,  Nevada,  New  Mexico,  Arizona, 
and  in  other  western  states.  The. more 
homogeneous  masses  of  obsidian  are  easily 
broken  up,  and  are  flaked  into  desired 
shapes  with  less  difficulty  than  any  other 
kind  of  stone.  Considerable  evidence  of 
the  shaping  of  implements  is  observable 
in  Yellowstone  Park,  especially  in  the 
vicinity  of  Obsidian  canyon,  where  a 
body  of  nearly  solid  glass  100  ft  or  more 
in  thickness,  isexposed  (Holmes).  More 
extensive  workings  have  been  located  in 
New  Mexico,  Arizona,  and  California, 
but  no  quarries  of  importance  are  known. 
Implements  of  obsidian  are  rare  E.  of  the 
Rocky  mts.  Occasional  flaked  specimens 
have  been  found  in  the  mounds,  and  a 
remarkable  deposit  of  implements  was 
discovered  in  a  burial  mound  on  Hope- 
well  farm,  near  Chillicothe,  Ohio.  This 
deposit,  unearthed  by  Moorehead  in 
1892  and  now  preserved  in  the  Field 
Museum  of  Natural  History,  Chicago, 
consists  of  several  hundred  beautifully 
shaped  blades  of  large  si/eand  remarkable 
conformation,  as  well  as  many  smaller  ob 
jects,  not  a  few  of  which  have  been  injured 
by  exposure  to  lire  on  an  earthen  altar. 
The  material  is  black  throughout,  though 
slightly  translucent  when  seen  in  thin 
section.  Its  origin  can  not  be  determined. 
The  nearest  deposit  of  similar  character 
in  place  is  in  the  Yellowstone  Park,  1,500 
miles  away;  but  as  no  trace  of  the  manu 
facture  of  implements  of  this  character 
has  been  found  in  that  section,  it  seems 
probable  that  the  material  was  brought 
from  Mexico  or  from  the  Pacific  coast, 
the  known  deposits  in  the  former  coun 
try,  in  the  stateof  Hidalgo,  being  1,600 
m.,  and  in  the  latter,  Napaand  other  cos 
in  California,  2,000  m.  away.  Along  with 
the  obsidian  implements  were  found  man  v 

implements  and  ornaments  made  of  cop 
per,  shell,  and  other  substances  obtained 
from  distant  localities. 

Many  exceptionally  interesting  objects 
made  of  obsidian  are  found  in  the  Pacilic 
states.  These  include  beautifully  shaped 
blades,  probably  used  as  knives  (q.  v. ), 
obtained  mostly  from  the  living  tribes,  the 
larger  measuring  more  than  80  in.  in 
length  and  5  in.  in  width;  knife  blades 
of  sickle  or  hook  shape  from  mounds 
near  Stockton,  Cal.  (Meredith,  Holmes), 
and  large  numbers  of  delicately  shaped 
arrowpoints  from  the  valley  of  the  Co 
lumbia.  The  larger  knives  were  in 
tended  for  ceremonial  rather  than  for 
ordinary  use.  Of  these,  Powers  says: 
"There' are  other  articles  paraded  and 
worn  in  this  and  other  ceremonial  dances 
which  they  will  on  no  account  part  with, 
at  least  to  an  American,  though  the}r 
sometimes  manufacture  them  to  order 
for  one  another.  One  of  these  is  the 
flake  or  knife  of  obsidian  or  jasper.  I 
have  seen  several  which  were  15  in.  or 
more  in  length  and  about  2.}  in.  wide 
in  the  widest  part.  Pieces  as  large  as 
these  are  carried  aloft  in  the  hand  in 
the  dance,  wrapped  with  skin  or  cloth  to 
prevent  the  rough  edges  from  lacer 
ating  the  hand,  but  the  smaller  ones  are 
mounted  on  wrooden  handles  and  glued 
fast.  The  large  ones  can  not  be  purchased 
at  any  price,  but  I  procured  some  about 
6  in.  long  at  §2.50  apiece.  These  are 
not  properly  'knives,'  but  jewelry  for 
sacred  purposes,  passing  current  also  as 
money."  More  recent  and  detailed  ac 
counts  are  given  by  Goddard,  Kroeber, 
and  Rust.  Kroeber  describes  at  some 
length  the  use  of  the  knives  in  ceremonies 
and  refers  to  them  as  .primarily  objects  of 
wealth.  On  account  of  its  brittleness 
implements  of  obsidian  were  shaped 
usually  by  flaking,  but  rare  specimens 
have  been  produced,  or  at  least  finished, 
by  pecking  and  grinding.  (See  Stone 

Consult  Goddard  in  Univ.  Cal.  Pub., 
Am.  Arch;eol.  and  Ethiiol.,  I,  no.  1,  1903; 
Holmes  (1)  in  Rep.  Nat,  Mus.  1902,  1903, 
(2)  in  Am.  Nat.,  xm,  1879,  (3)  in  Am. 
Anthrop.,  n,  1900;  Kroeber,  ibid.,  vn, 
1905;  Kunz,  Gems  and  Precious  Stones, 
1890;  Meredith  (l)in  Moorehead,  Prehist. 
Impls.,  1900,  (2)  in  Land  of  Sunshine, 
n,  no.  5,  1899;  Moorehead  in  The  An 
tiquarian,  i,  pts.  10  and  11,  1897;  Powers 
inCont,  N.  A.  Kthnol.,  nr,1877;  Ralston  in 
The  Arch;eologist,  n,  1898;  Rust  in  Am. 
Anthrop.,  vn,  1905.  (w.  n.  n.) 

Ocaboa.  A  former  Papago  village  in 
s.  Arizona. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  June 
19,  1863. 

Ocana.  A  tribe  or  subtribe,  perhaps 
Coahuiltecan,  met  by  Massanet  (I)iario, 
in  Mem.  Nueva  Kspafia,  xxvn,  92,  MS.)  a 

BULL.  30] 



shortdistance  s.  of  Nueces  r. ,  Tex. ,  in  1691, 
in  a  rancheria  of  Chaguan  ( Siaguan ) ,  Pas- 
tulac,  Paae,  and  Querns  Indians.  In  1 706 
this  tribe  was  represented  at  San  Francisco 
Solano  mission,  near  the  Rio  Grande. 
About  the  same  time  they  were  entering 
San  Bernardo  mission,  near  by,  with  the 
Canuas,  Catuxanes,  Pazchales,  and  Po- 
mulumas  (Morfi,  Yiage  de  Indies,  1777, 
in  Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  4a  s.,  in,  442).  In 
their  gentile  state  they  intermarried  with 
the  Zeiiizos  (Baptismal  Kec.  of  Mission 
Solano,  1706,  partida  226,  MS.).  For 
their  affiliation,  see  Terocodame,  the  lead 
ing  tribe  of  the  locality  of  the  Mission  So 
lano,  with  whom  the  Ocana  were  associ 
ated.  An  Ocana  was  baptized  in  1728  at 
San  Antonio  de  Valero  mission,  the  suc 
cessor  of  San  Francisco  Solano  (ibid., 
1728,  partida  230).  (H.  E.  n. ) 

Ocanes.— Rivera,  Diario,  leg.  2763,  1736. 

Ocanahowan.  A  village  where  Span 
iards  are  said  to  have  been  in  161 1 ;  situated 
five  days'  journey  s.  of  Jamestown,  Ya. 
Perhaps  identical"  with  Occaneechi,  q.v. 

Ocanahowan.— Smith  (1629),  Va.,  ir.  11,  repr.  1819. 
Ochanahoen.— Strachey  (ra.  1612),  Va.,  26,  1849. 

Ocatameneton  ( '  village  of  the  gens  who 
dwell  at  the  foot  of  the  lake ' ).  An  un 
identified  eastern  Dakota  band. 

Ocatameneton.— Le  Sueur  (1700)  in  Margry,  Dec., 
VI,  86,  1886.  Ouatemanetons.— Xeill,  Hist.  Minn. 
170,  1858. 

Occaneechi.  A  small  tribe  of  the  eastern 
Siouan  group  formerly  residing  in  s.  Yir- 
giniaandx.  North  Carolina.  Their  history 
is  closely  interwoven  with  that  of  the  Sa- 
poni  and  Tutelo,  and  there  is  historical 
evidence  that  their  language  was  similar. 
The  first  known  notice  of  the  Occaneechi  is 
that  of  Lederer,  wrho  visited  them  in  1670. 
They  then  dwelt  on  the  middle  and  larg 
est  island  in  Roanoke  r.,  just  below  the 
confluence  of  the  Staunton  and  the  Dan, 
near  the  site  of  Clarksville,  Mecklenburg 
co. ,  Ya.  Their  fields  were  on  the  x.  bank 
of  the  river,  where  they  raised  large  crops 
of  corn,  having  always  on  hand  as  a  re 
serve  a  year's  supply!!  Between  the  date 
of  this  visit  and  1676  they  were  joined  by 
the  Saponi  and  Tutelo,  who  settled  on  two 
neighboring  islands.  In  1676  the  Cones- 
toga  sought  shelter  with  them  from  the 
attacks  of  the  Iroquois  and  English.  They 
were  hospitably  received,  but  soon  at 
tempted  to  dispossess  their  benefactors, 
and,  after  a  battle,  were  driven  out.  Be 
ing  harassed  by  the  Yirginians  and  Iro 
quois,  they  left  their  island  and  fled  s. 
into  Carolina.  In  1701  Lawson  found 
them  in  a  village  on  Eno  r.,  about  the 
present  Hillsboro,  Orange  co.,  N.  C.  They 
combined  later  with  the  Saponi,  Tu 
telo,  and  others.  They  were  cultivators 
of  the  soil  and  traders.  We  are  assured 
by  Beverley  that  their  dialect  was  the 
common  language  of  trade  and  also  of 
religion  over  a  considerable  region.  They 
divided  the  vear  into  the  five  seasons  of 

budding  or  blossoming,  ripenin^  mid 
summer,  harvest,  and  winter."'  Thev 
were  governed  by  two  chiefs,  one  pre 
siding  in  war,  the  other  having  charge 
ot  their  hunting  and  agriculture.  Cere 
monial  feasting  was  an  important  feature 
of  their  social  life.  Their  tribal  totem 
was  a  serpent.  Consult  Moonev  Siouan 
Tribes  of  the  East,  Bull.  B.  A. ']<].,  1K<»4. 
See  Pcttshenin.  (I'M  ) 

fe0°,n0e^chyi~LMap  (1711)  iu  Winsor,  Hist.'  AnV  v 
QA  iS  4Achon^hy.-La\vson  (1701),  Hist.  Cur.; 
96,1860.  Aconeche.— Moll,  map,  104,  1720.  Acone- 
chos.— Lawson  (1701),  Hist.  Car.,  384, 1860.  Aconee- 
chy.—Mortier  and  Covens,  KtutsUnis  Ainer  main 
n,  map  177.  Aeonichi.-Alcedo,  Die.  Geog.  i  19. 
ii  Ac.oonedy-— ViiUtfondy,  map,  ]75f,i  misprint). 
Akenatzie.— Lederer  quoted  by  Hale  in  Proc  \m 
I'hilos.  Soc.,  xxi,  10,  Mar.  ]Ks:i.  Akenatzy.— Led 
erer,  Discov.  (1669-70),  17,  repr.  1879.  Ako- 
nichi.— Lotter,  map,  ca.  1770.  Botshenins.— Hale 
in  Proc.  Am.  Philos.  Soc.,  xxi,  lo.  lss:5  Oca- 
meches.— Drake,  Abor.  Race,  13,  ISM)  Occaane- 
chy.— Bynl  (1728),  Hist.  Dividing  Line,  i  ]S7 
1866.  Occaneches.— Ibid.  Occaneeches.—  Bevrrlcv 
Hist.  Va.,  bk.  3,  24,  1705.  Occoneachey.— Fry  and 
Jefferson  (1755)inJefferys,Am.  Atlas,map'21, 1776 
Ochineeches.—  Spotswood  (1702)  quoted  by 'Hale 
in  Proc.  Am.  Philos.  Soc.,  xxi,  10,  1883.  Ockina- 
gees.— Doc.  of  1676  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1th  s. 
IX,  167,  1871.  Okenechee.—  Batts  (1U71)  in'N.  V 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  in,  193,  l,Sf>3:  same  in  Am 
Anthrop.,  ix.  46,  1W7.  Oscameches.— Domenech, 
Deserts  N.  Am.,  I,  442,  1860.  Patshenins,—  Hale 
in  Proc.  Am.  Philos.  Soc.,  xxi,  10, 1S83. 

Occoni,  Samson.  A  Christian  convert, 
called  "the  pious  Mohegan,"  born  in 
1723.^  Converted  to  Christianity  under 
the  influence  of  Rev.  E.  Wheelock  in 
1741,  he  received  in  the  family  of  that 
minister  a  good  education,  learning  to 
apeak  and  to  write  English  and  obtaining 
some  knowledge  of  Latin  and  (ireek, 
and  even  of  Hebrew.  Owing  to  ill 
health  he  did  not  complete  the  collegiate 
instruction  intended  for  him.  lie  was 
successively  a  school  teacher  in  Xew  Lon 
don,  Conn.  (1748);  preacher  to  the  In 
dians  of  Long  id.  for  some  ten  years; 
agent  in  England  (1766-67)  lor  Mr 
Wheelock's  newly  established  school, 
where  he  preached  with  great  acceptance 
and  success;  minister  of  the  Brotherton 
Indians,  as  those  Mahican  were  called 
who  removed  to  theOneida  country  in  the 
stateof  New  York  (1786).  Oiihisdeath  at 
New  Stockbridge,  N.  Y.,  in  ITJ^,  Occoin 
was  greatly  lamented,  lie  is  said  to 
have  been  an  interesting  and  eloquent 
speaker,  and  while  in  England  delivered 
some  300  sermons.  A  funeral  sermon  on 
Moses  Paul,  a  Mahican  executed  for  mur 
der  in  1771,  has  been  preserved  in  printed 
form.  Occoni  was  theauthorof  the  hymn 
beginning  "Awaked  by  Sinai's  Awful 
Sound, "and  of  another,  "Now  the  Shades 
of  Night  areUoiu'."  which  gave  Bishop 
Huntington  delight  that  the  thought  of 
an  Indian  was  made  part  of  the  worship 
of  the  Episcopal  Church;  but  it  was 
omitted  from  the  present  hymnal.  It 
was  through  his  success  in  raising  funds  in 
England  that  Mr  Wheelock's  school  was 
transferred  from  Lebanon,  Conn.,  to  New 


<  >cr<  >\v — <  >CL  A  WAH  A 

[B.  A.  E. 

Hampshire,  where  it  was  incorporated  as 
Dartmouth  College.  As  a  man,  ( >ccom 
exhibited  the  virtues  and  the  failings  of 
his  race.  He  was  a  regularly  ordained 
minister,  having  been  examined  and 
licensed  to  preach  by  the  clergymen  of 
Windham  co.,  Conn.,  and  inducted  in 
17")!)  by  the  Suffolk  presbytery,  Long  id. 
His  later  years  were  marred  by  drunken 
ness  and  other  vices,  but  on  the  whole 
his  life  way  one  of  great  benefit  to  his  race, 
though  Schoolcraft  (Ind.  Tribes,  v,  518, 
1855)  praises  him  perhaps  too  highly. 
See  -I.  Edwards,  Observations  on  the 
Language  of  the  Mnhhekaneew  Indians, 
178l>;  W.  De  Loss  Love,  Samson  Occom 
and  the  Christian  Indians  of  New  Eng 
land,  1SW.  (A.  F.  c.) 

Occow,  Okow.  The  yellow  pike  perch 
(LiH'iujH  rr<t  (tnicricdiHt)  of  the  northern 
great  lakes,  mentioned  by  Richardson  in 
Franklin's:  Narrative  (1823)  and  again  in 
the  Fauna  Hor.  Ainer.,  n,  1836.  The 
name  has  since  been  adopted  in  ichthyo- 
logical  works.  It  is  from  Cree  oka-ir, 
cognate  with  Chippewa  oA'a.  (w.  K.  G.) 

Ocha  (  'rain-cloud').  Given  by  Bourke 
(Jour.  Am.  Folk-lore,  ir,  181,  1889)  as  a 
clan  of  the  Mohave,  q.  v. 

Ochechote  (Tenino:  'hind  dorsal  tin  [of 
a  salmon] '  ).  A  small  Shahaptian  tribe, 
speaking  the  Tenino  language,  formerly 
living  on  the  \.  side  of  Columbia  r.,  in 
Klickitat  co.,  Wash.  They  were  included 
in  the  Vakiina  treaty  of  Camp  Stevens, 
Wash.,  June  9,  1855,  by  which,  with 
other  tribes,  they  ceded  their  lands  to  the 
Tinted  States.  Jf  any  survive  they  are 
probably  incorporated  with  other  tribes 
on  the  Yakima  res.  Their  name  has 
reference  to  a  rock  on  the  x.  side  of 
Columbia  r..  opposite  the  upper  end  of 
an  island  near  the  mouth  of  the  Des 

OchechoJes.  — F.     S.     Stat.,    xu.   9.">1,   18t>3      Uchi'- 
chol.— Mooney  in  lltli  Rep.  J{.  A.  K.,  740,  1896. 

Ocheese  ('people').  A  former  Semi- 
nole  town  on  the  w.  side  of  Apalachicola 
r.,  at  Ocheese  bluff,  the  site  of  the  present 
town  ,,f  Ocheese,  Jackson  co.,  Fla.  Pop. 
220  in  ISL'2,  2:>0  in  182(5. 

Ocheeses.-Morse.    Re,,,    to    Sec.    War,    364,    18L>2. 
Ochesos.  — Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  ix,  1848. 

Ocheese.     A  former  Lower  Creek  town 
on  the   i;.  bank  of  Chattahoochee  r.,  w. 
central  ( ieorgia. 
Okesez.— JefTrcys,  Am.  Atlas,  map".,  1771;. 

Ochete.  A  town  visited  by  De  Soto  in 
15.7.MO.  appan-iitlv  in  x.  \v.  Florida  at 
the  head  of  St  Marks  bay,  4  leagues  from 
the  gulf.  Buckingham  Smith  identifies 
t  with  the  Ante  of  Xarvae/,  It  is  not 
the  Ocute  of  Biedma.  See  Gentleman  of 
Klvas  (1557)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll  La 
n,  135,  is5<). 

Ochiakenen.  A  tribe  or  band  mentioned 
l>y  Hennepm  (New  Diseov.,  313,  1698)as 

living  al)out  1675  in  the  same  village  with 
the  Miami  and  Maseoutens.  See  Ocliiata- 

Ochiatagonga.  An  unidentified  tribe 
mentioned  by  La  Salle,  in  1682  (Margry, 
Dec.,  n,  237,  1877)  in  connection  with 
Islinois  (Illinois),  Chaouanons  (Shaw- 
nee),  and  others,  as  among  those  living 
s.  w:  from  L.  Erie  and  destroyed  (?)  by 
the  Iroquois.  Cf.  Ochiakenen. 

Ochionagueras.  An  Onondaga  war 
chief,  called  also  Achiongeras,  baptized 
by  Father  Le  Moyne,  Aug.  15,  1654,  as 
Jean  Baptiste,  that  being  the  name  of 
Le  Moyne's  companion.  He  successfully 
led  the  Iroquois  against  the  Erie.  lie 
headed  Dablon's  escort  in  Mar.  1656,  and 
the  next  year  was  at  Montreal  in  time  to 
refute  some  Mohawk  slanders.  Ochion 
agueras  was  then  described  as  an  Onon 
daga  captain,  who  "procured  by  his 
influence  the  peace  which  we  have  with 
the  upper  Iroquois."  (w.  M.  B.) 

Cchoyos.  A  Costanoan  village  situated 
in  1819  within  10  m.  of  Santa  Crux  mis 
sion,  Cal. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer.  Apr. 
5,  1860. 

Ochuceulga.  A  former  Seminole  town 
of  250  inhabitants  E.  of  Apalachicola  r., 
x.  w.  Fla.  Cothrin  was  chief  in  1822. 
The  name  is  a  form  of  Ochisi-algi.  Cf. 

O-chuce-ulga.—  Morse,  Rep.  to  Sec.  War,  307,  1822. 

Ochupocrassa.  A  former  Seminole  town 
on  "East  Florida  point,"  with  about  30 
warriors  in  1820,  who  had  moved  down 
from  the  Upper  Creeks. — Bell  quoted  by 
Morse,  Rep.  to  Sec.  War,  307,  1822. 

Ocilla.  A  former  Seminole  town  at  the 
mouth  of  Ocilla  r.,  once  called  Assilly  cr., 
on  theE.  bank,  in  Taylorco.,  Fla.  Latti- 
fixico  was  its  chief  in  1823. 
Oscillee.— H.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  74,  19th  Cong.,  1st  sess  . 
27, 1826. 

Ockneharuse.  An  unidentified  tribe 
mentioned  in  1747  as  living  in  the  Ohio 
valley,  and  said  to  number  1,500  or  2,000, 
exceeding  both  the  Wea  and  the  Missi- 
sauga  in  population  (Doc.  of  1747  in 
N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vi,  391,  1855). 
They  were  possibly  the  Miami. 

Oclackonayahe.  A  former  Seminole 
village  "above  Tampa  bay,"  w.  Fla.; 
probably  on  or  near  Okliakonkonhee 
lake,  Polk  co.— Bell  quoted  by  Morse, 
Rep.  to  Sec.  War,  306,  1822. 

Oclawaha.  A  former  Seminole  town  on 
Oclawaha  r.  in  N.  central  Florida.  The 
Oclawaha  division  of  the  Seminole,  de 
scended  from  the  Yamasi,  betray  their 
origin  by  the  dark  color  of  the  skin 
(McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  i,  272, 
1854).  Coe  Iladjos  Town  (q.  v. ),  which 
appears  on  Taylor's  war  map  of  1839  just 
K.  of  Oclawaha  r.,  mav  be  the  same. 
Ochlewahaw.— McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes, 
I,  272,1854.  Oclawahas.— Williams  Florida,  231, 
1837.  Oc-la-wa-haw.— Bell  quoted  by  Morse,  Rep. 

BULL.  30] 



to  See.  War,  307,  1822.  Oc-le-wau-hau-thluc-co.— 
Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch.  25,  1848.  Oklevuaha.- 
Peniere  quoted  by  Morse,  Rep.  to  Sec.  War,  311, 
1822.  Oklewaha.—  Brinton,  Floridian  Penin.,  145, 

Ocmulgee  (Hitchiti:  oki  'water',  iiu'dyis 
'it  is  boiling' :  '  boiling  water ' ) .  A  former 
Lower  Creek  town  at  the  "  Ocmulgee 
old  fields,"  along  the  E.  bank  of  Oc 
mulgee  r.,  probably  in  Pulaski  co.,  Ga., 
which,  according  to  Adair  (Am.  Ind.,  36, 
1775),  the  South  Carolinians  destroyed 
about  1715.  According  to  Creek  tradi 
tion  (Bartram,  Trav.,  52,  1792)  Ocmulgee 
' '  old  fields ' '  was  the  site  of  the  first  per 
manent  Creek  settlement  after  the  migra 
tion  of  the  tribe  from  the  w.  The  Indian 
trading  road  passed  through  this  settle 
ment.  The  "old  fields,"  on  which  are 
a  number  of  artificial  mounds,  terraces, 
and  earthen  inclosures,  extended  along 
the  river  for  15  in.  The  people  of  the 
town,  who  are  sometimes  mentioned  as  a 
tribe,  joined  those  of  other  settlements  in 
Oct.  1738m  tendering  to  Oglethorpe  their 
assurances  of  friendship.  (A.  s.  G.  ) 

Caiomulgi.— Alcedo,  Die.  Geog.,  I,  310,  1780.  Oak- 
mulge. — Rafinesaue,  introd.  to  Marshall,  Ky.,  i, 
42,  1824.  Oakmulgee  old  fields.— Hawkins  (1804)  in 
Am.  State  Pap.,  Ind.  Aff.,  I,  691,  1832.  Oakmulgee 
old  towns.— Am.  State  Pap.  (1802) ,  ibid..  609.  Oak 
mulge  fields.— Bartram.  Travels,  53,  1792.  Oak- 
mulgis. — Romans,  Florida,  90,  1775.  Oakmulgos. — 
Ibid.,  280.  Ocmulgee.— Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch, 
83,  1848.  Okmulge.— Adair,  Am.  Inds.,  36,  1775. 
Oxmulges.— Harris,  Voy.,  n,  335,  1764. 

Ocmulgee.  The  capital  and  most  im 
portant  town  of  the  Creek  Nation,  situa 
ted  on  the  N.  fork  of  Canadian  r.,  Okla. 
Okmulgee.— Gatschet,  Creek Migr.  Leg.,n,  185,1888. 

Ocmulgee.  A  former  Lower  Creek  town 
on  the  E.  side  of  Flint  r.,  Dougherty  co., 
Ga.;  pop.  200  in  1834. 

Oakmulges.— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I,  72, 1884. 
Oakmulgo. — Jefferys,  French  Dom.  Am.,  I,  134, 
map,  1761.  Ockma'lgo.— J  efferys,  Am.  Atlas,  map  5, 
1776.  Ocumlgi.— Philippeaux,  Map  English  Col., 
1781.  Okmulgi.— Gatschet,  op.  cit.,  140. 

Ocoee  (Uwagd'M,  'apricot-vine  place'). 
A  former  important  Cherokee  settlement 
on  Ocoee  r.,  near  its  junction  with  the 
Hiwassee,  about  the  present  Benton, 
Polk  co.,  Tenn.— Mooney  in  19th  Kep. 
B.  A.  E.,  544,  1900. 

Acohee.  -Doc.  of  1799  quoted  by  Royce  in  5th  Rep. 
B.  A.  E.,  144,  1887. 

Ocon.  A  town,  probably  of  the  Hitchiti, 
formerly  on  St  Marks  r.,  x.  w.  Fla. — 
Jefferys,  French  Dom.  Am.,  135,  map, 

Oconaluftee  (from  EgwdnuFfi,  'by  the 
river';  from  egwd'rit  'river',  nul&ti  or 
infti  'near',  'beside').  Mentioned  by 
Bartram  as  a  Cherokee  town  existing 
ibout  1775,  probably  on  the  lower  course 
)f  the  river  of  the  same  name,  at  the  pres- 
mt  Birdtown,  on  the  East  Cherokee  res., 
^.  C. ,  where  was  formerly  a  considerable 
nound.  (j.  M.) 

Sgwanul'ti.— Mooney  in  19th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  517, 
900  (correct  form)!  Oconaluftee.— Present  map 
orm.  Ocunnolufte.— Bartram,  Travels,  371,  1792. 

Oconee.  A  small  tribe  of  the  Creok  con 
federacy,  probably  of  the  Hitchiti  di 
vision,  formerly  living  on  Oconee  r.,  (ia. 
Oconee,  their  chief  town,  was  situated, 
according  to  Hawkins,  about  4  m.  below 
the  present  Milledgeville.  Weekachumpa 
their  chief,  known  to  the  English  as 
Long-king,  and  one  of  his  warriors  were 
among  the  Indians  assembled  to  welcome 
Oglethorpe  when  he  arrived  in  Georgia 
in  1732.  The  Oconee  formed  one  of  the 
parties  to  the  treaty  between  the  I;.  S.  and 
the  Creeks  at  Colefain,  Ga.,  June  2!»,  17%. 
Occouys. — Harris,  Voy.  and  Trav.,  n,  3:>.\  ITtil. 
Oconas. — Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  4.  29,  18 is.'  Oco- 
nees.— U.S.  Ind.  Treat.  (1797),  ti9, 1837.  Oconery's.— 
Moll,  map  in  Humphrey,  Acct.,  80,  1730. 

Oconee.  A  former  small  town  on  the  K. 
bank  of  Chattahoochee  r.,  in  Georgia, 
according  to  Hawkins,  and  on  the  w. 
bank,  in  Alabama,  according  to  Bartram. 
It  was  settled  about  1710  by  the  Oconee 
who  abandoned  their  old  habitat  on  Oco 
nee  r.,  ( ia.  Later  they  estal  dished  Cusco- 
willa  town  on  a  lake  in  Alachua  co.,  Fla. 
According  to  Bartram,  they  spoke  the 
"  Stincard  "  language,  and  were  there 
fore  akin  to  the  Hitchiti. 
Occone. — Bartram,  Travels,  462.  1791.  Ocones. — 
Jefferys,  Am.  Atlas,  map  7,  177(1.  Oconis. — Ro 
mans,  Florida, 90, 1775.  Okonee. — Jefferys,  op.  cit., 
map  5.  Okoni. — Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I,  67, 

Oconee  (Ukw&'rii).  A  former  Cherokee 
settlement  on  Seneca  cr.,  near  the  pres 
ent  Walhalla,  in  Oconee  co.,  8.  C. — 
Mooney  in  19th  Kep.  B.  A.  E.,  541,  1900. 
Acounee." — Mouxon's  map  quoted  by  Royce  in  5th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  143.  1887.  Oconnee.— Royce  in  18th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  pi.  clxi,  1900. 

Oconi.  A  district  (subtribe?)  in  Flor 
ida,  about  1612,  speaking  a  Tinmcuan 
dialect,  according  to  Pareja  ( Arte  Leng. 
Timuqua,  1886).  An  ancient  Creek  town 
in  E.  Georgia  had  the  same  name.  See 
Oconee.  „  (.1.  M.) 

Oconostota  (A'ganu-std'ta,  'Groundhog- 
sausage').  A  Cherokee  war  chief  in  the 
17th  century.  In  the  French  war  the 
Cherokee  were  at  iirst  allies  of  the  Eng 
lish,  but  the  spread  of  the  Britisli  settle 
ments  and  unfair  and  contemptuous 
treatment  changed  their  sentiments. 
When  they  began  to  take  reprisals  for 
barbarous  acts  committed  by  American 
frontiersmen,  and  refused  to  surrender  to 
the  perpetrators,  Gov.  Littleton,  of  South 
Carolina,  in  Nov.  1759,  cast  into  jail  a 
delegation  headed  by  Oconostota  that  had 
come  to  treat  for  the  continuance  of  peace, 
saying  that  he  would  make  peace  in  the 
Cherokee  country.  Attacullaculla  ob 
tained  the  exchange  of  Oconostota  for 
one  of  the  murderers  demanded,  and 
after  the  return  of  Littleton  from  a  futiJ 
expedition  the  young  war  chief  laid  siege 
to  Ft  Prince  George  in  upper  South  Caro 
lina.  He  called  out  the  commander, 
Lieut.  Cotymore,  for  a  parley  and  shot 



[B.  A.  E. 

him,  whereon  the  garrison  butchered  the 
Cherokee  chiefs  confined  as  hostages. 
Oeonostota  then  fell  upon  the  frontier 
settlements  of  Carolina,  while  the  Cher 
okee  warriors  over  the  mountains  cap 
tured  Ft  Louden  in  Tennessee.  Col. 
Montgomery  at  the  head  of  1,600  men  re 
lieved  Ft  Prince  George  and  destroyed 
the  lower  Cherokee  towns,  then  marched 
to  the  succor  of  Ft  Louden,  but  was 
routed  in  a  tierce  battle.  After  the  war 
Oconostota  became  civil  chief  of  the  na 
tion.  The  ancient  war  between  the 
Cherokee  and  the  Iroquois  was  termi 
nated  by  a  treaty  which  Oconostota  went 
to  New  York  to  sign  in  176S.  The  con 
test  for  their  ancestral  land,  which  caused 
their  sympathies  to  swerve  from  the 
English* to  the  French  in  the  earlier  war, 
made  the  Cherokee  eager  allies  of  the 
British  against  the  Americans  in  the  war 
of  the  Revolution.  The  tribe  suffered 
severely  in  the  contest  and  at  its  close 
Oconostota  resigned  the  chiefship  to  his 
son.  Tuksi,  'The  Terrapin.'  lie  died 
about  178:5.  See  Mooney,  Myths  of  the 
Cherokee,  19th  Rep.  P>.  A.  K.',  1900. 

Ocota  (contraction  of  Okotxali,  'where 
there  is  resinous  pine  wood').  A  small 
;iLri_r relation  of  Huichol  ranches,  contain 
ing  a  temple,  situated  near  a  small  branch 
of  the  Rio  Chapalagana,  about  12  in.  E.  of 
the  main  stream,  in  Jalisco,  Mexico 
(  Lumholtx,  Unknown  Mex.,  ir,  16,  map, 
25S,  1902).  It  is  distinct  from  Guadalupe 

Okotsali. — Luinlioltx,    ibid.,   258   (proper  Huichol 

Ocotan.  A  former  Tepehuane  pueblo 
in  Durango,  Mexico,  and  seat  of  a  Spanish 

Huk-tyr.— A.  Hrdlicka,  inf'n.  190(1.   Santa  Maria  de 
Ocotan.— Ibid,    (present  name  of   town).     Santa 
Maria  Ocotan.  —  Lumbolt/,   Tnkiiown  Mex.,  I,  -169, 
I'.tUL'.     S.  Francisco  Ocotan. — Orozco  v  Berra  Geotr 
31  s.  IN; |. 

Octashepas.  A  tribe  of  the  lower  Mis 
sissippi,  mentioned  by  Bossu  in  connection 
with  the  Taskiki  (Tuskegee),  Tonica 
(Tunica),  Alibamu,  etc.  Possibly  in 
tended  for  Okchayi,  (j.  v. 
Oaktashippas.— Romans,  Fla.,  101  1775  Octashe- 
pas.— Bossu  (  175-.ii.  Travels  La.,  i.  '229,  1771. 

Ocuca.  A  former  rancheria  of  the  Pinia 
in  Sonora,  Mexico,  near  Rio  San  lifiiacio, 
x.  \\.  of  Santa  Ana. 

Occuca.— Oroxcoy  Brrra,  <ieog..  :',I7.  ISM.   Ocuca.— 
Knsayo    (<•«.    176MI.     Hi],    lsi;;$.      Oocuca.— 

Ocute.  A  town,  probably  in  southern 
Georgia,  entered  b\  De  Solo's  troops  on 
April  10,  ir,40.  It  was  situated  between 
Altamaha  and  Cofaqui. 

Cofa.     Oan-ilasso  dr  l;l   \>ua.   Florid;,,  112    17''3 
Ocute.     .,,.,,il.   of    Klvus   0557)    in    Frv,,,.),  '  inV 

rub  V.\"i"i  rx'V"'"10'  Hi('(llni1  in  ii'ikiuyt  sod 
Odanah.  A  Chippe\\-;l  settlement  on 
Had  Kiver res.,  Ashland  co.,  WiH.— Brown 
in  \\  is.  Archeol.,  v,  L><>:;,  J<»06;  Ind.  Aff 
Rep.,  :J>94,  ]<»06. 

Odiserundy.  A  prominent  warrior  in 
the  Revolution,  often  called  John  the 
Mohawk,  and  in  chief  command  of  a  war 
party  in  1777.  The  name  is  now  written 
Deseronto,  'The  lightning  has  struck.' 
In  the  New  York  State  Library  at  Albany 
is  a  letter  from  John  Deserontyon,  dated 
Bay  of  Quinte,  Nov.  1796,  where  he  headed 
a  band  of  Mohawk.  He  was  present  at  a 
treaty  with  the  United  States  after  the 
Revolution.  A  place  in  Canada  bears  his 
name.  (w.  M.  B.) 

Odoesmades.  A  tribe,  evidently  Coa- 
huiltecan,  living  in  1690  a  short  distance  s. 
of  the  Rio  Grande,  on  the  way  from  cen 
tral  Coahuila  to  E.  Texas.  In  the  year 
named  many  of  this  tribe  were  seen  in 
that  locality,  together  with  Mescaleros 
(evidently  not  the  Mescalero  Apache) 
and  Momones,  but  when  Tenin  went 
through  the  same  country  in  1691  he  saw 
none.  Many  buffalo  were  seen  here  by 
Teran  ( Bescripcion  y  Diario  Demarcacion, 
1691-92,  in  Mem.  de  Nueva  Espafia,  xxvn, 
25,  MS.).  (H.  E.  B.) 

Odshiapofa  ( '  hickory  ground ' ) .  A  town 
of  the  Creek  Nation,  on  the  North  fork  of 
Canadian  r.,  below  the  mouth  of  Alabama 
cr.,  Okla.  (Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg., 
n,  1S6,  1888).  TJie  name  was  formerly 
applied  to  a  Creek  town  in  Alabama, 
otherwise  known  as  Little  Taiasse.  See 

Odshisalgi  ( '  hickory-nut  people ' ) .  One 
of  the  extinct  clans  of  the  (/reeks.  Some 
have  regarded  the  name  as  representing 
simply  the  people  of  Ocheese,  a  former 
town  of  the  Lower  Creeks  in  central 

0-che.— Morgan,  Am-.  Soc.,  161, 1878.  Odshisalgi.— 
Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg..  I,  156,  1<S84. 

Odukeo's  band  (0-duk-e-o,  'Tall  man'). 
The  name  of  a  Paviotso  chief,  applied  also 
to  his  band  formerly  around  Carson  and 
Walker  lakes,  w.  Nev.  In  1861  they  were 
said  to  number  1,261,  including  the  Petod- 
seka  band. 

Odakeo.— Burton,  City  of  Saints,  576,  1861.  0-duk- 
e-o's  (Tall  Man)  band.— Dodge  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep. 
1859,  !374,  1860. 

Oealitk  (  (ycnlttjr) .  A  sept  of  the  Bella- 
bella,  a  Kwakiutl  tribe  inhabiting  thes. 
shore  of  Millbank  sd.,  Brit.  Col. 
O'ealitq.— Boas  in  6th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  52, 
1890.  6'ealitx.— Boas  in  Rep.  Nat.  Mus.  1895,  328, 
1897.  Onie-le-toch. — Kane,  Wand,  in  N.  A.,  app., 
1859.  Owia-lei-toh. — Tolmieand  Dawson,  Vocabs, 
Brit.  Col.,  H7B,  1881.  Oyelloightuk.— Brit.  Col. 
map,  Ind.  AIT.,  Victoria,  1872. 

Oetlitk  (  Oe'Lits).  A  sept  of  the  Bella- 
bella,  \vhich,  according  to  Tolmie  and 
Dawson.  occupied  the  middle  section  of 
Millbank  sd.,  British  Columbia. 

Oe'iitx.  Boas  in  Rep.  Nat.  Mns.  1895,  328,1897. 
Oe'tlitq.— Boas  in  6th  Rep.  N.  \V.  Tribes  Can. ,52, 
1890.  Okatlituk.— Brit.  Col.  map,  Ind.  Aff.,  Vic 
toria,  1872.  Owit-lei-toh. — Tolmie  and  Dawson, 
Vocabs.  Brit.  Col.,  117H,  1884.  Weetle-toch.— Kane, 
Wand,  in  N.  A.,  app.,  1859.  Weitle  toch.— School- 
craft,  Fnd.  Tribes,  v,  487,  1855. 

Office  of  Indian  Affairs.  When  the  War 
Department  was  created  by  Congress 



under  the  act   of   Aug.  7.    1789,    among 
the  duties  assigned  to  it  were  those  "rela 
tive  to  Indian  affairs."    In  1824  a  Bureau 
of  Indian  Affairs  was  organized  in  the 
War  Department,  with  Thomas   L.  Mc- 
Kenney  as  its  chief.  The  place  wTas  offered 
him  at  a  salary  of  $1,600,  but  with  the 
assurance  that  the  President  would  recom 
mend  the  organization  of  an  "Indian  de 
partment"    with   a  salary  for  its   head 
equal  to  that  paid  the  auditors.     The 
functions  of  the  bureau  were  thus  defined 
in  the  letter  of  appointment  addressed 
to  Col.  McKenney  by  John  C.  Calhoun, 
Secretary  of  War,  dated  Mar.  11,  1824: 
4 '  To  you  are  assigned  the  duties  of  the 
Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs  in  this  depart 
ment,  for    the    faithful   performance  of 
which    you    will    be    responsible.     Mr 
Hamilton  and  Mr  Miller  are  assigned  to 
you,  the  former  as  chief,  the  latter  as  as 
sistant  clerk.     You  will  take  charge  of 
the  appropriations  for  annuities  and  of  the 
current  expenses,  and  all  warrants  on  the 
same  will  be  issued  on  your  requisitions 
on  the  Secretary  of  War,  taking  special 
care  that  no  requisition  be  issued,  but  in 
cases   where  the  money   previously  re 
mitted  has  been  satisfactorily  accounted 
for,  and  on  estimates  in  detail,  approved 
by  you,  for  the  sum  required.     You  will 
receive  and   examine  the  accounts  and 
vouchers  for  the  expenditure  thereof,  and 
will  pass  them  over  to  the  proper  audi 
tor's  office  for  settlement,  after  examina 
tion  and  approval   by  you;    submitting 
such  items  for  the  sanction  of  this  de 
partment  as   may  require   its  approval. 
The  administration  of  the  fund  for  the 
civilization  of  the  Indians  is  also  com 
mitted  to  your  charge,  under  the  regula 
tions  established  by  the  department.  You 
ire  also  charged  with  the  examination  of 
lie  claims  arising  out  of  the  laws  regu- 
ating  the  intercourse  with  Indian  tribes, 
ind  will,  after  examining  and  briefing  the 
iame,  report  them   to  this   department, 
•ndorsing    a    recommendation  for  their 
Ilowance  or   disallowance.      The    ordi- 
lary  correspondence  writh   the    superin- 
endents,  the  agents,  and  sub-agents,  will 
>ass  through  your  bureau." 
Col.  McRenney  had  had  large  respon- 
ibility  in  connection  with  Indian  affairs 
g  superintendent  of  Indian  trade  from 
.pr.  2,  1816,  until  the  United  States  In- 
ian  trading  establishment  was  abolished 
y  act  of  May  6,  1822.     His  connection 
iththe'Bureau  terminated  Sept.  30, 1830, 
y  his  dismissal,  according  to  his  Memoirs, 
i  political  grounds.     Samuel  S.  Hamil- 
>n  held  the  position  for  about  a  year, 
id  was  succeeded  by  Elbert  Herring. 
By  the  act  of  July  9,  1832,  there 'was 
eated  in  the  War  Department  the  office 
Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs,  at  a 
lary   of    $3,000,    who,    subject    to    the 

Secretary  of  War  and  the-  President 
should  have  "the  direction  and  manage 
ment  of  all  Indian  affairs  and  of  all  mat 
ters  arising  out  of  Indian  relations. ' '  M  r 
Herring  received  appointment  as  Com 
missioner  July  10,  1832.  Up  to  the 
present  time  (1907)  there  have  been  2S 
Commissioners  of  Indian  Affairs,  the  long 
est  term  of  office  being  a  little  less  than  S 

On  June  30,  1834,  an  act  was  passed 
"  to  provide  for  the  organization  of  the 
Department  of  Indian  Affairs."  Under 
this  enactment  certain  agencies  wen- 
established  and  others  abolished,  and 
provision  was  made  for  subagents,  inter 
preters,  and  other  employees,  the  pay 
ment  of  annuities,  the  purchase  aiid 
distribution  of  supplies,  etc.  This  may 
be  regarded  as  the  organic  law  of  the 
Indian  department. 

When  the  Department  of  the  Interior 
was  created  by  act  of  Mar.  3,  1S49,  the 
Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs  was  transferred 
thereto,  and  hence  passed  from  military 
to  civil  control.  As  now  organized  there 
is  a  Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs 
(salary  $5,000),  an  Assistant  Commis 
sioner  ($3,000),  a  Chief  Clerk  ($2,250), 
a  Superintendent  of  Indian  Schools 
($3,000),  a  private  secretary  to  the  Com 
missioner  ($1,800),  and  a'  force  of  175 
clerks,  including  financial  clerk,  law  clerk, 
chiefs  of  divisions,  bookkeepers,  archi 
tect,  and  draftsmen;  besides  13  messen 
gers,  laborers,  and  charwomen. 

The  Finance  division  has  charge  of  all 
financial  affairs  pertaining  to  the  Indian 
Bureau.  It  keeps  ledger  accounts,  under 
nearly  1,000  heads,  of  all  the  receipts  and 
disbursements  of  appropriationsand  other 
funds  for  the  Indian  service,  aggregating 
in  late  years  more  than  $10,000,000  annu 
ally;  remits  funds  to  agents  and  other 
disbursing  officers;  attends  to  the  pur 
chase  and  transportation  of  supplies  for 
the  Indians  and  the  work  of  the  ware 
houses  where  these  supplies  are  received 
and  shipped;  advertises  for  bids  and  pre 
pares  estimates  for  appropriations  by 
Congress.  The  Treasury  Department  has 
estimated  that  between  Mar.  4,  1789,  and 
June  30,  1907,  government  expenditures 
on  account  of  the  Indian  service  aggre 
gated  $472,823,935.  The  Indian  Office 
fs  trustee  for  more  than  $35,000,000  in  the 
Treasury  of  the  United  States  belonging  to 
Indians^  on  which  interest  accrues  at  • 
percent  and  5  percent. 

The  Field  Work  division  has  charge  o 
all  matters  relating  to  irrigation;  prosecu 
tions  for  sale  of  liquor  to  Indians;  assist 
ing  Indians  in  obtaining  employment,  and 
kindred  subjects. 

The  Land   division  ot   the   ofluv   I 
chanre  of  everything  pertaining  to  the 
landed   interests   of    the   Indians— allot- 



[>.  A.  E. 

ments,  patents,  leases,  sales,  conveyances, 
cessions  of  land,  or  reservation  of  land 
tor  Indian  nse,  railroad  rights  of  way  and 
damages;  contracts  with  Indians  for  the 
paynu-nt  of  money;  guardianship  of  mi 
nors;  settlement  of  estates;  trespassing  on 
Indian  reservations  and  the  removal  of 
white  persons  therefrom;  taxation;  citi 
zenship  and  adoption  into  tribe,  and  all 
letral  questions  growing  out  of  relations 
between  Indians  and  whites. 

The  Education  division  has  supervision 
of  Indian  school  matters,  records  of  school 
attendance,  making  plans  for  school  build 
ings,  including  their  lighting,  heating,  and 
sewerage;  the  selection  of  school  sites,  and 
the  issuance  of  regulations  as  to  the  gen 
eral  management  of  the  schools;  prepares 
and  supervises  bonds  of  disbursing  officers, 
and  has  charge  of  all  matters  relating  to 
the  appointment,  transfer,  promotion, 
etc. .  <  >f  employees  in  the  agency  and  school 

The  Indian  Territory  division  super 
vises  all  matters  relating  to  the  Five 
Civili/ed  Tribes  in  Indian  Ter.,  except 
railroads,  telephones,  and  pipe-lines;  also 
all  timber  matters  except  in  the  case  of 
the  Menominee  res.,  which  is  in  charge 
of  the  Land  division. 

The  Accounts  division  audits  the  cash 
and  property  accounts  of  agents,  school 
superintendents,  and  other  disbursing 
otiicers;  has  the  disposal  of  unserviceable 
property;  the  collection  and  expenditure 
of  funds  coming  into  the  hands  of  agents 
from  sales  of  agency  property  or  produce 
or  from  other  sources;  the  issuance  of  live 
stock,  implements,  and  other  supplies  to 
the  Indians;  sanitary  statistics;  census; 
and  the  preparation  and  issuance  of  reg 
ulations  for  all  branches  of  the  service. 

The  Superintendent  of  Indian  Schools 
inspects  the  schools  personally,  super 
vises  methods  of  instruction,  prepares  the 
course  of  study,  both  literary  and  in 
dustrial,  recommends  text-books,  and  ar 
ranges  for  general  and  local  Indian  school 

The  Files  division  briefs,  registers,  in 
dexes,  and  liles  all  incoming  and  indexes 
all  outgoing  correspondence. 

The  Miscellaneous  division  has  charge 
of  business  connected  with  Indian  traders 
and  field  matrons,  leaves  of  absence 
granted  clerks,  the  printing  required  by 
the  office,  including  the  annual  report, 
and  the  stationery  and  other  supplies 

Five  special  agents  and  seven  school 
supervisors  report  to  the  Commissioner 
of  Indian  Affairs  their  inspections  of  the 
work  in  the  field.  The  employees  under 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  office  number 
ahout  f>, 000.  The  annual  reports  of  the 
Commissioner  to  the  Secretary  of  the 
Interior,  with  reports  of  agents',  inspect 

ors,  and  school  superintendents,  and  with 
population,  industrial,  and  other  statistics 
pertaining  to  the  Indians,  are  published 
by  authority  of  Congress,  and  contain 
much  valuable  information  respecting  the 
various  tribes. 

For  the  organization  of  methods  of  the 
Indian  service  in  the  field  through  the 
agencies  and  schools,  see  Agency  system, 
Education,  Governmental  policy,  Reserva 
tions,  Treaties.  (M.  s.  c. ) 

Ofogoula  (Choctaw:  ofi  'dog',  okla  'peo 
ple':  'dog  people').'  A  small  tribe 
which  formerly  lived  on  the  left  bank  of 
Yazoo  r.,  Miss.,  12  m.  above  its  mouth 
and  close  to  the  Yazoo,  Koroa,  and 
Tunica.  They  are  not  mentioned  in  any 
of  the  La  Salle  documents  nor,  by  name 
at  least,  in  the  relations  of  the  priest  mis 
sionaries  De  Montigny  and  La  Source  who 
first  visited  the  Yazoo  tribes.  In  1699 
Iberville  learned  of  them  and  recorded 
their  name  from  a  Taensa  Indian  among 
the  Huma,  but  he  did  not  reach  their 
village  either  on  this  or  on  his  subsequent 
expedition.  It  was  probably  during  the 
same  year  that  Davion  established  him 
self  as  missionary  among  the  Tunica  and 
necessarily  had  more  or  less  intercourse 
writh  the  tribes  dwelling  with  them,  i.  e., 
the  Yazoo  and  Ofogoula.  Early  in  1700 
Le  Sueur,  with  whom  was  the  historian 
Penieaut,  stopped  at  the  village  of  the 
combined  tribes  on  his  way  to  the  head 
waters  of  the  Mississippi,  and  in  Novem 
ber  of  that  year  Father  Gravier  spent 
some  days  there.  He  mentions  the  Ofo 
goula  under  their  Tunica  name,  Ounspik 
(properly  TJshpi),  and  states  that  they 
occupied  10  or  12  cabins.  In  1729  Du 
Prat/  gave  the  number  of  cabins  in  the 
united  village  of  the  Ofogoula,  Yazoo,  and 
Koroa,  as  60.  On  the  outbreak  of  the 
Natchez  war  the  Yazoo  and  Koroa  joined 
the  hostiles,  murdered  their  missionary, 
and  destroyed  the  French  post.  The 
Ofogoula  were  off  hunting  at  the  time, 
and  on  their  return  every  effort  was  made 
to  induce  them  to  declare  against  the 
French,  but  in  vain,  and  they  descended 
the  Mississippi  to  live  with  the  Tunica. 
There  they  must  have  continued  to  reside, 
for  Hutching,  in  1784,  states  that  they 
had  a  small  village  on  the  w.  bank  of  the 
Mississippi,  8  m.  above  Pointe  Coupee,  La. 
Although  the  name  afterward  disappears 
from  print,  the  living  Tunica  remember 
them  as  neighbors  to  within  about  4C 
years.  Their  language  being  similar  tc 
that  of  the  Choctaw,  it  is  probable  that 
the  remnant  has  become  confused  with 
that  tribe.  (j.  R.  s. ) 

Affagoula.— Ilntchins  (1784)  inlmlay,  West.  Terr. 
119,  1797.  Nation  du  Chien.— Du  Pratz,  La.,  II. 
226,  1758.  Nation  of  the  Dog.—  Boudinot,  Star  in 
thi'  West,  128, 1816.  Ofagoulas.— Shea,  Cath.  Miss. 
147,  1855.  Ofegaulas.—  Latin- ,  Map  of  U.  S.,  1784 
Offagoulas.— La  Hiirpe  (1721)  in  French,  Hist 
f-oll.  La.,  in,  110,  1851.  Offegoulas.—  Dumont 

CULL.  30] 



ibid.,  v,  43,  1853.  Offogoulas.— Penicaut  (1700) 
ibid.,  i,  61,  1869.  Ofogoulas.—  Charlevoix,  Voy  to 
Am.,  n,  250,  1761.  Ofugulas.— N.  Y.  Doc  Col 
Hist.,  vir,  641,  1856.  Oofe-ogoolas.— Keane  in 
Stanford,  Compend.,  527,  1878.  Opocoulas.— Iber- 
ville  (1699)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  ISO,  1S80  Oufe 
Agoulas.—  McKenney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in 
80,  1854.  Oufe  Ogoulas.— Du  Pratz,  La  ,  n  2^0 
1758.  Oufe  Ogulas.— Boudinot,  Star  in  the  West', 
128,  1816.  Oufe-ouglas.— Jeffreys,  French  Dom 
Am.,  i,  163,  1761.  Oufi-Ougulas.—  Schermerhoru 
(1812)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s.,  n,  15,  1814 
Ouispe.— Iberville  (1699)  in  Margry,  Dec  iv  ISO* 
1880.  Ounspik.— Gravier  (1700)  quoted  bv  Shea' 
Early  Voy.,  3,  133,  1861.  Ouspie.— French  Hist' 
Coll. La. ,m,  106, 1851.  Oussipes.— Penicaut  (1700), 
ibid.,  n.  s.,  61, 1869.  TJshpi.— Swanton,  field  notes 
B.  A.  F.,  1907  (Tunica  name). 

Ogeechee.  A  town  or  subtribe  of  the 
Yuchi,  formerly  situated  at  some  point 
on  lower  Ogeechee  r.,  Ga.  The  Creeks 
and  other  tribes  made  war  on  them,  and 
according  to  Bartram  they  were  finally 
exterminated  by  the  Creeks  and  Caro 
lina  settlers  (?)  on  Amelia  id.,  Fla.,  where 
they  had  taken  refuge  after  having  been 
driven  from  the  mainland.  (j.  M.  ) 

How-ge-chu.—  Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch,  61  1848 
0-ge-chee.— Ibid.  Ogechi.— Alcedo,  Die.  Geog., 
Ill,  368,  17*8.  Ogeeche.— Bartram,  Travels  64  1792 
Oghiny-yawees.— Johnson  (1747)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col 
Hist.,  vi,  359,  1855  ("Senecas,  Chenondadees,  and 
the  Oghiny-yawees"). 

Oghgotacton.  See  OnocJcatin. 
Oglala  ('to  scatter  one's  own').  The 
principal  division  of  the  Teton  Sioux. 
Their  early  history  is  involved  in  com 
plete  obscurity;  their  modern  history  re 
counts  incessant  contests  with  other 
tribes  and  depredations  on  the  whites. 
The  first  recorded  notice  of  them  is  that 
of  Lewis  and  Clark,  who  in  1806  found 
them  living  above  the  Brule  Sioux 
on  Missouri  r.,  between  Cheyenne  and 
Bad  rs.,  in  the  present  South  Dakota, 
numbering  ]  50  or  200  men.  In  1825  they 
inhabited  both  banks  of  Bad  r.  from  the 
Missouri  to  the  Black  hills,  and  were 
then  friendly  with  the  whites  and  at 
peace  with  the  Cheyenne,  but  enemies  to 
all  other  tribes  except  those  of  their  own 
nation.  The'y  were  then  estimated  at 
1,500  persons,  of  whom  300  were  warriors. 
Their  general  rendezvous  was  at  the 
mouth  of  Bad  r.,  where  there  was  a  trad 
ing  establishment  for  their  accommoda 
tion.  In  1850  they  roamed  the  plains  be 
tween  the  N.  and  s.  forks  of  Platte  r.  and 
w.  of  the  Black  hills.  In  1862  they  oc 
cupied  the  country  extending  x.  E.  from 
Ft  Laramie,  at  the  mouth  of  Laramie  r., 
on  North  Platte  r.,  including  the  Black 
hills  and  the  sources  of  Bad  r.  and  reach 
ing  to  the  fork  of  the  Cheyenne,  and 
ranged  as  far  w.  as  the  head  of  Grand  r. 
De  Smet  (Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  277,  1865)  says: 
"The  worst  among  the  hostile  bands  are 
the  Blackfeet,  the  Ogallalas,  the  Unkpa- 
pas,  and  Santees."  The  Oglala  partici 
pated  in  the  massacre  of  Lieut.  Grattan 
and  his  men  at  Ft  Laramie  in  1854. 
From  1865  they  and  other  restless  bands 
3f  western  Sioux  were  the  terror  of  the 

frontier,  constantly  attacking  emigrant 
trams  on  the  plains  and  boats  on  the  H  ver 
fighting  soldiers,  and  harassing  the  forN 
and  stations  during  several  years-  un 
der  the  leadership  of  Sitting  Hull  and 
Crazy  Horse.  The  invasion  of  the  Blnek 
hills  by  gold  seekers  led  to  the  war  of 
1876,  in  which  Custer  and  his  command 
were  destroyed.  For  several  months  pre 
vious  thereto  stragglers  from  other  tribe< 
had  been  flocking  to  Sitting  Hull's  stand 
ard,  so  that  according  to  the  best  esti 
mates  there  were  at  the  battle  of  Little 


Bighorn  2,500  or  3,000  Indian  warriors. 
The  victor  and  his  band  were  soon  there 
after  defeated  by  (Jen.  Miles  and  tied 
to  Canada.  Crazy  Horse  and  more  than 
2,000  followers  surrendered  at  Ked  Cloud 
and  Spotted  Tail  agencies  in  the  May 
following.  These  different  parties  were 
composed  in  part  of  Oglala,  of  whom 
the  larger  part  probably  surrendered  with 
Crazy  Horse. 

The  Oglala  entered  into  a  treaty  of  peace 
with  the  United  States  at  the  mouth  of 
Teton  (Had)  r.,  S.  Dak.,  July  5,  1825,  and 




alsoa  treaty  signed  at  Ft  Sully, S.  Dak., Oct. 
2S,  1M>.\  prescribing  relations  with  the 
l/nited  States  and  \\ithothertribes.  An 
important  treaty  with  theOglala and  other 
tribes  was  made  at  FtLaramie.Wyo.,  Apr. 
29,  isds  in  whicli  t he v agreed  to  cease  hos- 


lit  iesand  which  defined  the  limits  of  their 
tribal  lands.  An  agreement,  confmnintr 
the  treaty  of  Istis,  was  concluded  at  lied 
Cloud  agency,  Xeb.,  Sept.  2<>,  KS76,  which 
was  signed  on  behalf  of  the  Oglala  by  Red 
Cloud  and  other  principal  men  of  the 

In  1900  the  Oglala  were  ollieially  re 
ported  to  number  (>,  727,  all  at  Pine  Rid«e 
agency,  S.  Dak. 

Lewis  and  Clark  (Orig.  Jour.,  vi,  99, 
190.")  i  mention  only  twodivisions,the  Sheo 
and  the  Okandandas.  According  to  the 
Report  of  Indian  Affairs  for  1875  (p.  250), 
the  Oglala  were  then  divided  into  four- 
hands,  "usually  called  Ogallallas,  Kioc- 
sies  [Kiyuksa],Onkapas  [Oyukhpe],  and 
\Vaxa/ies.  The  Kev.  John  Robinson  in 
a  letter  to  I>.,rse\  (1*79)  names  the  fol 
lowing  divisions:  I'ayabya,  Tapishlecha, 
Kiyuksa,Wa/ha/ha,  Iteshicha, Oyukhpe 
and  Waglnkhe.  These  correspond  with 
the  seven  hands  of  Red  Cloud's  picto- 
graphs.  According  to  Rev.  W.  J.  Ch-ve- 
lanil  (1884)  they  consist  of  20  bands,  as 
follow:  (1)  Iteshicha;  (2)  I'ayahva;  (3) 
Oyukhpe;  (4)  Tapishlecha;  '(5)  "Peshhr 
6)  Chekhuhaton;  (7)  Wablenicha-  (8) 
[eshlapteehela;  (!>)  Tashnahecha;  (10) 
Iwayusota;  (11)  \Vakan;  (12)  (a)  Igla- 

katekhila,  (b)  Iteshicha;  (13)  Iteshi- 
chaetanhan;  (14)  Kiyuksa;  (15)Wache- 
onpa;  (16)  Wachape;  (17)  Tiyochesli; 
(IS)  Waglukhe;  (19)  Oglala;  (20)  leska- 
cliincha.  Unidentified  bands  are:  31ini- 
sha,  Night  Cloud,  Old  Skin  Necklace,  Red 
lodge,  and  the  Shorthair  band.  See  D«- 
koto,  Tfton.  (,i.  o.  D.  c.  T.) 

Angallas. — Son.  Ex.  Doc.  90,  22d  Coiiff.,  1st  sess., 
(io,  1832.  Arkandada. — Krackenridge,  Views  La., 
7S,  181.").  Augallalla.—  II.  R.  Ex.  Doe.  117,  19th 
Cong.,  Istsess..  (i.  1826.  Chayenne Indians.— Morse, 
Rep.  to  Sec.  War,  3ti5,  1822  (error).  Ogablallas.— 
I  n<  I .  A IV.  Ri-p. ,  471 , 1838.  Ogalalab  Yokpahs.— T  wiss 
in  II.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  61,  36th  Cong.,  Istsess.,  l!j,  I860 
(the  latter  name  probably  intended  for  Oyukhpe, 
sometimes  used  to  designate  the  whole  people1). 
Ogalala  Dacotas. — Warren,  Dacota  Country,  19, 
18:>6.  O-ga-la'-las.—  Hayden,  Ethnog.  andPhilol. 
Mo.  Val.,  371.  18(52.  Ogalallahs.-M'Vickar,  Hist. 
Kxped.  Lewis  and  Clark,  T,  8C>,  1842.  Ogalallas  — 
Ind.  Rep.  AfL,  296,  1846.  O'Galla.— I".  S.  Ind 
Treat.  (180")),  Kappler  ed.,  092,  1903.  Ogallah.— 
Culbertson  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1850,  142,  18.')l. 
Ogallala. — Ramsey  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1849  80  1850 
O'Gallala.— Treaty  of  1866  in  U.  S.  Ind.  Treat., 
901,  1873.  Ogallalahs.— Keane  in  Stanford,  Com- 
pend.,  527,  1878.  Ogallallahs.— Parker,  Jour.,  65, 
1840.  Ogallallas.—  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  56,  18th  Cong 
1st  sess.,  9,  1824.  Ogallallees.— Do  Smet,  Letters, 
37,  note,  1843.  Ogeelala.— Schoolcraft,  Ind 
Tribes,  v,  494,  1855.  Ogellahs.— Ibid.,  I,  523,  1851. 
Ogellalah.— Ibid.,  iv,  252,  1854.  Ogellalas.— Ind. 
AIT.  Rep.,  59. 1842.  Ogillallah.— Parkman,  Oregon 
Trail,  113, 1883.  O-gla'-la.— Riggs,  Dak.  Grain,  and 
Diet.,  349,  1890.  Oglallahs.—  Fremont,  Explor. 


Kxped.,  57,  1854.  Ogolawlas.  —  Parker,  Minn. 
Handbook,  141, 1857.  O'Gullalas.— Treatyof  1867in 
U.S.  Ind. Treat.,  914,  1873.  Ohdada.—  .1.  O.Dorsey, 
inf'n  (San tee  name  i.  Okadada. — Robinson,  letter 
to  Dorsey,  1879.  Okanandans.— Bradbury,  Trav., 
90,  1817.  0-kan-dan-das.— Lewis  and  Chirk.  Dis- 
cov.,  table,  34, 180(5  (oneof  thetwodivisionsof  the 
Teton  Sioux).  Okdada.— Dorsey,  inf'n  (so  called 



by  Yankton).  Oknaka.— Williamson  in  School- 
craft,  Ind.  Tribes,  i,  249,  1851.  Onkdaka.— Ibid. 
O-toh'-son. — Harden,  Ethnog.  and  Philol  Mo 
Val.,  290,1862  ('little  stars':  Cheyenne  name).' 
Oyer-lal-lah. — Hoffman  in  H.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  3i>,  33d 
Cong.,  2d  sess.,  3,  1855.  Te'-ton,-o-kan-dan-das  — 
Lewis  and  Clark,  Discov.,  table,  30,  1806.  Teton 
Okandandes. — Ramsey  in  Ind.  AfT.  Rep.  1849,  87 
1850.  Tetons  Okandandas.— Lewis,  Trav.,  171,  1809! 
Ubchacha. — Dorsey,  Dhegiha  MS.  Dict.,B.  A.  E., 
1878  (Omaha  and  Ponca  name) . 

Oglala.  A  subdivision  of  the  Oglala 

Ogallallas.— Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  250,  1875  (one  of  the 
four  divisions  of  the  tribe).  Oglala-hca. — Dorsey, 
inf'n,  1880  ('true  Oglala').  Oglala  proper.— Robin 
son,  letter  to  Dorsey,  1879. 

Oglalaichichagha  ('makes  himself  an 
Oglala').  A  band  of  the  Brule  Teton 

Og-la'-la.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and  Philol.  Mo.  Val., 
376,  1862.  Oglala-icicaga.— Cleveland  quoted  by 
Dorsey  in  loth  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  219, 1897.  Oglala-itc:- 
itcaxa. — Ibid. 

Ohagi  (0-ha-gi,  'it  compressed  it.'- 
Hewitt).  The  Seneca  name  of  a  Tusca- 
rora  (?)  village  formerly  on  the  w.  side  of 
Genesee  r.,  a  short  distance  below  Cuy- 
lerville,  Livingston  co.,  N.  Y. — Morgan, 
League  Iroq.,  434,  468,  1851. 

Ohaguames.  A  former  tribe,  probably 
Coahuiltecan,  of  the  province  of  Coahuila, 
x.  E.  Mexico,  members  of  which  were 
gathered  into  the  mission  of  San  Juan 
Bautista  on  Sabinas  r. — Orozco  y  Berra, 
Geog.,  303,  1864. 

Ohamil.  A  Cowichan  tribe  on  the  s.  side 
of  lower  Fraser  r.,  Brit.  Col.,  just  below 
Hope;  pop.  55  in  1906. 

Channel.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  78,  1878.    Ohamil.— Ibid 
pt.  n,  160,  1901.     O'Hamil.— Ibid.,  SOU,  1879.      Oha- 
mille.— Ibid.,  1889,  pt.  1,  268,  1890.     Omail.— Brit. 
Col.  map,  Ind.  Aff.,  Victoria,  1872  (given  as  the 
name  of  a  town): 

Ohanhanska  ( '  long  reach  in  a  river' ) .  A 
former  band  and  village  of  the  Magayu- 
teshni  division  of  the  Mdewakanton 
Sioux,  on  Minnesota  r.,  consisting,  in 
1836,  of  80  people,  under  Wamditanka, 
3r  Big  Eagle,  also  known  as  Black  Dog. 
Big  Eagle's  band.— Gale,  Upper  Miss.,  251,  1867. 
31ack-dog.— Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  282,  1854.  Black 
3og's.— Long,  Exped.  St  Peter's  R.,  I,  380,  1824. 
Black  Dog's  band.— Cullen  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1859, 
.8, 1860.  Oanoska.— Long,  Exped.  St  Peter's  R.,  i, 
«5,  1824.  Ohah-hans-hah.— Prescott  in  School- 
•raft,  Ind.  Tribes,  II,  171,  1852.  0-hah-kas-ka-toh- 
-an-te.— Catlin,  N.  Am.  Inds.,  n,  134,  1844  (from 
hanhanska  taoyate,  'long  reach,  its  people'). 
•hunkasapa.— Williamson  in  Minn.  Geol.  Rep., 
10,  1884  ('Black  Dog').  Wah  ma  dee  Tunkah 
and.— Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  612,  1853 
Wanmditanka,  'Big  Eagle'). 

Ohanoak.  An  important  Chowanoc  vil- 
age  in  1586  on  the  w.  side  of  Cho\van  r., 
.ot  far  below  Nottoway  r.,  probably  in 
lartford  co.,  N.  C. 

linde  Towne.— Lane  (1586)  in  Hakluyt,  Voy.,  Ill, 
12,  1810  (so  called  by  the  English).  Ohanoak.— 
aid.  Ohanock.— Lane  in  Smith  (1629),  Va.,  I,  87, 
jpr.  1819.  Opanock.— Martin,  N.  C.,  1, 13,1829  (mis- 

Ohathtokhouchy.  A  former  Seminole 
)wn  on  Little  r.,40m.  E.  of  Apalachicola, 
i  Gadsden  co.,  Fla.,  in  1823.— H.  R.  Ex. 
•oc.  74,  19th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  27,  1826. 

Ohdihe  (fromohdihan,  'to  fall  into  an  <>b- 
•ct  endwise').  A  band  of  the  Sisseton 

Sioux,  an  offshoot  of  the  Witawa/i  vata  - 
Dorsey  in  15th  Rep.  B.  A.  K,  "if   ISM; 
Ohenonpa  ('two  boilings').     A  band  of 
the  Brule  Teton  Sioux. 

O-he-nom'-pa.— Hayden,  Ethnog  and  Phil,,]    \r(, 
Dorse^n  l?th  R°heBno5Pa— Cleveland  quoted  by 

Oherokouaehronon  ('people  of  the  <>ras-< 
country.'— Hewitt).  An  unidentified 
tribe  mentioned  with  many  others  in  a 
list  of  peoples  dwelling  above  the  Sault 
St  Louis  of  St  Lawrence  r.  in  1(540  (Jes 
Rel.  1640,  35,  1858).  The  list  is  imper 
fect,  containing  duplicate  names  given  as 
separate  tribes. 

Ohetur  (  OJiel'ur).  The  Yurok  name  « ,f 
a  Karok  village  opposite  and  below  Or 
leans  Bar,  Klamath  r.,  x.  w.  Cal.— A.  L. 
Kroeber,  inf'n,  1905. 

Ohiyesa.     See  Xaxtmaii,  Charles. 
Ohkonkemme.     A    village  in  1698  near 
Tisbury,  Marthas  Vineyard,  Mass. — Doc. 
of  1698  in  Mass.  Hist,  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s    x 
131,  1809. 

Ohotdusha    (0-hot-<ln'-xha,    'antelope'). 
A  band  of  the  Crows.— Morgan,  Anc  Soc 
159,  1877. 

Ohrante.  A  Mohawk  warrior  in  1776, 
called  Oteroughyanento  when  he  and 
Joseph  Brant  met  Lord  Germain  in  Lon 
don,  Mar.  14  of  the  year  named.  lie 
seems  to  be  the  Artmtes  whose  name  ap 
pears  on  one  of  the  Montreal  medals,  sev 
eral  of  which  have  been  connected  with 
Indians  of  that  period.  (w.  M.  B.  ) 

Ohuivo  ('the  place  to  which  they  re 
turned').  A  Tarahnmare  rancheria  in  a 
barranca  of  that  name  on  the  extreme 
headwaters  of  the  Rio  Fuerte,  in  w. 
Chihuahua,  Mexico.  The  Indians  live  in 
both  houses  and  caves,  in  one  of  the  latter 
of  which,  containing  the  remains  of 
ancient  habitations,  the  Tubare  are  said 
once  to  have  dwelt. — Lumholtz,  Unknown 
Mex.,  i,  187-192,  1902. 

Ohytoucoulas.  One  of  the  Taensa  vil 
lages  in  the  17th  century. — Iberville 
(1699)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  iv,  179,  1880. 

Oiaht.  A  Nootka  tribe  on  Barclay  sd., 
w.  coast  of  Vancouver  id.,  Brit.  Col. 
Ahadzooas  is  their  principal  village.  Pop. 
159  in  1902,  145  in  1906. 

Ho'aiath.— Boas  in  (Hh  Rep.  X.  W.  Tribes  Can.. 
31  1*90.  Ohey-aht.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.  1880,  315,18*1. 
Ohiat.— Miiyne,  Brit.  Col.,  .'51,  l.sGl.  Ohyaht  — 
Sproat,  Savage  Life,  308,  istis.  Ohyats.— Mayne, 
op.  cit.,  270.  Oiaht.— Can.  Ind.  AfT.  188:5,  INS,  1S84. 
Oiatuch.— Grant  in  Jour.  Roy.  Geog.  Soc..  1293,  1857. 
Oyty-aht.— Brit.  Col.  Map.  Ind.  Aff.,  Victoria,  1872. 
Oiaur.  A  former  rancheria  of  the  So- 
baipuriorPapago,  visited  by  Father  Kino 
in  1697  and  1699,  and  named  by  him  San 
Agustin.  Situated  on  the  Rio  Santa  Cruz, 
5  or  6  leagues  x.  of  San  Xavier  del  Bac,  s. 
Ariz.,  of  which  mission  it  was  a  visita  in 
1732.  At  the  latter  date  the  two  settle 
ments  had  1,300  inhabitants. 
Oiaur.— Mange  (1699)  quoted  by  Bancroft,  Ariz, 
and  X  Mex.,  35S,  1889.  S.  Agustin.— Kino,  map 
(1701)  ibid  360.  S.  Agustin  Oiaur.  — Bernal  (1697), 

( >rD<  UNGKO  YO <  >K  A 

[B.  A.  E. 

il,j,l  ;;:,(•,.  S.  Augustin.— Venegas,  Hist.  Gal..  I, 
mill).' 1751-1  S.  Augustinus.  — Kino,  map  (1<02)  in 
Sto'e'klein.Nene  Welt-Bolt,  71.  172(i. 

Oidoingkoyo.  A  former  Maidu  village 
near  the  headwaters  of  Feather  r.  and 
about  10  m.  x.  of  Prattville,  Plumas  co., 
(/;l| .  — Dixon  in  Hull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist., 
xvn,  pi.  3S,  1905. 

Ointemarhen.  A  village  or  tribe  said  to 
have  been  in  the  region  between  Mata- 
gorda  bay  and  Maligne  (Colorado)  r., 
Tex.  The  name  was  given  to  Joutel  in 
1687  by  the  Khahamo  Indians  who  dwelt 
in  that  country  and  who  were  probably 
Karankawan.  See  Gatschet,  Karankawa 
I  n.  Hans,  i,  35,  46,  1891.  (A.  C.  F.) 

Ointemarhen.— .lontel  (U'.s7)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  in, 
2N\  1S7S.  Otenmarhem.— .loutel  ( 1(587)  in  French, 
Ili-t.  Coll.  La.,  l,  137,  1816.  Otenmarhen, — Ibid., 

"Oitac.  A  Marieopa  rancheriaonthe  Rio 
(iila  in  1744. — Sedelmair  (1744)  cited  by 
Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  X.  Mex.,  366,  1889. 

Oivimana  ((r/r'ninnxt,  'scabby  people'  ; 
sinir.  Oli'imdn).  A  principal  division  of 
the  ('hryenne;  also  a  local  nickname  for 
a  part  of  the  Northern  Cheyenne. 
Hive.— Dorsey  in  Field  Colnmb.  Mus.  Pub.  103, 
rrj,  19(15.  Ho "iv  I'  ma  nan.— Grinnell,  Social  Org. 
Cheyennes,  13f>,  1905.  6'  ivima'  na.— Mooney  in 
llth'  Hep  B.  A.  E.,  1025,  1896.  Scabby  band.— Dor- 
sey  in  Field  Golnmb.  Mus.  Pub.  99.  1:5,  1905. 

'Ojageght  (Hodjage'de't  'he  is  carrying 
a  fish  by  the  forehead  strap.'  —  Hewitt). 
A  Cayuga  chief,  commonly  called  Fish 
Carrier,  whose  name  appears  on  the  treaty 
of  1790.  A  tract  of  land  a  mile  square 
had  been  reserved  for  him  ill  1789,  and 
in  that  year  a  letter  from  Buffalo  Creek 
was  signed  by  ( )jageghte  or  Fish  Carrier, 
and  10  other'Cayuga  chiefs.  In  1792  he 
had  a  silver  medal  from  Washington,  long 
preserved.  In  1795  his  name  appears  as 
Ojageghti,  and  in  1807 as  Ilojawgata.  He 
was  venerated  and  brave.  The  later  Fish 
Carriers  are  Canadian  Cayuga,  preserving 
the  name.  (w.  M.  H.  ) 

Ojai.  A  former  Chumashan  village 
about  10  m.  up  Buenaventura  r. ,  Ventura 
co.,  Cat. 

Au-hai'.  —  Henslia\v,  Buenaventura  MS.  voeab., 
B.  A.  I-'...  lvs(.  Aujay. — Taylor  in  Gal.  Farmer, 
.Inly  21,  lxt;:{.  Ojai.  — Ibid. 

Ojana.  A  former  Tano  pueblo  s.  of  the 
hamlet  of  Tejoti,  about  lat.  35°  20",  San- 
doval  co.,  N.  Mex.  It  was  inhabited 
when  visited  by  Ofiate  in  159S,  and  prob 
ably  as  late  as  1700.  — Bandelier  in  Arch. 
In-t.  Papers,  in,  ll'5,  lx<)0;  iv,  109,  1892. 
Ojana.— Oiiate  (159*)  in  Doc.  IinVl..  \vi.  111,  ]s7i. 
0-ja-na.— Bundelier,  op.  eit.,  m,  125  (aboriginal 

Ojeegwyahnugi  'fisher-skins').    A  tribe, 
probably   Athapascan,  known  to  the  Ot 
Ojeeg  Wyahnug. — Tanner,  Narr.,  illti,  1,"\',(). 

Ojeejok  C  I'rltirhnl.-,  'crane').  Agensof 
the  ( 'hinjx-wa. 

Ad-je-jawk.  Tanner,  .\Mi-r.,  315,  ls:;n.  Attoch- 
ingochronon.  .li-v  lie].  Kill),  155,  is.">s  (Huron 
name  i.  Aud-je-jauk.  -Kamseyin  Ind.  AIY.  Kep..  91 
!s")M.  Ojee-jok'.  — Morgan,  Ane.  Sue.,  ItiC,,  1S77. 

Ui-e-jauk.— Warren  in  Minn.  Hist.  Soc.Coll.,  v.44, 
l,s<So.  Utcitcak.  —  Win.  Jones,  infn,  1900  (proper 
form;  tr—di). 

Ojiataibues.  A  Maricopa  ranc-heria  on 
CJila  r.,  Ariz.,  in  the  18th  century. 
Ojia-taibues.— Rudo  Ensuyo  (ca.  1763),  22, 1863.  Ox- 
itahibuis.— Sedelmnir  (1744)  quoted  by  Bancroft. 
Ariz,  and  N.  Mex.,  366,  1889.  S.  lacobus  de  Oiadai- 
buisc. — Kino,  map  (1702),  in  Stocklein,  Xeue  Welt- 
Bott,  74,  1726. 

Ojio.  A  former  Sobaipuri  rancheria  vis 
ited  by  Father  Kino  in  1697;  situated  on 
the  E.  bank  of  San  Pedro  r.  near  its  junc 
tion  with  the  Gila,  s.  Arizona,  not  far 
from  the  present  Dudleyville. 
Ojio  — Bernal  (1697)  quoted  by  Bancroft,  Ariz,  and 
N.  Mex.,  356,  1889.  Victoria.— Ibid.  Victoria  de 
Ojio.— Kino  (1697)  in  Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  4th  s.,  i, 
2SO,  1856. 

Ojiopas.  The  Piman  name  of  appar 
ently  a  Yuman  tribe,  members  of  which 
visited  Father  Kino  while  among  the 
Quigyuma  of  the  lo\ver  Rio  Colorado  in 
1701.  In  all  probability  they  are  not  the 

Giopas.— Kino  (1701)  cited  in  Rudo  Ensayo  (ca. 
1763),  Guiteras  trans.,  132,  1894;  Coues,  Garees 
Diary,  551,1900:  Bancroft,  Xo.  Mex.  States,  i.  497, 
1884.  Ojiopas.— Ibid. 

Ojistatara.  An  Oneida  chief  in  1776, 
popularly  called  The  Grasshopper.  His 
name  appears  as  Peter  Ojistarara  in  1785, 
andamongthe  Kirkland  papers  isa  speech 
of  The  Grasshopper,  addressed  to  Gov. 
Clinton  of  New  York,  Jan.  27,  1785.  He 
was  then  principal  chief,  but  died  that 
year.  There  was  a  later  chief  of  the  same 
name.  (w.  M.  «.) 

Ojito  de  Samalayuca.  A  mission  estab 
lished  among  the  Suma  (q.  v.),in  1683; 
situated  8  leagues  below  El  Paso,  in 
Chihuahua,  Mexico. — Escalante  (1775) 
quoted  by  Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  X.  Mex., 
192,  1889." 

Ojo  Caliente  (Span.:  'warm  spring'; 
native  name,  K'iapkwainakwin,  'place 
whence  flow  the  hot  waters').  A  Zufii 
summer  village  about  14m.  s.  w.  of  Znni 
pueblo,  N.  Mex.,  not  far  from  the  ruined 
town  of  Hawikuh.  See  Mindeleff  in  8th 
Rep.  I>.  A.  E.,  96,  1891. 

AguasCalientes. — Bandelier  quoted  inArch.Inst. 
Rep.,  V,  43,  1884.  Caliente.— Donaldson,  Moqui 
Pueblo  Inds.,  127,  1893.  Hos  Ojos  Calientes.— 
Cashing  in  Millstone,  ix,  19,  Feb.  1884  (misprint 
Hos  forJ.ux).  K'iap-kwai-na.— Gushing,  ibid.,  ix, 
55,  Apr.  1884  (Znfii  name).  K'iap'-kwai-na-kwe.— 
Ibid.  (  ='  people  of  the  town  whence  flow  the  hot 
waters').  K'iap  kwai  na  kwin. — Gushing  in  4th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  494,  1886.  Ojo  Caliente.— Common 
map  form.  Ojos  Calientes. — Gushing  in  Mill 
stone,  ix,  225,  Dec.  1884.  Tkap-que-na.— Steven 
son  in  5th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  542, 1887. 

Oka.  A  modern  village  of  Iroquois, 
Nipissing,  and  Algonkin,  on  L.  of  the 
Two  Mountains,  near  Montreal,  Quebec. 
Cuoq  says  oka  is  the  Algonkin  name 
for  goldfish  or  pickerel  (see  Ocrow). 
The  Iroquois  name,  Kanesatake,  signifies 
'on  the  hillside',  from  onesata  'slope  or 
mountainside,'  ke  'at  or  on.' 

The  village  was  settled  in  1720  by 
Catholic  Jroquois,  who  were  previously  at 
the  Sault  au  liecollet,  ar.d  who  numbered 

BULL.  30] 



about  900  at  the  time  of  removal.  Soon 
after  they  were  joined  by  some  Nipissing 
and  Algonkin,  who  removed  from  a 
mission  on  Isle  aux  Tourtes,  the  latter 
place  being  then  abandoned.  The  two 
bodies  occupy  different  parts  of  the  vil 
lage,  separated  by  the  church,  the  Iro- 
quois  using  the  corrupted  Mohawk  lan 
guage,  while  the  others  speak  Algonquian. 
The  total  number  of  both  was  375  in  1884, 
and  461  (395  Iroquois,  66  Algonkin)  in 
1906.  In  1881  a  part  of  them  removed  to 
Watha  (Gibson),  Ontario,  where  they  are 
now  established,  numbering  140,  making 
the  total  number  at  both  settlements 
about  600.  For  an  account  of  these  In 
dians  see  Life  of  Ilev.  Amand  Parent, 
Toronto,  1886,  in  which  the  religious 
troubles  are  related  from  a  Protestant 
point  of  view.  (j.  >i.  J.  x.  B.  n. ) 

Canaghsadagaes. — Johnson   (1767)  in  N.  Y.  Doe. 
Col.  Hist.,  VII,  958,  1856.   Canasadagas.— Johnson 
(1763). ibid.,  582.     Canasadauga.— Eustburn  (1758) 
quoted  by  Drake,  Trag.  Wild.,  283,  1S41.    Canasa- 
dogh. — La  Tour,  Map,  1779.     Canasadogha. — Ibid., 
1782.    Canasatauga.— Smith (1799) quotedby Drake, 
Trag.  Wild.,    181,   1841.       Canassadaga.  —  Golden 
(1727),  Five  Nat.,  172,  1747.    Canassategy.— Weiser 
(1753)   in    N.  Y.  Doc.    Col.  Hist.,  yi,    795,   1855. 
Caneghsadarundax. — Messageof  1763,  ibid.,  vn.  544, 
1856  (should  be  Canasasaga,  Arundax  [Adiron- 
dacks] ).  Canessedage. — Governorof  Canada 1 1695), 
ibid.,  IV,  120, 1854.     Cannusadago.— Petition  of  1764, 
ibid.,  vn,  614,  1856.    Canossadage.— Romer  (1700), 
ibid.,  iv,  799,  1854.    Conaghsadagas.— Canajoharie 
Conf.  (1759),  ibid.,  vn,  393,  1856.    Conasadagah.— 
Stoddert  (1750),  ibid.,  vi,  582,  1855.    Conasadago.— 
Murray  (1782)  in  Vt.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  n,  357,  1871. 
Conasadauga. — Eastburn  (1758)  quoted  by  Drake, 
Trag.  Wild.,    271,  1841.    Conessetagoes.  —  Clinton 
(1745)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vi,  276, 1855.    Cones- 
tauga.— Smith  quoted  by    Day,  Penn.,  118,  1843. 
Conissadawga.— Hale  in  N.  H.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  n, 
93,  1827.     Connasedagoes. — Bouquet  ( 1764)  quoted 
by  Jefferson,  Notes,  147,1794.  Connecedaga.— Long, 
Voy.  and  Trav.,  25, 1791.     Connecedegas.— McKen- 
ney  and  Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  80,  1854.    Connefe- 
lagoes. —  Hutchins    (1778)    in    Schoolcraft,    Ind. 
Tribes,   vi,   714,   1857.      Connesedagoes. — Croghan 
[1765)  in  Monthly  Am.  Jour.  Geol.,  272, 1831.   Con- 
aosedagoes.  —  Thompson    quoted     by    Jefferson, 
Sotes.  282,   1825.     Connosidagoes. — Boudinot,  Star 
n   the  West,  126,  1816.      Connossedage.— Hansen 
1700)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  IV,  805,  1S54.     Gan- 
igsadagas.— German  Flats  Conf.  (1770),  ibid.,  vin, 
!29,  1857.    Ganesatague.— Doc.   of  1741,   ibid.,   IX, 
079,   1855.     Kanassatagi  lunuak.— Gatschet,  Pen- 
»bscotMS.,  B.A.E.,  1887  (Penobscotname).    Kan- 
satake.  —  Cuoq,   Lex.    Iroq.,   10,  1883   (Mohawk 
tame).    Kanesatarkee. — King,  Journ.  Arc.  Ocean, 
,11, 1836.    Kanossadage.— Freerman  ( 1704)  in  N.  Y. 
>oc.  Col.  Hist.,  IV,  1163,  1854.     Lac  de  deux  Mon- 
agne.— Stoddert  (1750),  ibid.,  vi,  582,  1855.    Lac 
edeux  Montagnes. — Johnson  (1763),  ibid.,  vn,  582, 
356.   Lake  of  theTwoMountains.— Shea.Cath.Miss., 
S3, 1855.   Oka.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  31, 1878.   Scawenda- 
eys.— Johnson  (1747)  in   N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
1, 359, 1855.    Scenondidies.— Stoddert  (1753),  ibid., 
$0.    Schawendadies.— Ft  Johnson    Conf.    (1756), 
)id.,  vii,  239,  1856.    Shoenidies.— Lindesay  (1749), 
)id.,  vi,  538,  1855.     Shouwendadies.— Ft  Johnson 
onf.  (1756),  ibid.,  vii,  233,  1856.     Skawendadys.— 
anajoharieConf.  (1759), ibid..  392.   Two-Mountain 
•oquois. — Morgan,  Systems   Consang.,  153,  1871. 
illage  of  the  Two  Mountains.— Jeffervs,  Fr.  Dom., 
:.  1,14,  1761. 

Okaaltakala  ( '  between  the  waters ' ) .  A 
•rmer  Choc-taw  village  that  probably 
ood  at  the  confluence  of  Petickfa  and 
annubbee  crs.,  in  Kemper  co.,  Miss. 

Oka  Altakala.— Halbert  in   1'ub.  MN*    HJM    s,,c 
vi,  424.  1902.     Oka-altakkala.— West  Florida  nun'-' 
en.  17/5.     Oka  attakkala.— Romans,  Florida    310 

Okachippo.  A  former  Choctaw  town  in 
Mississippi.  It  was  evidently  in  Neshoba 
co.,  but  the  exact  location  is  not  known. 
The  name  may  lie  intended  for  nfoi- 
shippa,  'water  run  down.' — Halhert  in 
Pub.  Miss,  Hint.  Soc.,  vi,  480,  15)02. 
Oka  chippo.— West  Florida  map,  en.  1775. 

Okacoopoly.  A  former  Choctaw  town 
on  Ocobly  cr.,  Neshoba  co.,  Miss.,  from 
which  it  probably  derived  its  name. 
The  name  may  have  been  <)kn-<ikobli, 
'water  where  the  luting  is.'  referring  to 
good  fishing  there.  — Halbert  in  Pub. 
Miss.  Hist.  Soc.,  vi,  429,  1902. 
Oka  Coopoly.— West  Florida  map.  en.  1775. 

Okaghawichasha  ( '  man  of  the  south ' ) . 
A  band  of  the  Brule  Teton  Sioux. 
Okaga-wicasa.— Dorse y  (after  Cleveland)  in  15th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  219,  1897.     Okaxa-witcaca.— Ibid. 

Okahoki  (perhaps  M'okahoki-,  'people 
of  the  pumpkin  place').  A  Delaware 
band  or  subclan  formerly  living  on  Ridley 
and  Cram  crs.  in  Delaware  co.,  Pa.  lii 
1703  they  were  removed  to  a  small  res 
ervation  near  \Villistown  Inn. 
M'okahoki. — Brinton,  Lenape  Leg.,  39,  ls«s,r>.  0-ka- 
ho'-ki. — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  172,  1877  (said  to  mean 
'  ruler'). 

Okahullo  ('mysterious  water').  A 
former  scattering  Choctaw  town  on  and 
near  the  mouth  of  Sanotee  cr.,  Neshoba 
co.,  Miss.,  and  extending  into  Newton 
co. — Halbert  in  Pub.  Miss.  Hist.  Soc.,  vi, 
425,  1902;  Brown,  ibid.,  445. 
Oka  Hoola. — West  Florida  map,  ca.  1775.  Oka 
Hoolah.  — Romans,  Florida,  310,  1775.  Okha 
Hullo. — Brown,  op.  cit. 

Okak.  A  Moravian  Eskimo  mission  on 
an  island  in  Okak  bay,  coast  of  Labrador, 
established  in  1776."  The  first  Christian 
Eskimo  convert  in  Labrador  was  baptized 
here  in  the  same  year.  In  1851  the 
natives  of  the  vicinity  suffered  severely 
from  famine.  It  is  st'ill  a  nourishing  sta 
tion  and  the  seat  of  an  orphan  asylum. 

Okak. —  Thompson,  Moravian  Miss.,  229,  1S90. 
Ok-kak  — Hind,  Labrador  Penin.,  n,  199,  1st 53. 
O'Kok.— McLean,  Hudson  Bay,  n,  157,  1849. 

Okakapassa.  A  former  Choctaw  town 
that  environed  the  present  Pinkney  Mill 
in  Newton  co.,  Miss. — Brown  in  Pub. 
Miss.  Hist.  Soc.,  vi,  443,  1902.  Cf. 
A  colapissa. 

Little Colpissas.-  Jeffervs,  French  Dom.  Am.,  map, 
148,  1761.  Oka  Lopassa.— West  Florida  map,  ca. 

Okalusa  ('black  water').  The  name 
of  a  settlement  or  of  settlements  of  the 
Choctaw.  On  d'Anville's  map  of  1732 
one  is  laid  down  on  the  s.  side  of  Black- 
water  cr.,  Kemper  co.,  Miss.  There  are 
the  remains  of  several  other  villages 
along  the  same  stream  which  may  have 
borne  this  name  at  one  time  or  another. 
The  Oaka  Loosa  of  Romans'  map  (1775) 
is  not  on  this  stream,  however,  but  on 
White's  branch,  in  the  same  county, 

3456— Bull.  30,  pt  2—07 8 


[B.  A.  E. 

\\hnv  are  still  the  remains?  of  a  town. 
It  is  possible  that  White's  branch  was 
also  called  Okalusa  in  Romans'  tune. 
This  writer  represents  the  Black  Water 
warriors  as  predatory  in  their  habits, 
often  making  inroads  into  the  territory 
of  the  Creeks.  In  1831  the  Black  Water 
people  numbered  78.— Halbert  in  Pub. 
Miss.  Hist.  Soe.,  in,  367-36S,  1900;  vi, 

4"0,  1902. 

Black  Water.— .U-iYerys.  French  Dom., 1, 165,1761. 
Oaka  Loosa.— Romans,  Florida,  map,  1775.  Ogue 
Loussas.-.MYrrvs,  French  Dom.,  1, 1(54.  1761.  Oka 
Loosa  — Romans,  Florida,  310,  1775.  Okecoussa.— 
lattre  Map  U.S.,  7784.  Oke  Lousa.— Pub.  Miss. 
Hist.  Soc..  vi,  -120,  1902  (misquotation  of  d'An- 
ville).  Oke  Loussa.—  d'Anville's  map  in  Hamil 
ton  Colonial  Mobile,  15S,  1897.  Oque-Loussas.— 
Du  Pratz,  La.,  n.  241,  1758. 

Okanagan  Lake.  The  local  name  fora 
body  of  Okinagan  on  the  w.  shore  of 
Okanagan  lake  ins.  w.  British  Columbia; 
pop.  37  in  1901,  the  last  time  the  name 

Helowna.— Can.  Ind.  Aff.,  pt.  II,  166,  1901. 

Okapoolo.  A  former  Choctaw  village 
probably  in  the  present  Newton  co., 
Miss. — Romans,  Florida,  map,  1775. 

Okatalaya  (Oka-talma,  'spreading 
water').  One  of  the  Choctaw  Sixtowns 
which  controlled  a  large  extent  of  terri 
tory  in  the  present  Jasper  and  Hmith  cos., 
Miss.,  but  centered  on  Oka  Talaia  cr. — 
Halbert  in  Pub.  Ala.  Hist.  Soc.,  Misc. 
Coll.,  i,  3S3,  1901. 

Okawasiku  ('coot').  A  stibphratry  or 
gens  of  theMenominee. — Hoffman  in  14th 
Rep.  B.  A.  K.,  42,  1896. 

Okchayi.  A  former  Upper  Creek  town 
on  Oktchayi  cr.,  a  w.  tributary  of  Talla- 
poosa  r.,  3  in.  below  Kailaidshi,  in  Coosa 
co.,  Ala.  Its  inhabitants  were  of  Aliba- 
mu  origin,  as  were  also  those  of  Okchay- 
ndshi.  Milfort  gives  a  tradition  concern 
ing  their  migration.  Another  Creek  set 
tlement  of  the  same  name  was  situated  on 
the  E.  bank  of  Tombigbee  r.,  at  the  ford 
of  the  trail  to  the  Creek  Nation,  which 
was  in  a  bend  of  the  stream  a  few  miles 
below  Sukanatchi  junction,  probably  in 
Sumter  co.,  Ala.  This  was  probably  the 
mother  town  of  the  other  Okchayi  and 
of  Okchayudshi.  (A.  s!  <;.) 

Hook-choie.— Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch,  37,  1848. 
Hootchooee.— Hawkins  (1813)  in  Am.  State  Pap., 
Iinl.  All'.,  I,  s.r>2,  1832.  Oakchog.— Sen.  Ex.  Doc. 
•12.">,  21th  Cong..  1st  sess.,  302,  1836.  Oakchoie.— 
Pickett,  Hi-t.  Ala.,  n.l'.-ll,  ls:>l.  Oakchoys.— Swan 
(1791)  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  v,  262,  1855. 
Oakgees.— (ialpliin  (17*7)  in  Am.  State  Pap.,  Ind. 
AIT.,  1.32.  1*32.  Oakjoys.—Blonnt  (1792),  ibid.,  270. 
Occha. — .IrttVrys,  French  Dom.  Am.,  i,  134,  map, 
17til.  Occhoy.— Romans,  Florida, 327, 1775.  Ocka.— 
Alrcdo,  Die. Geog., ill, 361. 1788.  Ockha.— JelTerys, 
Am.  Atlas, map 5, 1776.  Ockhoyg.— McKenney  and 
Hall,  Ind.  Tribes,  in,  80,  isf>l.  Ok-chai.— Adair, 
Am.  I nds.,  257, 273, 177;").  Okchoys.— Romans,  Flor 
ida,  '.MI,  177.").  Oke-choy-atte.— Schoolcraft,  Ind. 
Tribes,  i,  266.  1851.  Okohoys.— Carroll,  Hist.  Coll. 
S.c..  i,  I'.K).  1x36.  Oukehaee.— Sohermerhorn  (1X12) 
in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d  s.,  n,  18,  1814.  Oxiail- 
le«.— Milfort,  M.'moirc,  266,  1802.  Ozeailles.— 
I'ickctt,  Hist.  Ala.,  i.  X8,  1x51. 

Okchayi.     A  town  of  the  Creek  Nation, 
on  Canadian  r.,  near  Hillabi,  Okla. 
Oktchayi.— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr. Leg.,  n,  186, 1888. ; 

Okchayudshi  ('little  Okchayi').  A 
former  small  Upper  Creek  town  in  the 
present  Elmore  co.,  Ala.,  on  the  E.  bank 
of  Coosa  r.,  between  Odshiapofa  (Little 
Talassee)  and  Tuskegee.  The  village  was: 
removed  to  the  E.  side  of  Tallapoosa  r.  on 
account  of  Chickasaw  raids. 

Hook-choie-oo-che.— Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch,  37, 
1848.  Hookchoiooche. — Hawkins  (1813)  in  Am. 
State  Papers,  Ind.  Aff.,  I.  854,  1832.  Little  Oak- 
choy.— ('reek  paper  (1836)  in  H.  R.  Rep.  37,  31st 
Cong.,  2d  sess.,  122,  1851.  Little  Oakjoys.— U.  S. 
Ind.  Treat.  (1797),  68, 1837.  Oakchoieooche.— Pick 
ett,  Hist.  Ala.,  II,  267,  1851.  Oktchayu'dshi.— 
Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I.  141,  1884. 

Oke.  The  principal  village  of  the  Ehat- 
isaht  (q.  v.),  011  Eperanza  inlet,  w.  coast, 
of  Vancouver  id.,  Brit.  Col. — Can.  Ind. 
Aff.,  264,  1902. 

Okechumne.     A  former   Moquelumnan 
group  011  Merced  r.,  central  Cal. 
Ochekhamni. — Kroeber  in  Arn.  Anthrop..  vm,  659, 
1906.    Okechumne.— Wessells  (1853)  in  H.  R.  Ex. 
Doc.  76,  34th  Cong.,  3d  sess.,  30,  1857. 

Okehumpkee  (probably  'lonely  water' ). 
A  former  Seminole  town  30  m.  s.  w.  from 
Volusia,  and  N.  E.  of  Dade's  battle  ground, 
Volusia  co.,  Ela.  Mikanopy  was  chiei 
in  1823,  between  which  date"  and  1836  it 
was  abandoned. 

Ocahumpky.— Gadsden  (1836)  in  H.  R.  Doc.  78,  25th 
Cong.,  2dsess.,  407, 1838.  Okahumky.— Scott's  map, 
ibid.,  408-9.  Okehumpkee. -H.  R.  Doc.  74,  19th 
Cong.,  1st  sess.,  27,  1826. 

Oketo.  The  Yurok  name  of  Big  lagoon 
on  the  x.w.  coastof  Cal.,  10 m.  N.  of  Trini 
dad,  as  well  as  of  the  largest  of  the  several* 
Yurok  villages  thereon.  (  A.  L.  K.  ) 

Okhatatalaya  (Okhata-talaia,  'spreading 
pond') .  A  former  Choctaw  town  in  the 
westernmost  part  of  the  present  Newtoc 
co.,  Miss.  It  was  named  from  a  pond 
several  acres  in  extent,  near  the  center  ol 
the  town,  which  was  a  great  resort  foi 
wild  fowl. — Browrii  in  Pub.  Miss.  Hist. 
Soc..  vi,  445,  1902. 

Okilisa  (0-W-li-sa}.  An  extinct  Greet 
clan. — Gatsehet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  i,  155. 

Okinagan  (etymology  doubtful).  A 
name  originally  applied  to  the  confluence 
of  Similkameen  and  Okanogan  rs. ,  but  ex 
tended  iirst  to  include  a  small  band  anc 
afterward  to  a  large  and  important  division 
of  the  Salishan  family.  They  formerly 
inhabited  the  w.  side  of  Okanogan  r.. 
Wash.,  from  Old  Ft  Okanogan  to  the  Ca 
nadian  border,  and  in  British  Columbia 
the  shores  of  Okanagan  lake  and  the  sur 
rounding  country.  Later  they  displaced 
an  Athapascan  tribe  from  the  valley  oi 
the  Similkameen.  In  1906  there  were  527 
Okinagan  on  Colville  res.,  Wash.,  and  824 
under  the  Kamloops-Okanagan  agency, 
British  Columbia;  total,  1,351.  (Jibbsm 
1855  gave  the  following  list  of  Okinagan 
bands  on  Okanogan  r. :  Tkwuratum,  Ko- 

BULL.  30] 



nekonep,  Kluckhaitkwu,  Kinakanes,  and 
Milakitekwa.  The  Kinakanes  appear  to 
be  the  Okinagan  proper.  He  also  classed, 
the  Sanpoil  with  them,  but  says  "these 
are  also  claimed  by  the  Spokans,"  and  in 
fact  they  are  still  oftener  placed  by  them 
selves.  To  Gibbs'  list  should  be  added 
the  Iiitietook  band  of  Ross.  The  follow 
ing  villages  or  bands  are  enumerated  in 
the  Canadian  Keports  of  Indian  Affairs: 
Ashnola,  Chuchunayha,  Keremeus,  Nka- 
maplix,  Nkamip,  Okanagan  Lake,  Pentic- 
ton,  Shennosquankin,  and  Spahamin. 
Teit  gives  four  others:  Kedlamik,  Kom- 
konatko,  Ntlkius,  and  Zutsemin.  Dawson 
adds  Whatlminek.  See  also  Skamoynu- 

Kank-'utla'atlam.— Boas  in  5th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes 
Can. ,10, 1889  (' flatheads ':  Kutenai  name) .    Kina 
kanes.— Gibbs  in  Pac.   R.   R.  Rep.,   I,  412,   1855. 
KokEnu'k'ke.— Chamberlain  in  8th  Rep.   X.   W. 
Tribes  Can.,  7,   1892   (Kutenai  name).    Oakana- 
gans. — Ross,  Fnr  Hunters,  I,  44,1855.  Oakinacken. — 
•Ross,  Adventures,  287,  1847  (used  collectively  and 
also  as  applying  to  a  subdivision).     Oakinagan.— 
Cox,  Columb.  R.,  II,  86, 1831.    Oehinakein.— Giorda, 
Kalispel  Diet,,  I,  439,  1877-79.     Okanagam.— Duflot 
de  Mofras,  Oregon,  n,  100,  1844.     Okanagan.— Par 
ker,  Journal,  298,  1840.    Okanagon.— Teit  in  Mem. 
Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  n.  167,  1900.     0-kan-a-kan.— 
Morgan,  Consang.  and  Affin.,  290,  1871.    Okana- 
kanes.— De  Smet,  Letters,  230,  1843.     Okanaken.— 
Boas  in  6th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  map,  1890. 
O'Kanies-Kanies.— Stevens  in  H.  R.  Doc.  48,  34th 
Cong.,  1st  sess.,  3, 1856.     Okenaganes. — Shea,  Cath. 
Miss.,  477,  1855.    Okenakanes.— De  Smet,  Letters, 
224,  1843.    Okiakanes.— Stevens  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep. 
1856,  190,  1857.     Okinaganes.— De  Smet,  op.  cit.,  37. 
Okinagans. — M'Vickar,  Exped.  Lewis  and  Clark, 
II,  386, 1842.     Okinahane.— Stevens  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc. 
66,  34th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  12, 1856.    OKinakain.— Gal- 
latin  in  Trans.  Am.Ethnol.  Soc.,  II,  27,  1848.     Oki- 
nakan.— Hale  in  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  vr,  205,  1846. 
Okinakanes.— Stevens  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  392,  1854. 
O'Kinakanes.— Taylor  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  4, 40th  Cong., 
spec,  sess.,  26, 1867.     Okina'k'en.— Boas  in  5th  Rep. 
N.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  10,  1889.     O'kina'k'en.— Cham 
berlain  in  8th  Rep.  X.  W.  Tribes  Can.,  7,  1892. 
Okinekane.— De  Smet,  Letters,  215,  1843.     Okin-e- 
Kanes.— Craig  in  H.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  76,  34th  Cong., 
3d  sess.,  171,  1857.     0-kin-i-kaines.— Shaw  in  H.  R. 
Ex.  Doc.  37,  34th  Cong..  3d  sess.,  113,  1857.     Okino- 
kans.— Watkins  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  20,  45th  Cong., 
2d  sess.,  5,  1878.     0-ki-wah-kine.— Ross  in  Ind.  Aff. 
Rep.,  27,  1870.     Oknanagans.— Robertson  (1846)  in 
H.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  76.  30th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  9,  1848. 
Okonagan.— Wilkes,  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  IV,  431, 
1845.    Okonagon.— Dart  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  216, 1851. 
Okonegan— Wilkes,  ibid.,  461,  1854.     Omahanes.— 
Stevens  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  66,  34th  Cong.,  1st  sess., 
10,  1856.     Onkinegans.— Lane  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  52, 
ilst  Cong.,  1st  sess..   170,  1850.     Oo-ka-na-kane  — 
Dawson  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec.  u,  6,  1891 
'Ntlakyapamuk    name).     Oukinegans.— Lane  in 
[nd.  Aff.  Rep.,  159,  1850.     Schit-hu-a-ut.— Maekay 
uioted  in  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec.  n,  6,  1891. 
5chit-hu-a-ut-uh.— Ibid.  Sinkuafli.— Gatschet,  MS., 
3.  A.  E.  (properly  Isonkuaili,  'our  people':  own 
lame) .    Ske-luh.— Maekay  quoted  by  Dawson  in 
Trans._Roy.  Soc.  Can.,  sec.  n,  7, 1891  (own  name). 
Soo-wan'-a-mooh. — Dawson,    ibid.,  5   (Shuswap 
lame).    Su-a-na-muh.— Maekay  quoted  by  Daw- 
on,  ibid.    TcitQua'ut.— Boas  in  5th  Rep.  N.  W. 
Tribes  Can.,   10,   1889   (Xtlakyapamuk     name). 
J-ka-nakane. — Mackav   quoted  bv  Dawson,    op. 
•it,,  6. 

Okinoyoktokawik.  A  small  Kaviagmiut 
Eskimo  village  on  the  coast  opposite 
Pledge  id.,  Alaska. — llth  Census,  Alaska, 
62,  1893. 

Okiogmiut.  A  name  sometimes  given 
ollectivelv  to  the  Eskimo  of  St  Lawrence 

and  the  Diomede  ids.,  Alaska.  The 
former  belong  properly  to  the  Yuit  of 
Asia;  for  the  latter,  see  Imaklimiut  and 

Island  Innuit.— Dull  in  _Proc.  A.  A.  A.  S.,  xxxiv, 

in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  map,  1884. 

Okiosorbik.  A  former  Eskimo  village 
on  Aneretok  fjord,  E.  Greenland;  pop  50 
in  1829. 

Okkiosorbik.— Graah,  Exped.  E.  Coast  Greenland, 
114,  1837. 

Okisko.  A  chief  of  the  Weapemeoc  of 
Virginia,  in  1585-86,  who  with  Menatonon 
gave  to  Kalfe  Lane  most  of  the  informa 
tion  communicated  to  Sir  Walter  Kaleigh 
respecting  the  surrounding  region.  Al 
though  independent,  Okisko  was  domi 
nated  to  some  extent  by  Menatonon,  who 
induced  him  to  acknowledge  subjection  to 
the  English  queen.  Nevertheless  Lane 
accused  him  of  beingtheleaderin  the  plot 
formed  by  his  tribe,  theMandoag  (Xotto- 
way),  and  other  Indians,  to  massacre  the 
colonists.  (c.  T.  ) 

Okitiyakni  (Hitchiti:  Oki-tiyakni,  prob 
ably  'whirlpool'  or  'river  bend').  A 
former  Lower  Creek  village  on  the  E. 
bank  of  Chattahoochee  r.,  8  m.  below 
Eufaulc.,  in  Quitman  co.,  Ga.  Pop.  580 
in  1822. 

Octiyokny. — Woodward,  Reminis.,  107,  1859. 
0-he-te-yoe-on-noe.— Hawkins  (1814)  in  Am.  State 
Pap.,  Ind,  Aff.,  I,  859,  1832.  Oka-tiokinans.— 
Morse,  Rep.  to  Sec.  War,  364, 1822.  Oketayocenne. — 
Hawkins,  op.  cit.,  860.  Okete  Yocanne.— Ibid., 
845.  0-ke-teyoc-en-ne.— Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch, 
66, 1848.  Oki-tiyakni.— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg., 
I,  140,  1884. 

Oklafalaya  ('the  long  people').  One 
of  the  three  great  divisions  into  which 
the  Choetaw  (q.  v.)  were  divided  for  at 
least  a  third  of  a  century  prior  to  their  re 
moval  to  Indian  Ter.  Originally  it  may 
have  been  the  name  of  a  town,  extended 
in  time  to  include  all  the  settlements  in 
the  region  in  which  it  was  situated.  Un 
like  those  in  the  eastern  divisions,  the 
Indians  of  this  section  were  scattered  in 
small  settlements  over  a  great  extent  of 
territory.  ' '  The  boundary  line  separating 
this  from  the  northeastern  district  began 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  present  little  town 
of  Cumberland,  in  Webster  co.  [.Miss.]; 
thence  ran  southwesterly  on  the  dividing 
ridge  separating  the  headwaters  of  Tibbee 
(Oktibbeha)  on  the  E.  from  the  Big  Black 
waters  on  the  w.  down  to  the  vicinity  of 
Dido,  in  Choetaw  co.;  thence  in  a  xig/ag 
"course  on  the  dividing  ridge  between  the 
Noxubee  and  the  Yokenookeny  waters  to 
the  vicinity  of  New  Prospect;  thence  it 
zigzagged  more  or  less  easterly  between 
the  headwaters  of  Pearl  r.  and  the  >o\-u- 
bee  waters  to  a  point  on  the  ridge  not  far 
s.  of  Old  Singleton  (not  the  present  Sin 
gleton);  thence  southerly  on  the  ridge 
between  the  Pearl  r.  waters  on  the  w.  and 


[B.  A.  E. 

the  Xoxubeeaud  Sukenatcha  waters  on 

tin'  K.  :  thence  somewhat  westerly  by  Ya- 
7.00  Town,  in  Xeshoba  eo. ;  thence  more 
or  U-ss  southerly  on  the  ridge  between, 
the  headwaters  of  Talasha  and  the  head 
waters  of  Oktibbi'ha.  (there  are  two  Ok- 
tibl>eha  crs.  in  Mississippi)  to  the  ancient 
town  of  Kunshak-bolnkta,  which  was  sit 
uated  in  the  s.  w.  part  of  Kemper  co., 
some  -  m.  from  the  Neshoba  and  about 
a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  Lauderdale 
eo.  line.  The  line  separating  the  western 
from  the  southeastern  began  at  Kunshak- 
bolukta,  iirst  going  a  short  distance  north 
westerly  between  the  Talasha  and  Oktib- 
beha  waters;  thence  it  y.ig/agged  more  or 
U-ss  southwesterly  on  the  dividing  ridge 
between  the  Pearl  and  the  Chickasawhay 
waters  until  it  came  to  the  vicinity  of 
Lake  Station,  in  Scott  co.  Mokalusha 
Town  i  Imoklasha),  situated  on  the  head 
waters  of  Talasha  cr.,  in  Neshoba  co., 
though  somewhat  s.  of  the  regular  line, 
belonged  to  the  western  district,  From 
the  vicinity  of  Lake  Station  the  line  ran 
southward  on  the  dividing  ridge  between 
West  Tallyhaly  and  Leaf  r.  down  to  the 
confluence  of  these  two  streams.  Leaf  r. 
from  tliis  confluence  down  to  where  it 
struck  the  Choctaw  boundary  line  formed 
the  remainder  of  the  line  separating  the 
western  district  from  the  southeastern. "- 
Hall>ert  in  Tub.  Ala.  Hist,  Soc.,  Misc. 
Coll..  i,  375-376,  1901. 

Hattack-falaih-hosh.— Ri-c(l  in  Sturm's  Statehood 
Ma-..  I.  85,  Nov.  190."..  Oaklafalaya.— U.  S.  Ind. 
Treat.  (1*37),  698,  1837.  Okla  falaya.— Gatschet, 
Civ.-k  Migr.  Leg.,  I.  101,  1*84.  Olilefeleia.— Wright 
in  Ind.  A  IT.  Rep.,  3  is.  1843.  Oocooloo-Falaya.— 
Romans.  Fla.,  73, 1775.  Ukla  falaya.— West  Florida 
map.  i'n.  1775. 

Oklahannali  ('six  towns' ).  Originally 
given  to  6  closely  connected  Choctaw 
towns  on  several  tri))utaries  of  Chicasaw- 
hay  r.,  in  Smith  and  Jasper  cos.,  Miss., 
this  name  finally  came  to  be  applied  to 
one  of  the  three  principal  divisions  of 
the  Choctaw  which  included,  besides  the 
"Sixtowns"  proper,  the  districts  of 
Chickasawhay,  Yowani,  Coosa,  and  per 
haps  some  others,  the  names  of  which 
have  become  lost.  The  towns  were  also 
called  '•  Knglish  towns"  because  they 
espoused  the  Knglish  cause  in  the  Choc 
taw  civil  war  of  174S-50.  Adair  (Hist. 
Inds.,  2t)S,  1775)  mentions  "seven  towns 
that  lie  close  together  and  next  to  New 
Orleans,"  possibly  meaning  these.  The 
six  towns  were  liishkon,  Chinakbi,  Tnkil- 
lis  Tamaha,  Nashwaiya,  Okatalaya,  and 
Talla.  They  spoke  a  peculiar  dialect  of 
Choctaw,  and  in  the  Choctaw  Nation, 
where  they  removed  in  1845,  they  are 
still  known  as  Sixtown  Indians/  Al 
though  the  name  "Six  Towns"  was 
usually  applied  to  this  group,  Oskelagna 
(<!•  v.)  was  also  mentioned  as  one  of 
them,  which  would  make  a  seventh,  thus 
agreeing  with  Adair's  statement.  The 

population  in  1846  (Rutherford  in  Ind. 
Aff.  Rep.,  877,  1847)  was  650.  For  the 
boundaries  of  this  division,  see  Oklafalaya 
and  Oi/patoorooloo.  (n.  w.  H.  ) 

Bay  Indians.— Rutherford  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  877, 
1847.  English  Towns.— Gatsehet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg., 
i,  108, 1884.  Oklahaneli.—  Wright  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep., 
348,  1843.  dkla  hannali.—  Gatsehet,  Creek  Migr. 
Leg.,  i,  104,  1881.  Okla-humali-hosh.— Reed  in 
Sturm's  Statehood  Mag.,  I,  85,  Nov.  1905.  Six- 
towns.— Rutherford  in  Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  877,  1847. 
Six  Towns  Indians. — Claiborne  (1843)  in  Sen.  Doc. 
168,  28th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  192,  1844. 

Oknagak.  A  Kuskwogmiut  Eskimo  vil 
lage  and  seat  of  a  Roman  Catholic  mis 
sion  on  the  N.  bank  of  Kuskokwim  r., 
Alaska.  Pop.  130  in  1880,  36  in  1890. 

Oh-hagamiut.— llth  Census,  Alaska,  164,  1893. 
Okhogamute.— Nelson  (1879)  quoted  by  Baker, 
Geog.  Diet.  Alaska,  1902.  Oknagamut.— Baker, 
ibid.  Oknagamute.— Bruce,  Alaska,  map,  1885. 
Ookhogamute. — Hallock  in  Nat.  Geog.  Mag.,  ix, 
90,  1898. 

Okomiut  ('people  of  the  lee  side'). 
An  Eskimo  tribe  dwelling  on  Cumber 
land  sd.,  Baffin  land.  They  embrace  the4 
Talirpingmiut,  Kinguamiut,  Kingnait- 
miut,  and  Saumingmiut.  When  whalers 
first  visited  them,  about  1850,  the  popu 
lation  amounted  to  1,500,  but  it  was  re 
duced  to  245  in  1883.  Their  villages  and 
settlements  are:  Anarnitung,  Aukard- 
neling,  Ekaluakdjuin,  Ekaluin,  Ekaluk- 
djuak,  Idjorituaktuin,  Igpirto,  Imigen, 
Kangertloaping,  Kangertlung,  Kangert- 
Inkdjuaq,  Karmang,  Karsukan,  Kara- 
suit,  Katernuna,  Kekertaujang,  Keker- 
ten,  Kimissing,  Kingaseareang,  Kingua, 
Kitingujang,  Kordlubing,  Koukdjuaq, 
Naujateling,  Nedlung,  Niantilik,  Nird- 
lirn,  Niutang,  Nuvujalung,  Nuvujen,  Pu- 
jetung,  Sakiakdjung,  Saunutung,  Tiker- 
akdjung,  Tuakdjuak,  Tupirbikdjuin,  Ug- 
juktung,  I'kiadliving,  Umanaktuak,  and 

Oqomiut.— Boas  in  6th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  424,  1888. 
Oxomiut.—  Boas  in  Petermanns  Mitt.,  no.80,69, 1885. 

Okommakamesit.  A  village  of  praying 
Indians  in  1674  near  the  present  Marl- 
borough,  Mass.  It  was  in  the  territory 
of  the  Nipmuc. 

Okkokonimesit.— Gookin  (1677)  in  Trans.  Am. 
Antiq.  Soc.,  II,  435,  1836.  Okommakamesit.— 
Gookin  (1674)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  I, 
185,  1806.  Okonhomessit.— Gookin  (1677)  in  Trans. 
Am.  Antiq.  Soc.,  n,  455,  1836. 

Okopeya  ( 'in  danger') .  A  band  of  the 
Sisseton  Sioux,  an  offshoot  of  the  Tizap- 
tan.— Dorsey  in  15th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  217, 

Okos  ('band  of  bulls').  A  former 
Arikara  band  under  Kunuteshan,  Chief 

Bulls.— Culbertson  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1850,  143, 
1851.  0-kos'.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and  Philol.,  357, 

Okossisak.  An  Eskimo  village  on  Sal 
mon  r.,  w.  Greenland. — Kane,  Arctic 
Explor.,  n,  124,  1856. 

Okow.     See  Occow. 

Okowvinjha.  A  former  Gabrieleno 
rancheria  near  San  Fernando  mission, 
Los  Angeles  co.,  Cal.  (Taylor  in  Cal. 

BULL.  30] 



Farmer,  May  11,  1860) .  Probably  identi 
cal  with  Kowanga  or  with  Cahuenga. 

Okpaak.     A  Malecite  village  on  middle 
St  John  r.,  N.  B.,  in  1769. 
Ocpack.— La    Tour,    map,    1784.     Okpaak.— Wood 
(1769)  quoted  by  Hawkins,  Miss.,  361,  1845.    Oug- 
pauk. — Jefferys,  Fr.  Doms.,  pt.  1,  map,  119,1761. 

Okpam.  A  former  Maidu  village  on  the 
w.  side  of  Feather  r.,  just  below  the  vil 
lage  of  Sesum,  Butter  co.,  Gal. — Dixon  in 
Bull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist,  xvn,  pi.  38, 

Oktahatke  ('white  sand').  A  former 
Seminole  town  7  m.  N.  E.  of  Sampala, 
probably  in  Calhoun  co.,  Fla.  Meno- 
homahla  was  chief  in  1823.— H.  R.  Ex. 
Doc.  74,  19th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  27,  1826. 

Oktchunualgi  ('salt  people').  An  ex 
tinct  Creek  clan. 

Ok-chun'-w^.  —  Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  161,  1878.  Ok- 
tchunualgi.— Gatschet,  Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  i,  156, 

Okuwa.  The  Cloud  clans  of  the  Tewa 
pueblos  of  San  Juan,  Santa  Clara,  San 
Ildefonso,  Tesuque,  and  Nambe,  N.  Mex., 
and  of  Hano,  Ariz. 

Kus.— Stephen  in  8th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  39,  1891 
JNavaho  name).  O'-ku-wa. — Fewkes  in  Am 
A.nthrop.,  vn,  166,  1894  (Hano).  Okuwa-tdoa.— 
Hodge  in  Am.  Anthrop.,  ix,  349,  1896  (Hano  and 
?an  Ildefonso  forms;  tdoa  =' people').  O'-ku- 
xun.—  Stephen,  op.  cit.  (Hnno).  O'-mau.— Ibid. 
Hopi  name).  Oquwa  tdoa. — Hodge,  op.  cit. 
Santa  Clara  form;  q—Ger.  ch).  Owhat  tdoa.— 
bid.  (Tesuque  form).  Owhii  tdoa. — Ibid.  (Nambe 
orm ) . 

Okwanuchu  (Ok-wa'-nu-chu).     A  small 

Shasta  tribe  formerly  occupying  the  upper 

>art  of  McCloud  r.,  Cal.,  as  far  down  as 

5alt  cr.,   the  upper  Sacramento  as   far 

lown  as  Squaw  cr.,  and  the  valley  of  the 

atter  stream.     Their  language  is  in  part 

lose  to  that  of  the  Shasta  proper,  but  it 

ontains    a    number  of    totally  distinct 

rords,    unlike    any    other    surrounding 

mguage.  (R.  B.  D.) 

Ola  (O'-la).     A  former  village  of  the 

laidu    on    Sacramento    r. ,    just    above 

Inight's-  Landing,  Sutter  co.,  Cal.     The 

ame  has  also  been  applied  to  the  inhab- 

ants  as  a  tribal  division.     If  they  were 

le  same  as  the  Clashes,   who  in  1856 

ved  near  Hock  farm,  Sutter  co.,  there 

ere  20  survivors  in  1856.          (R.  B.  D.  ) 

ashes.— Taylor   in    Cal.   Farmer,   Nov.  9,    1860 

robably  identical).    Ol'-la.— Powers  in  Cont.  N. 

Ethnol.,  in,  282,  1877. 

Olabalkebiche  (  Flabalkebixh,  l  Tattooed 
;rpent,'  in  French  Serpent  Pique,  usually 
it  erroneously  translated  '  Stung  Ser- 
;nt').  A  noted  Natchez  chief  and  the 
te  oftenest  referred  to  by  French 
riters.  He  was  not  the  Great  Sun,  or 
•ad-chief  of  the  nation,  but  occupied  the 
cond  position  of  dignity,  that  of  head 
ir-chief,  and  was  so  deeply  loved  by  his 
perior  that  he  was  sometimes,  as  by 
imont's  informant,  supposed  to  have 
en  the  head-chief  himself.  He  and  the 
•eat  Sun  are  usually  called  brothers,  and 
ry  likely  they  were,  though  it  is  possi- 
3  they  were  brothers  only  in  the  Indian 

sense— i.  e.,  as  children  of  women  beloixr- 
mg  to  one  social  group.  The  first  that  Is 
heard  ot  Olabalkebiche  is  in  the  Natchez 
war  of  1716,  when  he  with  his  brother 
and  a  number  of  other  persons  were 
seized  by  Bienville  and  held  in  captivity 
until  they  had  agreed  to  make  reparation 
for  the  murder  of  some  traders  and  assist 
the  French  in  erecting  a  fort  near  their 
villages.  From  this  time  until  his  death 
Olabalkebiche  appears  as  the  friend  of 
the  French  and  peacemaker  between  his 
own  people  and  them,  lie  was  on  inti 
mate  terms  with  all  the  French  officers 
and  the  principal  settlers,  including  the 
historian  LePage  Du  Pratz.  At  his  death, 
in  1725,  the  grief  of  the  Great  Sun  knew 
no  bounds,  and  it  was  with  the  utmost 
difficulty  that  the  French  could  restrain' 
him  from  committing  suicide.  They 
could  not,  however,  avert  the  destruction 
of  his  wives  and  officers  who  were  killed 
to  accompany  his  soul  into  the  realm  of 
spirits.  Before  this  took  place  his  body 
lay  in  state  in  his  own  house  for  some 
time  surrounded  by  his  friends,  the  in 
signia  of  his  rank,  and  the  marks  of  his 
prowess,  including  the  calumets  received 
by  him,  and  46  rings,  to  indicate  the  num 
ber  of  times  he  had  counted  coup  against 
his  enemies.  Detailed  descriptions  of  the 
mortuary  ceremonies  are  given  by  Du 
Pratz  and  Dumont,  though  the  latter,  or 
rather  his  anonymous  informant,  is  in 
error  in  speaking  ot  him  as  the  (ireat 
Sun.  From  all  the  accounts  given  of  this 
chief  it  is  evident  that  he  was  a  man  of 
unusual  force  of  character  combined  with 
an  equal  amount  of  sagacity  in  the  face  of 
new  conditions,  such  as  "were  brought 
about  by  the  settlement  of  the  French  in 
his  neighborhood.  Whether  from  policy 
or  real  regard  he  was  one  of  the  best 
friends  the  French  possessed  among  the 
Natchez,  and  his  death  and  that  of  his 
brother  two  years  later  paved  the  way 
for  an  ascendancy  of  the  English  party 
in  the  nation  and  the  terrible  massacre 
of  1729.  (j.  R.  s.) 

Olacnayake.  A  former  Seminole  village 
situated  about  the  extreme  N.  E.  corner  of 
Hillsboro  co.,  Fla.— H.  R.  Doc.  7S,  L'5th 
Cong.,  2d  sess.,  map,  768,  183S. 

Olagale.  A  "kingdom,"  i.  e.  tribe, 
mentioned  by  Fontaneda  as  being,  about 
1570,  somewhere  in  x.  central  Florida,  E. 
of  Apalachee.  By  consonance  inter 
change  it  appears  "to  be  identical  with 
Etocale  (Biedma),  Ocale  (Ranjel),  and 
Gale  (Gentl.  of  Klvas),  a  "province" 
through  which  De  Soto  passed  in  1539  en 
the  road  to  Potano  (q.  v. ),  and  is  probably 
also  the  Eloquale  of  the  De  Bry  map  ol 
1591,  indicated  as  westward  from  middle 
St  John  r.,  perhaps  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  present  Ocala,  Marion  co. ,  Fla.  Bied 
ma  speaks  of  it  as  a  small  town,  probably 



[B.  A.  E. 

confusing  the  tribe  with  one  of  _its  vil 
lages,  hut  all  the  others  speak  of  it  as  an 
independent  province  or  kingdom.  Ran- 
jel  names  rqneten  as  the  first  town  of 
the  province  entered  by  the  Spaniards 
coining  from  the  s.  (•'.  M.  ) 

Cale  —  Ranjel  «vi  1516)  in  Bourne.  DC  Soto  Narr., 
ii  ti7.  U>04:  Gentl.  of  Klvas  U557),  ibid.,  I,  35,  1904. 
Eloquale.— I>e  Bry  map  (1591)  in  Le  Moyno  Narr., 
Applrton  trans.,  1875.  Etocale. — Biedma  (1544)  in 
Bouriu-,op.cit.,n.5.  Ocala.— Brinton,  Flor.  Penin., 
iy,  IS.V.i.  Ocale.— Ranjel  (m.  1546)  in  Bourne,  op. 
cit  n  65-  Do  Soto  (1539),  ibid.,  162.  Ocali. — Gar- 
eilassode  la  Vega  (1591)  inHakluytSoc.  Pub.,  IX, 
xxxii.  1S51.  Ocaly.— Garcilasso  de  la  Vega  (1591) 
in  sliipp.  De  Soto  and  Fla.,  281,  1881.  Olagale.— 
FontaiH-da  (<-<t.  1575),  Memoir,  B.  Smith  trans., 
IS- 'JO.  1^54. 

Olagatano.  Named  with  Otopali  by 
Fontaneda,  about  1575,  as  a  village  re 
ported  to  be  inland  and  x.  from  the  coast 
provinces  of  ''Chieora,"  about  the  pres 
ent  Charleston,  S.  0.  Distinct  from  Ona- 
giitano,  which  he  names  as  a  mountain 
region  farther  away.  («f.  M.  ) 

Olacatano.— Fontaneda  (1575)  quoted  by  French, 
Hist.  Cull.  La.,  n.  257,  1875.  Olagatano.— Fonta 
neda  Mem..  -Smith  trans.,  16,  1854.  Olgatano. — 
Fontaneda  quoted  byShipp,  De  Soto  and  Fla.,  585, 
issi.  Olocatano. —Fontaneda  in  Ternaux-Com- 
pans,  Voy.,  xx,  24,  1841. 

Olamentke.  A  name  first  applied  by 
some  of  the  earlier  writers  to  a  so-called 
division  of  the  Moquelumnan  family  in 
habiting  the  country  immediately  N.  of 
the  <  iolden  Gate  and  San  Francisco  bay, 
in  Marin,  Sonoma,  and  Napa  cos.,  Cal. 
The  people  of  this  region  were  among  the 
later  neophytes  taken  to  Dolores  mission 
at  San  Francisco,  and  among  the  first  of 
those  at  San  Rafael  and  San  Francisco 
Solano  missions,  both  of  wdrich  were  in 
their  country.  Very  few  of  these  so-called 
(  Mamentke  now  survive.  See  Moquelum- 

/"'".  (s.    A.  B.) 

Bodega.— Ludewig,  Am.  Aborig.  Lang.,  20,  1858. 
O'-lah-ment'  ko.—  Merriam  in  Am.  Aiithrop.,  ix, 
339,  1907.  Olamentke.— Bacr  cited  by  Latham  in 
I'ror.  Pliil,,].  Soc.  Loud.,  79,  1854. 

Olamon  ( '  paint,'  usually  referring  to  red 
paint. — Gerard).  A  Penobscot  village 
occupying  an  island  in  Penobscot  r.  near 
<  Ireenbush,  Me. 

Olamon.— Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  vii,  104,  1876.  Olle- 
mon  Indiana.— Vetromile,  ibid.,  vi,  211,  1*59.  Ul- 
amanusek. — Gatschet,  Penobscot  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1887 
i  Prliolisrot  Iiiimo. 

Olanche.     Supi)osed  to   he  a  Mono-Pa- 
viotso  band  of  s.    K.   California,  and  evi 
dently  the  people  of  Olancha,  s.  of  Owens 
Olanches.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  June  8  I860 

Old  Dogs.  A  society  of  the  Ilidatsa.— 
Cuibertson  in  Sniithson.  Rep.  1850,  143, 

Old  King.     See  HaijenqiieragJita. 

Old  Knife.  A  prominent  chief  of  the 
>kidi  1 'aw nee,  known  among  his  people  as 
l^ataleshaC  Knife  Chief),  first  brought  to 
public  jioti;-eat  St  Louis  when  he  signed, 
asSettulushaa,  the  treaty  of  .June  18,  and, 
as  Letereeshar,  the  treaty  of  June  22,  1818. 
Maj.  S.  1 1.  Long  ,,,,-t  him  at  his  camp  on 
Loup  fork  of  IMatte  r.,  Nebr.,  in  1819. 

He  was  the  father  of  Petalesharo  (q.  v.) 
and  to  him  is  attributed  the  cessation  of 
the  religious  custom  of  burning  prisoners. 
He  also  signed  the  treaty  of  Ft  Atkinson, 
Council  Bluffs,  la.,  Sept.  30,  1825.  An 
oil  portrait,  painted  by  John  Neagle  in 
1821,  is  in  possession  of  the  Historical  So 
ciety  of  Pennsylvania. 

Old  Mad  Town.  A  former  village,  proba 
bly  of  the  Upper  Creeks,  on  an  upper 
branch  of  Cahawba  r.,  hear  the  present 
Birmingham,  Ala. — Royce  in  18th  Rep. 
B.  A.  E. ,  Ala.  map,  1900. 

Old  Queen.     See  Magnus. 

Old  Shawnee  Town.  A  village  of  the 
Shawnee,  situated  before  1770  on  Ohio  r. 
in  Gallia  eo.,  Ohio,  3  m.  above  the  mouth 
of  the  Great  Kanawha. — Washington 
(1770)  quoted  by  Rupp,  West  Penn., 
app.,  401,  1846. 

Old  Sitka.  A  summer  camp  of  the  Sitka 
Indians  on  Baranof  id.,  Alaska;  pop.  73 
in  1880.—  Petroff  in  Tenth  Census,  Alaska, 
32,  1884. 

Old  Skin  Necklace.  A  former  Oglala 
Sioux  band,  under  Minisa,  or  Red  Wa 
ter. — Cuibertson  in  Sniithson.  Rep.  1850, ; 
142,  1851. 

Old  Smoke.     See  Sayenqueraghta. 

Oldtown.  A  village  of  the  Penobscot 
on  an  island  in  Penobscot  r.,  a  few  m. 
above  Bangor,  Me.  It  contained  410  in 
habitants  in  1898. 

Indian  Oldtown.— Little  (1788)  in  Me.  Hi 4.  Soc. 
Coll.,  vn,  13, 1876.  Nganudene.— Gatschet,  Penob 
scot  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1887  (Penobscot  name).  Old- 
town.—  Conf.  of  1786  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  vn,  10, 
1876.  Panawanscot.— Ballard  (ca.  1830),  ibid.,  1, 466, 
1865.  Panawapskek.— Gatschet,  Penobscot  MS., 
B.  A.  E.,  1887  (native  form  of  Penobscot). 

Olegel.  The  Yurok  name  of  a  Karok 
village  on  Klamath  r.,  N.  w.  Cal.,  at  the 
mouth  of  Camp  cr.,  1m.  below  Orleans 
Bar. — A.  L.  Kroeber,  inf'n,  1905. 

Oleharkarmekarto  ( Ole-har-kar-me'-kcvr- 
to,  'elector').  A  subclan  of  the  Dela- 
wares. — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  172,  1877. 

Olemos.  A  former  rancheria  connected 
with  Dolores  mission,  San  Francisco, , 
CaL— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Oct.  18,  ( 

Oler.  The  Yurok  name  of  a  Karok  vil- ' 
lage  between  Orleans  Bar  and  Red  Cap  | 
cr.,  Klamath  r.,  N.  w.  Cal. — A.  L.  Kroeber,  i 
inf'n,  1905. 

Olesino.    A  Chumashan  village  between 
Goleta  and  Pt  Concepcion,  Cal.,  in  1542. 
Olesina.— Taylor    in  Cal.   Farmer,  Apr.  17,  1863. 
Olesino.— Cabrillo  (1542)   in    Smith,   Colec.  Doc. 
Fla.,  183, 1857. 

Olestura.  A  former  rancheria  connected 
with  Dolores  mission,  San  Francisco, 
Cal.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Oct.  18, 

Olhon.     A  division   of  the    Costanoan 
family,  formerly  on  San  Francisco  penin 
sula  and  connected  with  mission  Dolores, 
San  Francisco,  Cal.     The  term  Costanos,  / 
also   made   to    include   other  groups  01 

BULL.  30] 


tribes,  seems  to  have  been  applied  origi 
nally  to  them. — A.  L.  Kroeber,  infn, 

Alchones.— Beechey,  Voy.,  i,  400, 1831.  Ohlones.— 
Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  May  31,  1861.  Olchone.— 
Beechey,  op.  cit.,  402.  01-hones. — Schoolcraft, 
Ind.  Tribes,  n,  506,  1852.  Oljon.— Taylor  in  Cal. 
Farmer,  Oct.  18,  1861. 

Olitassa  (Holihtasha,  'fort  is  there'). 
A  former  important  Choctaw  town,  noted 
by  Romans  in  1775  on  the  site  of  the 
present  De  Kalb,  Miss.  It  had  two  chiefs 
and  more  than  100  cabins,  and  was  a  kind 
of  capital  for  the  neighboring  towns  for 
20  m.  or  more  around.  Once  a  year  dele 
gates  from  all  these  towns  met  there  to 
make  new  laws. — H albert  in  Pub.  Miss. 
Hist.  Soc.,  vi,  426,  1902. 
Ollas.  See  Pottery,  Receptacles. 
Olmolosoc.  A  former  rancheria  con 
nected  with  Dolores  mission,  San  Fran 
cisco,  Cal. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Oct. 
18, 1861. 

Ololopa  ( (/-lo-lo-pa,  related  to  </-lo-lo- 
ko,  'smoke-hole').  A  division  or  village 
of  the  Maidu  near  Oroville,  on  Feather  r., 
Butte  co.,  Cal.  They  numbered  between 
100  and  150  in  1850,  but  are  now  nearly 
extinct.  (R.  B.  D.  ) 

Holilepas.— Johnson  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes, 
vi,  710,  1857.  Holil-le-pas.— Day  (1850)  in  Sen. 
Ex.  Doe.  4.  32d  Cong.,  spec,  sess.,  39.  1853.  Ho-lil- 
li-pah.— Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  124,  1850.  Holoaloopis.— 
Powers  in  Overland  Mo.,  xn,  420, 1874.  Hololipi.— 
Chever  in  Bull.  Essex  Inst.  1870,  n,  28,  1871. 
Hol-6-lu-pai. — PowersinCont.N.A.Ethnol.,lii,282, 
1877.  Jollillepas.— Day,  op.  cit.  Oleepas.— Delano, 
Life  on  Plains,  293,  1854.  0-lip-as.— Day,  op.  cit. 
0-lip-pas.—  Johnston  (1850)  in  Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  4, 
32d  Cong.,  spec,  sess.,  45,  1853.  Ololopai.— Curtin, 
MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1885. 

Olotaraca.  A  young  chief  who  led  the 
Indian  force  which  accompanied  De 
Gourges  in  the  destruction  of  the  Spanish 
forts  at  the  mouth  of  St  John  r.,  Fla.,  in 
1568,  and  distinguished  himself  by  being 
the  first  man  to  scale  the  breastwork,  kill 
ing  the  gunner  who  had  fired  on  the  ad 
vancing  French.  He  was  the  nephew  of 
the  chief  of  the  Saturiba  (Satourioua) 
tribe,  which  held  lower  St  John  r.  and 
had  welcomed  the  French  under  Ribaut 
in  1562  and  Laudonniere  in  1564.  The 
name  occurs  also  as  Olotoraca,  Olotacara, 
Dtocara,  etc.,  and  according  to  Gatschet 
;he  proper  form  is  Hola'taraca,  holata 
*3eing  the  title  for  a  subchief  in  the  Timu- 
,'iia  language.  (•?.  M.) 

Olowitok  (Ol-o'-wi-tok,  from  olowin, 
west' ).  A  general  name  applied  by  the 
:>eople  of  the  Miwok  (Moquelumnan) 
stock  of  California  to  all  people  living  w. 
)f  the  speaker.  (s.  A.  B.) 

)l-o'-wi-dok.— Powers  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  m, 
49,  1877.  Ol'-o-wit.— Ibid,  (identical,  although 
riven  asdistinct).  Olowitok.— S.  A.  Barrett,  infn, 
906.  Ol-o-wi'-ya.— Powers,  op.  cit.  (identical,  al- 
hongh  given  as  distinct).  Olwiya.— S.  A.  Bar- 
ett,  infn,  1906  (alternative  form). 

Olpen.  A  former  rancheria  connected 
vith  Dolores  mission,  San  Francisco, 
M.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Oct.  18, 

Olposel.  A  name  applied  to  one  of  the 
villages  or  small  divisions  of  the  south 
ern  Wintun  or  Patwin  Indians  living  on 
the  upper  course  of  Cache  cr.,  in  Lake 
co.,  Cal.  (s.  A.  15.) 

Ol'-po-sel.— Powers  in  Cont.X.  A.  Ethnol.,  in,  219 

Olulato  ('above',  'on  high').  A  Pat- 
win  tribe  formerly  living  on  Ulatns  cr. 
and  about  Vacaville,  Solano  co.,  Cal. 
Hallapootas.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Mar.  30, 18tiO 
Ol-u-la'-to.— Powers  in  Cont.  N.  A.  Ethnol.,  in. 
218, 1877.  Ouloulatines. — Choris,  Voy.  Pitt.,  ti,  1822. 
Ullulatas.— Taylor,  op.  cit.  Ululato.— Chamisso  in 
Kotzebue,  Voy.,  m,  51,  1821. 

Olumane  (  O-lum'-a-nc,  'vermilion' ).  A 
subclan  of  the  Delawares. — Morgan,  Anc 
Soc.,  172,  1877. 

Olumpali.  A  former  large  Moquelnm- 
nan  village  in  the  present  Marin  co.,  Cal., 
at  a  point  about  6  m.  s.  of  the  town  of 
Petal uma.  (s.  A.  n.  ) 

Olompalis.  —Choris,  Voy.  Pitt.,  6, 1822.    Olumpali.— 
Chamisso  in  Kotzebue,  Voy.,  in,  51,  1821. 

Omaha  ('those  going  against  the  wind 
or  current ' ) .  One  of  the  5  tribes  of  the  s<  >- 
called  Dhegiha  group  of  the  Siouan  family, 
the  other  4  being  the  Kansa,  Qnapaw, 
Osage,  and  Ponca.  Hale  and  Dorse y  con 
cluded  from  a  study  of  the  languages  and 
traditions  that,  in  the  westward  migration 
of  the  Dhegiha  from  their  seat  on  Ohio  and 
Wabash  rs.  after  the  separation,  at  least 
as  early  as  1500,  of  the  Qnapaw,  who  went 
down  the  Mississippi  from  the  month 
of  the  Ohio,  the  Omaha  branch  moved 
up  the  great  river,  remaining  awhile  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  while  war  and 
hunting  parties  explored  the  country  to 
the  N.  w.  The  Osage  remained  on  Osage  r. 
and  the  Kansa  continued  up  the  Missouri, 
whiletheC  hnaha,  still  includingthePonca, 
crossed  the  latter  stream  and  remained 
for  a  period  in  Iowa,  ranging  as  far  as  the 
Pipestone  quarry  at  the  present  Pipestone, 
Minn.  They  were  driven  back  by  the 
Dakota,  and  after  the  separation  of  the 
Ponca,  who  advanced  into  the  Black 
hills,  which  occurred  probably  about 
1650  at  the  mouth  of  Niobrara  r.,  the 
Omaha  settled  on  Bower.,  Nebr.,  and  may 
have  already  been  there  at  the  date  of 
Marquette's  map  ( 1673).  Jefferys  ( 1 761 ) 
located  the  Omaha  on  the  K.  side  of  Mis 
souri  r.,  beyond  the  Iowa,  immediately 
above  Big  Sioux  r.  In  1766  they  appear 
to  have  had  friendly  relations  with  the 
Dakota,  as  Carver  mentions  having  met 
both  tribes  together  on  Minnesota  r. 
They  were  at  their  favorite  resort  near 
Omadi,  Dakota  co.,  NYbr.,  in  1SOO.  Lewis 
and  Clark  (1804)  found  them  on  the  * 
side  of  Missouri  r.  opposite  Sioux  City, 
S  Dak.,  but  learned  that  the  tribe  in 
1802,  while  living  at  a  point  farther  up 
the  Missouri,  was  visited  by  smallpox, 
which  had  greatly  reduced  their  number 
and  caused  their  removal.  Then,  as  in 
later  years,  they  were  at  constant  war 



[K.  A.  E. 

•ux.     They  were  on  the  w. 
Missouri '  u   short    distance 
atte  in   1S45,  but  in  1855  re- 
uit  is  now  Dakota  co.,  Nebr. 
with    other    tribes   in   the 
Iv  1").  1830,  and  Oct.  15,  1836, 

and  by  tin;  treaty  of  Washington,  D.  C., 
Mar.  it),  1854,  ceded  all  their  lands  w.  of 
the  Missouri  and  s.  of  a  line  running  due 
w.  from  the  point  where  Iowa  r.  leaves 
the  bluffs,  retaining  their  lands  x.  of  this 
line  fora  reservation.  By  treaty  of  Mar. 
6,  1S(55,  they  sold  part  of  their  reservation 
tothe  TnitedStates  for  the  use  of  the  Win- 
nebago.  Many  of  them  learned  to  culti 
vate  grain  and  raise  stock,  and  in  1882, 
through  theeffort  of  Miss  AliceC.  Fletcher, 
a  law  was  enacted  granting  lands  in  sev 
erally  and  prospective  citi/enship. 

The  primitive  dwellings  of  the  Omaha 
were  chiefly  lodges  of  earth,  more  rarely 
of  hark  or  mats,  and  skin  tents.  The 
earth  lodges,  similar  in  construction  to 
those  of  the  Mandan,  were  intended  prin 
cipally  f..r  summer  use.  when  the  people 
were  not  hunting.  The  bark  lodges  were 
usually  elliptical  in  form,  occasionally 
having  hvo  fireplaces  and  two  smoke 
holes.  The  skin  tent  was  used  when  the 
people  were  traveling  or  hunting  the 
buffalo.  Tottery  was  made  by  the  ( hnaha 
before  1850,  but  the  art  has  been  for 
gotten.  Their  mortars  were  made  by 
burning  a  hollow  in  u  knot  or  round 
piece  ot  wood,  and  spoons  were  made  of 
horn,  wood,  and  pottery.  Polygamy  was 

practised,  but  the  maximum  number  of 
wives  that  any  one  man  could  have  was 
three.  Until  1880  there  were  two  prin 
cipal  chiefs,  usually  selected  from  the 
Hangashenu  subtribe,  though  there  was 
no  law  or  rule  forbidding  their  selec 
tion  from  other  divisions.  In  addition  to 
these  there  were  subordinate  chiefs. 
Their  religion,  according  to  Dorsey  (3rd 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  1884),  was  associated  with 
the  practice  of  medicine,  mythology,  and 
war  customs,  and  with  their  gentile  sys 

The  population  of  the  Omaha  since  their 
recovery  from  the  great  loss  by  smallpox 
in  1802,  when  they  were  reduced  to  about 
300,  has  greatly  increased.  In  1804,  ac 
cording  to  Lewis  (Statist.  View,  16, 1807), 
they  numbered  600,  including  150  war 
riors.  In  1829  they  were  estimated  at 
1,900,  and  in  1843  at  1,600,  both  of  which 
estimates  were  probably  excessive. 
Schoolcraft  gives  1,349  in  1851,  Bur 
rows  1,200  in  1857,  and  the  same  num 
ber  is  given  by  the  census  of  1880.  In 
1906  the  population  of  the  tribe  was 

The  Omaha  gentes  as  given  by  Dorsey 
(15th  Rej).  B.  A.  K.,  226,  1897)  are  :  A.— 
Hangashenu.  half  tribe:  1,  Wezhinshte;  2, 


Jnkesabe;  3,  Hanga;  4,  Phatada;  5,  Kanze. 
B. — Inshtasanda  half  tribe:  6,  Mandhink- 
agaghe;  7,  Tesinde;  8,  Tapa;  9,  Ingdhez- 
hide;  10,  Inshtasanda.  (j.  o.  D.  c.  T.  ) 
Eromahas.—W.  Reserve  Hist.  Soc.  Tracts,  i,  no.  5, 24, 
1*71.  Ho'-ma«-ha».— Dorsey,  Winnebago  MS.,  B. 
A.  E.,  1886  (Winnebago  name).  Hu-umui.— Gat- 

BL'LL.  30] 



sehet,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.  (Cheyenne  name) .  La  Mar  — 
Lewis  and  Clark,  Discov.,  20,  1806  (so  called  by 
the  French).  Maha.— Marquette,  autograph  map 
(1673)  in  Shea,  Discov.,  1852.  Mahaer.— Balbi 
Atlas  Ethnog.,  33,  ?774,  1826.  Mahagi.— Gatschet,' 
MS.,  B.  A.  E.  (Shawnee  name).  Mahahs  — 
Carver,  Trav.,  109,  1778.  Mahan.— Lewis,  Trav., 
14,  1809.  Maharha.— Orig.  Jour.  Lewis  and  Clark 
(1804),  I,  203,  1904.  Mahars.— Whitehouse  (1804) 
in  Orig.  Jour.  Lewis  and  Clark,  vn,  49,  1905.  Ma 
ha' s.—Brackenridge,  Views  La.,  70, 1814.  Mahas  — 
Iberville  (1701)  in  Margry,  D£c.,  iv,  587,  1880. 
Mahaws.— Pike,  Exped  ,  pt.  2,  app.,  9,  1810. 
Makah. — U.  S.  Ind.  Treaties,  Kapplered.,  n,  115, 
1904  (misprint).  Mama.— Gale,  Upper  Miss.,  217, 
1867  (misprint).  Mawhaws.— Carver,  Trav.,  80, 
1778.  Mazahuas.— Ratinesque  in  Marshall,  Hist. 
Ky.,  I,  28,  1824.  O'-ma'-ha.— Lewis  and  Clark 
Discov.,  20,  1806.  Omaha  hcaka.—Iapi  Gave,  xm, 
33,  Sept.  1884  ('real  Omaha':  Yankton  name). 
Omahahs.— U.  S.  Ind.  Treat.,  639, 1826.  Omahaws.— 
Drake,  Ind.  Chron.,  pi.,  1836.  Omahuas.— Rafin- 
esque  in  Marshall,  Hist.  Ky.,  i,  30, 1824.  Omalia  — 
Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  in.  386.  1853  (misprint). 
O-marj'-ha.— Cook,  Yankton  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E 
184,  1882.  O-maij'-ha-hca.— Ibid.  ('  true  Omaha'). 
Omans.—  Jefferys,  Fr.  Doms.  Am.,  i,  135,  1761. 
Omaonhaon. — Toussaint,  Carte  de  1'Amer.,  1839. 
Omau'-hau.— M'Coy,  Ann.  Reg.,  no.  4,  84,  1838. 
Omawhaw.— Sehoolcraft,  Trav..  309,  1821.  Omaw- 

hawes. — Tanner,    Narr.,    313,     1830.     Omouhoa. 

La  Salle  (1681)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  n.  134,  1877 
(identical?).  Omowhows.— Tanner,  Xarr.,  146, 
1830.  Omuhaw.— Hurlbert  in  Jones,  Ojibway 
Inds.,  178, 1861.  O-ni'-ha-o.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and 
Philol.  Mo.Val.,  290,  1862  ('drum-beaters':  Chey 
enne  name).  Om'ha0. — Mooney,  Cheyenne  Inds., 
423, 1907  (Cheyenne name).  Oo-ma-ha.— Bracken- 
ridge,  Views  La,,  76,  1814.  Otomie.— Schoolcraft, 
Ind.  Tribes,  11, 335, 1852  (misprint).  Owaha.— Gat 
schet,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.  (Pawnee  inme).  Owahas.— 
Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  72,  20th  Cong.,  2d  se'ss.,  101,  1829. 
Puk-tis.— Grinnell,  Pawnee  Hero  Tales,  230,  1889 
(Pawnee  name) .  U'-aha.— Gatschet,  MS.,  B.  A.  E. 
(Pawnee  name),  tj'-ma-ha.— Gatschet,  Kaw  vo- 
oab.,B.A.E.,27,1878(Kansaname).  TJ-ma  "-ha".— 
Do^sey  in  Am.  Antiq.,  313,  Oct.  1883  (misprint). 
U-ma»'-han.— Dorsey  in  Bull.  Philos.  Soc.  Wash., 
128,  1880  ('upstream  people':  Osage  name). 
U-manhan.— Ibid.,  129  (misprint).  Uwaha.— Gat 
schet,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.  (Pawnee  name). 

Omamiwininiwak  ('people  of  lower  part 
of  the  river').  The  Nipissing  name  for 
the  Algonkin,  properly  so  called,  survi 
vors  of  whom  still  live  at  Becancour  and 
at  Three  Rivers,  Quebec. — Cuoq,  Lexique 
Algonquine,  193,,  1886. 

Omanitsenok  (Omanits'enox,  'the  people 
of  Omanis,'  a  place  on  Klaskino  inlet, 
Brit.  Col.).  A  gens  of  the  Klaskino,  a 
Kwakiutl  tribe.— Boas  in  Rep.  Nat.  Mus. 
1895,  329,  1897. 

Omaskos  ( '  elk ' ) .  A  subphratry  or  gens 
of  theMenominee. — Hoffman  in  14th  Rep. 
B.  A.  E.,  42,  1896. 

Omatl  (Oma^/).  The  name  of  an  an 
cestor  of  a  Tlatlasikoala  gens,  sometimes 
applied  to  the  gens  itself. — Boas  in  Peter- 
manns  Mitt,  pt.  5,  131,  1887. 

Omaxtux.  A  former  Chumashan  village 
near  Purisima  mission,  Santa  Barbara 
co.,  Cal.— Tavlor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Oct.  ^8, 

Omegeeze  ( Miglzl,  '  bald  eagle ' ) .  A  gens 
of  the  Chippewa.  See  Migichihiliniou. 

Me-giz-ze.— Tanner,  Narr.,  314,  1830.  Me-gizzee.— 
^yarren  in  Minn.  Hist,  Soc.  Coll.,  v,  44,  1885.  Mi'- 
gisi.— Gatschet,  Ojibwa  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1882. 
Migizi.— Wm.  Jones,  inf'n,  1907  (correct  form). 
0-me-gee-ze'.— Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  166,  1877. 

Omenaosse.  A  village  or  tribe  men 
tioned  by  Joutel  in  1687  as  being  between 

Matagorda  bay  and  Maligne  (Colorado) 
r.,  Jexas.  Ihe  name  was  given  him  bv 
the  Ebahamo  Indians  who  lived  in  that 
region  and  who  were  probably  Karan- 
kawan.  See  Gatschet,  Karankawa  Inds 
i,  35,  46,  1891. 

Omeaoffe.— Joutel  (1(5S7)  in  French,  Hist.  C,,ll    I  a 
i,    167,  1846    (misprint.).     Omeaosse  — Ibid       r/>' 
Omeaotes  -Barcia.  K  nsayo.271. 1723.    Omenaosse.- 
Joutel  (168/)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  in,  2ss,  isvs 

Omik.    A  former  Aleut  village  on  Agattu 

id.,  Alaska,  one  of  the  Near  id.  group  ,,f 
the  Aleutians,  now  uninhabited. 

Omisis  (O'mYfts,  'eaters';  sing.,  <>,»!'- 
slsts).  A  principal  division  of  the  Chey 
enne.  The  name  is  frequently  used  as 
synonymous  with  Northern  Cheyenne, 
because  the  dominant  division  in  "the  N. 
Before  the  division  of  the  Cheyenne 
the  Omisis  occupied  that  portion  of  the 
camp  circle  immediately  x.  of  the  E.  en 
trance.  (.1.  M.) 
Eaters.— Dorsey  in  Field  Columb.  Mus.  Pub.  103, 
62.  1905.  Hmi'sis.— Mooney  in  14th  Rep.  B.  A  K  ' 
1026,189(1.  mi'sis.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and  1'hilol. 
Mo.  Val.,  290,  1862.  0  missis.— Grinnell  Social 
Org.  Cheyennes,  136,  1905. 

Omitiaqua.  A  village  (  "king"  )  in  Flor 
ida  subject  to  Utina,  chief  of  the  Timucua 
in  1564,  according  to  Landonniere.  The 
De  Bry  map  places  it  E.  of  lower  St  John  r. 
Omitaqua. — DeBry,  map  (1591)  in  LeMoyne,  Narr., 
Appleton  trans.,  1875.  Omitiaqua.— Laudonniere 
(1564)  in  French,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  n.  s.,  213,  istiy. 

Ommunise  (Om&rilse,  'he  gathers  lire- 
wood.  '  —  \V.  J. ) .  A  Chippewa  or  ( )ttawa 
band  formerly  living  on  Carp  r.,  Mich.; 
also  a  place  between  Lake  of  the  Woods 
and  Winnipeg,  so  called  because  of  the 
scarcity  of  wood. 

Carp  River  band.— Smith  in  Ind.  AIT.  Rep.,  53. 1851. 
Omanise.— Wm.  Jones,  infn,  1905  (correct  form). 
Ommunise. — Smith,  op.cit. 

Omowuh.  The  Rain-cloud  clan  of  the 
Patki  (Water-house)  phratry  of  the  Hopi. 
Oma-a. — Bourke, Snake  Dance,  117,1884.  O'-mau. — 
Stephen  in  8th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  39, 1S91.  Omawuu.— 
Dorsey  and  Voth,  Mishongnovi  Ceremonies,  175, 
1902.  '  O'-mow-uh  wiin-wu. — Fewkes  in  Am.  An- 
throp.,vn,402,  1894  (icun-u'u=cl&n) . 

Ompivromo.  A  former  village,  presum 
ably  Costanoan,  connected  with  Dolores 
mission,  San  Francisco,  Cal.— Taylor  in 
Cal.  Farmer,  Oct.  IS,  1861. 

Ona.  The  third  village  of  the  Cliilula 
on  Redwood  cr.,  Cal. 

Oh-nah.— Gibbs  in  Schoolcrnft.  Ind.  Tribes,  in, 
139,  1853  (Yurok  name).  Ono.— Ibid.  Unuh.— 
Powers  in  Overland  Mo.,  vu,  530,  1872. 

Onackatin.     See  Onockcttin. 

Onagatano.  A  former  province  x.  of 
Florida  peninsula,  in  snow-clad  moun 
tains,  where,  in  the  lo'th  century,  it  was 
said  the  Apalachee  obtained  their  gold. 
Distinct  from  Olagatano,  q.  v.  (Fonta- 
neda  Mem.,  ca.  1575,  Smith  trans.,  L'O, 
1854) . 

Onaghee.  An  ancient  Seneca  settle 
ment  on  the  s.  side  of  Fall  brook,  at 
Hopewell,  Ontario  co.,  N.  Y.  Before 
1720  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  settled 
near  Montreal,  and  in  1750  the  place  had 
been  long  deserted. 


[B.  A.  E. 

Onachee.— rainmerhofF  1 1750)  quoted  by  Conover, 
Kan  and  (Jeneva  MS.  Onaghee.— Schuyler 
(17"  N  Y  Doc.Col.  Hist.,  V,  543. 1855.  Onane.— 
!)«>,•  of  17H).  ibid..52S.  Onahee.— Doc.of  1726,  ibid., 
7>i7  Onahie.  — Kvans.  Map,  1755.  Onnachee.— 
rammrrhoiT  quoted  by  ronover,  op.  cit.  Onna- 
ghee.— Conover.  ibid.  Onnahee.— Riggs  (1720)  m 
N.  V.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  v.  570.  1855. 

Onaheli.  Our  of  live  hamlets  compos 
ing  the  former  Chocta\v  town  of  Imon- 
galasha  in  Xeshoba  co.,  Miss.— Halbert 
in  1'nl..  Miss.  Hist.  Soc.,  vi,  432,  1902. 

Onancock.  A  village  of  the  Powhatan 
ennt'ederacy  in  160S,  about  the  site  of  the 
present  Onancock,  in  Accomack  co.,  Va. 
Four  or  five  families  were  still  therein 

Oanancock.— Beverley,  Va.,  199,  1722.  Onancock.— 
Ho/man.  M<1..  I.  149,  1837.  Onancoke.— Ibid.,  148. 
Onankok.— Herrman  (1670),  Maps  to  accompany 
Kcp.  on  the  Line  between  Va.  and  Md.,  1873. 
Onaucoke.— Pory  in  Smith  (1629),Va.,  n,  61,  repr. 

Onapiem.     A  village  or  tribe  mentioned 

liy  .Inutcl  in  16S7  as  being  N.  or  x.  w.  of 
Maligne  (Colorado)  r.,  Tex.  The  region 
was  oreupied  and  controlled  largely  by 
Caddoan  tribes,  and  the  name  seems  to 
have  been  given  to  Jontel  by  Ebahamo 
Indians,  who  were  probably  Karanka  wan. 
Set-  (iatschet,  Karankawa  Indians,  35, 
1S91.  (A.  c.  F.) 

Onapiem.— Jontel  (16X7)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  in,  289, 
1^7v  Onapien. — .lontel  (11)87)  in  French,  Hist. 
Cull.  I.;i..  i.  l:;7,  1M6.  Onapienes. — Barcia,  Ensayo, 

Onasakenrat  ( '  White  Feather ' ) ,  Joseph. 
A  Mohawk  chief,  noted  for  his  transla 
tions  of  religious  works  into  his  native 
laniruage.  lie  was  born  on  his  father's 
farm,  near  Oka,  Canada,  Sept.  4,  1845;  at 
14  years  of  age  he  was  sent  to  Montreal 
College  to  be  educated  for  the  priest 
hood,  remaining  thereabout  4  years.  He 
was  afterward  converted  to  Protestantism 
and  became  an  evangelical  preacher.  On 
June  15,  1S77,  the  Catholic  church  of 
Oka  was  burned,  and  Chief  Joseph  was 
tried  for  the  offense,  but  was  not  con 
victed.  He  died  suddenly,  Feb.  8,  1881, 
at  Canghnawaga.  Among  his  transla 
tions  into  the  Mohawk  dialect  are  the 
Oospels  (1K80)  and  a  volume  of  hymns. 
At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  engaged 
in  translating  the  remainder  of  the  Bible, 
having  reached  in  the  work  the  Epistles 
to  the  Hebrews. 

Onathaqua  (possibly  intended  for  Ou.a- 
/h'K/ini).  A  tribe  or  village  about  C. 
Canaveral,  K.  coast  of  Florida,  in  con 
stant  alliance  with  the  Calusa  (q.  v.) 
in  1564  (Laudonniere).  Probably  iden 
tical  in  whole  or  in  part  with  the  Ais 
tribe.  Not  to  be  confounded  with  Ona 
theaqua,  <|.  v.  (.1.  M.) 
Oathkaqua.— De  Hry  map  (ir>'.)i)in  Le  Moyne 
Niirr..  Appleton  trans..  1875.  Onathaqua.— Lau- 
(loiini.-re  (  i:,i;i,  in  Kr(.nrh,  Hist  Coll  L(1  n  s 

*6'.M  possibly  f,,r  <>untlin.|iiu).  Onothaca.- 
BrackenndKe,  Lu.,  M  isl  (.  Otchaqua  — De  1'Isle 
map,  I7(K). 

Onatheaqua.  A  principal  tribe  in  15f)4, 
described  as  living  near  the  high  moun 

tains,  apparently  in  upper  Georgia,  and 
equal  in  power  and  importance  to  the 
Timucua,  Potano,  Yustaga,  and  Saturiba, 
according  to  Laudonniere.  Not  to  be 
confounded  with  Onathaqua  (q.  v. ),  near 
C.  Canaveral,  Fla.  (.1.  M.) 

Onatheaqua. — Luudonniere  (1564)  in  French,  Hist. 
Coll.  La.,  n.  s.,  244,  1869;  De  Bry,  map  (1591)  in 
Le  Moyne,  Xarr.,  Appleton  trans.,  1875  (indicated 
w.  of  St  John  r.  and  beyond  Oustaca=Yustaga). 

Onava.  A  former  Nevome  pueblo  and 
seat  of  a  Spanish  mission  founded  in  1 622; 
situated  in  lat.  28°  W,  Ion.  109°,  on  the 
Rio  Yaqui,  Sonora,  Mexico.  Pop.  875  in 
1678,  457  in  1730.  The  inhabitants  prob 
ably  spoke  a  dialect  slightly  different 
from  the  Nevome  proper.  The  town  is 
now  completely  Mexicanized. 

Hare-eaters. — ten  Kate  in  Jour.  Am.  Eth.  and 
Arch.,  142. 1892  (Tchoofkwatam,  or:  Pimaname). 
Ohavas. — Escudero  quoted  by  Bancroft,  No.  Mex. 
States,  I,  101,  1884.  Onabas.— Kino  map  (1702)  in 
Stocklein,  Neue  YVelt-Bott,  74,  1726.  Onava.— Bal- 
bi  (1826)  quoted  by  Orozco  y  Berra,  Geog.,  352, 
1864.  San  Ignacio  Onabas. — Zapata  (1678)  in  Doc. 
Hist.  Mex.,  4th  s.,  m,  359,  1857.  Tchoofkwatam.— 
ten  Kate,  op.  cit.  ('hare-eaters':  Pimaname). 

Onaweron  (prob.  '  [there]  are  springs  of 
water').  A  traditional  Iroquois  town  of 
the  Bear  clan;  so  enumerated  in  the  list 
of  towns  in  the  Chant  of  Welcome  of  the 
Condolence  Council  of  the  League  of  the 
Iroquois.  Nothing  definite  is  knowrn  of 
its  situation  or  of  the  particular  tribe  to 
which  it  belonged.  See  Hale,  Iroq.  Book 
of  Rites,  120,  1883.  (j.  N.  B.  H.  ) 

Onawmanient.  A  tribe  of  the  Powhatan 
confederacy  on  the  s.  bank  of  the  Poto 
mac  in  the  present  Westmoreland  co., 
Va.,  numbering  about  400  in  1608.  Their 
principal  village,  of  the  same  name,  was 
probably  on  Nominy  bay. 

Anawmanient. — Bozman"  Md.,  I,  188,  1837.  Nomi- 
nies.— Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  4,  9,  1848.  Onauma- 
nient.— Smith  (1612),  Works,  Arber  ed.,  52,  1884 
(the  village). 

Onbi.  A  Costanoan  village  situated  in 
1815  within  10  m.  of  Santa  Cruz  mission, 
Gal. — Taylor  in  Gal.  Farmer,  Apr.  5, 

Onchomo  (Ontcomo}.  A  former  Maidu 
village  at  Mud  Springs,  about  5  m.  dues, 
of  Placerville,  Eldorado  co.,  Cal. — Pixon 
in  Bull.  Am.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  xvn,  pi.  38, 

Ondachoe.  A  Cayuga  village  mentioned 
by  Cammerhoff,  the  Moravian,  in  1750, 
as  situated  on  the  w.  shore  of  Cayuga 
lake,  N.  Y.,  apparently  opposite  Aurora. 
He  said  it  was  larger  than  Cayuga.  Gen. 
Clark  placed  it  at  Sheldrake  point,  but 
this  is  too  far  s.  ( w.  M.  B.  ) 

Ondatra.  A  name  for  the  muskrat 
(  Filx'f  zibet  hints),  derived  from  one  of  the 
Huron  dialects  of  the  Troquoian  language 
early  current  in  the  Hochelaga  region  of 
Canada.  A  more  common  name  is  mus- 
<]v<tsJt,  of  Algonquian  origin.  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Ondoutaouaka.  An  Algonquian  tribe 
or  division,  probably  a  part  of  the  Mon- 

BULL.  30] 


tagnais,  living  in  1644  about  100  leagues 
above  "Saguene,"  Quebec. 

Ondoutaoiiaheronnon. — Jes.  Rel.  1644,  99,  1858      On- 
doutaouaka.— Ibid.,  1642,  10,  1858. 

Onechsagerat.  The  "old  chief"  of 
Cayuga,  mentioned  by  Cammerhoff  in 
1750.  He  was  also  styled  Teiyughsara- 
garat,  the  principal  chief,  when  he  re 
ceived  Sir  Wm.  Johnson's  belts  and  went 
to  Canada  in  1756.  Weiser  called  him 
Oyeaghseragearat  in  1754,  and  Oyuch- 
seragarat  in  1752.  His  name  appears 
in  1762  and  1774,  the  latter  year  at 
Onondaga,  in  November,  when  "a  Cay 
uga  chief  named  Oyeghseragearat  spoke. ' ' 
This  may  possibly  have  been  a  young 
er  man.  (w.  M.  H.) 

Oneida  (Anglicized  compressed  form  of 
the  common  Iroquois  term  tiiontn'iote' , 
'there  it  it-rock  has-set-up  (continu- 
ative),'  i.  e.  a  rock  that  something  set  up 
and  is  still  standing,  referring  to  a  large 
sienite  bowlder  near  the  site  of  one  of 
their  ancient  villages).  A  tribe  of  the 
Iroquois  confederation,  formerly  occu 
pying  the  country  s.  of  Oneida  lake, 
Oneida  co.,  X.  Y.,  and  latterly  including 
the  upper  waters  of  the  Susquehanna. 
According  to  authentic  tradition,  the 
Oneida  was  the  second  tribe  to  accept  the 
proposition  of  Dekanawida  and  Hiawatha 
to  form  a  defensive  and  offensive  league 
of  all  the  tribes  of  men  for  the  promotion 
of  mutual  welfare  and  security.  In  the 
federal  council  and  in  other  federal  as 
semblies  they  have  the  right  to  represen 
tation  by  9  federal  chieftains  of  the  highest 
rank.  Like  the  Mohawk,  the  Oneida 
have  only  3  clans,  the  Turtle,  the  Wolf, 
and  the  Bear,  each  clan  being  represented 
by  3  of  the  9  federal  representatives  of 
this  tribe  (see  Clan  and  Gens}.  Insofar  as 
eldership  as  a  member  of  a  clan  phratry 
can  give  precedence  in  roll-call  and  the 
right  to  discuss  first  in  order  all  matters 
coming  before  its  side  of  the  council  fire, 
the  Oneida  are  the  dominant  tribe  within 
the  tribal  phratry,  called  the  Four  (origi 
nally  Two)  Brothers  and  "Offspring," 
to  which  they  belong.  In  tribal  assem 
blies  the  Turtle  and  ^the  Wolf  constitute 
a  clan  phratry,  and  the  Bear  another. 
The  Oneida  have  usually  been  a  conserva 
tive  people  in  their  dealing  with  their 
allies  and  with  other  peoples.  In  1635 
they,  with  the  Onondaga,  Cayuga,  and 
Mohawk,  sought  to  become  parties  to  the 
peace  concluded  in  the  preceding  year 
between  the  Seneca  and  the  Hurons.  At 
this  period  they  were  called  sedentary 
and  very  populous,  but  only  from  Indian 

The  Jesuit  Relation  for  1646  (p.  3,1858) 
says  that  with  the  exception  of  the  Mo 
hawk  there  was  no  treaty,  properly 
speaking,  then  in  existence  between  the 
Iroquois  tribes  inclusive  of  the  Oneida  and 
the  French.  From  the  same  Relation  it 

is  learned  that  "Onnieoute"  (Oneniote) 
the  principal  Oneida  village  of  that  time 
having  lost  the  greater  portion  of  its  men 
m  a  war  with  the  "upper  Algonquin  " 
was  compelled  to  request  the  Mohawk 
to  lend  aid  in  repeopling  the  village  by 
granting  thereto  a  colony  of  men,  and  that 
it  was  for  this  reason  that  the  Mohawk 
ceremonially  and  publicly  call  the  Oneida 
their  daughter  or  son.  This  story  is 
probably  due  to  a  misconception  of' the 
fictitious  political  kinships  and  relation 
ships  established  between  the  several 
tribes  at  the  time  of  the  institution  and 
organization  of  the  League  (see  Coiifctle ra 
tion)  .  The  Cayuga  and  the  Tuscarora  are 
likewise  called  "Offspring,"  but  not  for 
the  reason  above  given.  The  Jesuit  Rela 
tion  for  1648  (p.  46)  first  definitely  locates 
the  Oneida.  From  the  Relation  for  1641 
(p.  74)  it  is  gathered  that  the  Jesuit 
fathers  had  learned  that  the  Oneida  had 


a  peculiar  form  of  government  in  which 
the  rulership  alternated  between  the  two 
sexes.  This  statement  is  likewise  appar 
ently  due  to  a  misconception  of  the  fact 
that  among  Iroquois  tribes  the  titles  to  the 
chiefships  belonged  to  the  women  of  cer 
tain  clans  in  the  tribe  and  not  to  the  men, 
although  men  were  chosen  by  the  women 
to  exercise  the  rights  and  privileges  and 
to  perform  the  duties  pertaining  to  these 
chiefships,  and  that  there  were,  and  indeed 
still  are,  a  numberof  women  filling  federal 
chiefships  bearing  the  name  of  the 
highest  class.  These  women  chieftains 
have  approximately  the  same  rights,  priv 
ileges,  and  immunities  as  the  men  chiefs, 
but  exercise  them  fully  only  in  emergen 
cies;  they,  too,  maintain  the  institutions 
of  society  and  government  among  the 

The  Jesuit  Relation  for  1667  (ui,  145, 
1899)   declares  that  the  Oneida  were  at 


[B.  A.  E. 

that  time  the  least  tractable  of  the  Iro 
quois  tribes.  It  was  at  this  period  that 
Father  I'.ruyas  was  stationed  at  the  mis 
sion  of  St  "Francois  Xavier  among  the 
Oneida.  It  is  also  learned  from  this 
source  that  the  Mohegan  and  the  Cones- 
toira  menaced  the  Oneida.  While  on  this 
mission  Father  Brnyas  suffered  for  food 
for  a  part  of  the  year  and  was  compelled 
to  sustain  life  oil  a  diet  of  dried  frogs. 
By  the  end  of  the  year  1669  he  had  bap- 
ti/ed  MO  persons,  "in  1660  the  Oneida 
with  the  Mohawk  were  the  least  populous 
of  the  Iroi[iiois  tribes.  The  Jesuit  Rela 
tion  for  16W-70  speaks  of  the  Oneida  be- 
in  i:  present  at  a  "  feast  of  the  dead  "  held 
at  the  Mohawk  village  of  Canghnawaga, . 
showing  that  in  a  modified  form  at  least 
the  decennial  ceremony  of  the  so-called 
••head  Feast''  was  practised  among  the 
Iro(|iiois  when  iirst  known.  On  Jan. 
HO,  i<>71,  the  Oneida  began  the  torture  of 
a  captive  Conestoga  woman,  and  the  tor 
ture  was  -prolonged  through  2  days  and  2 
nights  because  he  in  whose  stead  she  had 
hem  given  was  burned  at  Conestoga  for 
that  length  of  time.  It  is  held  by  some 
that  the  town  defended  by  four  lines  of 
palisades,  closely  fastened  together  and 
attacked  by  Champlain  in  1615  with  his 
Huron  and  Algonquian  allies,  was  an 
<  Mieida  village,  although  other  authorities 
place  it  elsewhere,  in  Onondaga territory. 
In  fact. the  wars  of  the  Oneida  were  those 
of  the  League,  although  like  the  other 
tribes  they  seem  to  have  put  forth  most 
energy  against  the  tribes  who  in  some  man 
ner  had  given  them  the  greatest  offense. 
The  ( 'atawba  and  the  Muskhogean  tribes, 
as  well  as  the  Susquehanna  r.  Indians, 
the  Conestoga,  gave  most  occupation  to 
the  Oneida  warriors. 

After  the  conquest  of  the  tribes  on  the 
Susquehanna  and  its  tributaries  and  those 
on  the  Potomac,  chiefly  by  the  warriors 
of  the  Oneida,  the  Cayuga,  and  the 
Seneca,  and  those  tribes  which  had  sub 
mitted  to  Iroqnois  rule,  a  question  arose 
as  to  the  propriety  of  the  Mohawk,  who 
had  not  given  any  aid  in  subduing  these 
peoples,  sharing  in  the  income  arising 
from  land  sales  there.  Hence  for  a  time 
the  Mohawk  received  no  emolument 
from  this  source,  until  the  Iroquois  tribes 
became  divided  and  the  Mohawk  sold 
the  lands  in  the  Wyoming  Valley  region 
of  Pennsylvania  to  the  Susquehanna 
Land  Co.  of  Connecticut.  This,  then,  in 
172s,  moved  the  great  federal  council  of 
the  league  at  Onondaga  to  send  Shikel- 
laniy,  an  Oncida  chief,  as  a  superinten 
dent,  to  the  forks  of  the  Susquehanna  for 
the  purpose  of  watching  over  the  affairs 
and  the  interests  of  the  Six  Nations  of 
Iroquois  in  Pennsylvania.  At  first  Shi- 
kellamy  exercised  a  general  supervision 
over  only  tin;  Shawnee  and  the  Dela- 

wares,  who  thereafter  were  required  to 
consult  him  in  all  matters  arising  be 
tween  them  and  the  proprietary  govern 
ment.  So  well  did  he  perform  his  duty 
that  in  1745  Shikellamy  was  made  full 
superintendent  over  all  the  dependent 
tribes  on  the  Susquehanna,  with  his  resi 
dence  at  Shamokin.  He  showed  great 
astuteness  in  the  management  of  the  af 
fairs  intrusted  to  his  care,  seeking  at  all 
times  to  promote  the  interests  of  his  peo 
ple.  Such  was  the  influence  which  the 
Oneida  exercised  on  the  Susquehanna. 

In  1687  the  Oneida  were  included  in 
the  warrant  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain 
to  Gov.  Dongan  of  Newr  York,  authoriz 
ing  him  to  protect  the  Five  Nations  as 
subjects  of  Great  Britain.  In  1696  Count 
Frontenac  burned  the  Oneida  castle,  de 
stroyed  all  their  corn,  and  made  prison 
ers  of  30  men,  women,  and  children. 

In  1645-46  the  Oneida  were  at  war 
with  the  Nipissing,  and  one  band  of  17 
warriors  from  "Ononiiote"  defeated  an 
Algonkin  party  under  Teswehat,  the 
one-eyed  chief  of  this  people,  killing  the 
chief's  son  and  taking  2  women  prison 
ers.  This  Iroquois  party  was  afterward 
defeated  by  30  Hurons  and  the  2  women 
were  recaptured. 

In  the  Jesuit  Relation  for  1666-68 
Father  Bruyas  writes  that  the  Oneida 
were  reputed  the  most  cruel  of  all  the  Iro 
quois  tribes;  that  they  had  always  made 
war  on  the  Algonkin  and  the  Hurons,  and 
that  two-thirds  of  the  population  of  their 
villages  \vere  composed  of  the  people  of 
.these  two  tribes  who  had  become  Iroquois 
in  temper  and  inclination.  This  mission 
ary  adds  that  the  nature  of  the  Oneida 
was  then  altogether  barbarous,  being 
cruel,  sly,  cunning,  and  prone  to  blood 
shed  and  carnage. 

In  1655  a  party  of  60  Oneida  warriors 
was  sent  against  the  Ainikwa,  or  Beaver 
Indians.  This  war  was  still  in  progress 
in  1661,  for  in  that  year  2  bands,  one  of 
24  and  the  other  of  30  warriors,  were 
encountered  on  their  way  to  fight  the 

Chauchetiere  (letter  in  Jesuit  Relations, 
Thwaites  ed.,  LXII,  185,  1900)  says  that 
"war  is  blazing  in  the  country  of  the 
Outaouaks,"  that  the  Iroquois,  especially 
the  Oneida,  continued  their  hatred  of  the 
Outagami  (Foxes)  and  the  Illinois,  and 
so  have  slain  and  captured  many  Illinois. 
In  1681  they  killed  or  captured  about 
1,000  of  these  unfortunate  people. 

In  1711,  about  half  of  the  Tuscarora 
tribe,  then  dwelling  in  North  Carolina, 
seems  to  have  conspired  with  several 
alien  neighboring  tribes  and  bands  to 
destroy  the  Can  >lina  settlers.  The  colon 
ists,  however,  recollecting  the  ancient 
feud  between  the  Southern  and  the  North 
ern  Indians,  allied  themselves  with  the 

BULL.  30] 



Catawba  and  some  Muskhogean  tribes. 
The  Tuscarora,  sustaining  several  severe 
defeats,  were  finally  driven  from  their 
homes  and  hunting  grounds.  This  act  of 
the  Southern  Indians  made  the  hatred 
of  the  Iroquois  against  the  Catawba  more 
bitter  and  merciless. 

The  Oneida  were  at  times  friendly  to 
the  French  and  to  the  Jesuit  missionaries, 
while  the  other  Iroquois  were  their  de 
termined  enemies.  A  great  part  of  the 
Oneida  and  the  Tuscarora,  through  the 
influence  of  Rev.  Samuel  Kirk  land,  re 
mained  neutral  in  the  Revolutionary  war, 
while  the  majority  of  the  confederation 
of  the  Iroquois  were  divided  and  did  not 
act  as  a  unit  in  this  matter.  Early  in 
that  struggle  the  hostile  Iroquois  tribes 
attacked  the  Oneida  and  burned  one  of 
their  villages,  forcing  them  to  take  refuge 
near  the  Americans  in  the  vicinity  of 
Schenectady,  where  they  remained  until 
the  close  of  the  war.  Shortly  after  the 
main  body  of  the  tribe  returned  to  their 
former  homes.  At  a  later  period  a  con 
siderable  number  emigrated  to  Canada 
and  settled  on  Grand  r.  and  Thames  r., 
Ontario.  Another  small  band,  called 
Oriskas,  formed  a  new  settlement  at 
Ganowarohare,  a  few  miles  from  the 
main  body  in  Oneida  co.,  N.  Y.  At  dif 
ferent  earlier  periods  the  Oneida  adopted 
and  gave  lands  to  the  Tuscarora,  the 
Stockbridges,  and  the  Brothertons.  The 
Tuscarora  afterward  removed  to  land 
granted  by  the  Seneca  in  w.  Newr  York. 
In  1846,  having  sold  most  of  their  lands 
in  NewT  York,  the  greater  part  of  the 
Oneida,  together  with  their  last  two 
adopted  tribes,  removed  to  a  tract  on 
Green  bay,  Wis.,  where  they  now  reside. 
Among  those  living  in  Newr  York  at 
the  time  of  removal  were  two  parties 
known  respectively  as  the  First  Chris 
tian,  and  the  Second  Christian  or  Orchard 

The  Oneida  entered  into  treaties  with 
the  United  States  at  Ft  Stanwix,  N.  Y., 
Oct.  22,  1784;  Ft  Harmar,  O.,  Jan.  9, 
1789;  Canandaigua,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  11,  1794; 
Oneida,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  2,  1794;  Buffalo 
Creek,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  15,  1838;  and  Wash 
ington,  I).  C.,  Feb.  3,  1838.  They  also 
held  no  fewer  than  30  treaties  with  the 
State  of  New  York  between  the  years 
1788  and  1842. 

The  estimates  of  Oneida  population  at 
different  periods  are  no  more  satisfactory 
than  those  relating  to  the  other  Iroquois 
tribes.  The  earliest  account  (1660)  gives 
them  500.  They  are  placed  at  1 , 000  in  1 677 
md  1721.  In  1770  they  were  estimated 
it  410,  in  1776  at  628,  and  in  1795  at  660, 
md  were  said  to  have  been  decreasing  for 
i  long  time.  They  number  at  present 

1906)  about  3,220,  of  whom  286  are  still 
n  New  York,  2,151  under  the  Oneida 

School  Superintendency  in  Wisconsin 
783  on  Thames  r.,  Ontario,  besides  those 
settled  among  the  other  Iroquois  on  (i  rand 
r.,  Ontario.  There  are  no  means  of  learn 
ing  the  number  of  Oneida  who  joined  the 
several  colonies  of  Catholic  Iroquois. 

The  Oneida  towns,  so  far  as  known, 
were:  Awegen,  Brothertown,  Cahun- 
ghage,  Canowdowsa,  Cowassalon,  Chitte- 
nango,  Ganadoga,  Hostaynntwa,  Oneida, 
Opolopong,  Oriska,  Ossewingo,  Ostoge- 
ron,  Schoherage,  Sevege,  Soloeka,  Stock- 
bridge,  Tegasoke,  Teseroken,  Teiosweken, 
and  Tkanetota.  (j.  x.  H.  n.) 

Anayints.— Pa.  Col.  Rec.,  IV,  5x4,  1851.  Anayot 
haga.— Pyrla-us  (ca.  17.50)  quoted  in  Am.  Antiu., 
IV,  75,  1881.  Annegouts.— Bac.nieville  de  la 
Potherie,  Hist.  Amer.  Septent.,  in,  3,  1753. 
Anoyints. — Mallery  in  Proc.  A.  A.  A.  S.,  xxvi, 
352,  1877.  Hogh-na-you-tau-agh  taugh  caugh.— Ma- 
cauley,  N.  Y.,  u,  176,  1829.  Honnehiouts.— Hen- 
nepin,  New  Discov.,  map,  1698.  Huniedes. — Doc. 
of  1676  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  xm,  500,  1x81. 
Janadoah. — Morse,  Am.  Geog.,  I,  454,  1819  (here 
used  for  Iroquois  generally).  Janitos. — Lawson 
(170W)  quoted  by  Schoolcfaft,  Ind.  Tribes,  vi. 
326,  1857  (incorrectly  given  as  Lavvson's  form). 
Jennitos. — Lawson  (1709),  Hist.  Car.,  82.  1X60. 
Nation  de  la  Pierre.— Jes.  Kel.  1669,  7,  1X5X. 
Ne-ar-de-on-dar-go'-war. — Morgan,  League  Iroq., 
98, 1851(councilname).  Neharontoquoah. — Weiser 
(1750)  in  Pa.  Col.  Rec.,  v,  477,  1x51.  Ne-haw-re- 
tah-go.— Macauley,  N.  Y.,  n,  185,  1829.  Ne-haw- 
re-tah-go-wah.— Beauchamp  in  Bull.  78.  N.  Y. 
State  Mus.,  161, 1905.  Ne-haw-teh-tah-go.— Cusick, 
Six  Nations.  16,  1828.  Ne'yutka. — Gatschet,  Sen 
eca  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1X82  (Seneca  name).  Ne'yutka- 
nonu'ndshunda. — Ibid,  (another  Seneca  name). 
Niharuntagoa.— Pyrlanis  (m.  1750)  in  Am.  Antic)., 
IV,  75,  1881.  Niharuntaquoa.— Weiser  (1743),  op. 
cit.,  IV,  664,  1851.  Nihatiloendagowa.— J.  X.  B. 
Hewitt,  infn,  1907  ('they  are  large  trees':  politi 
cal  name).  Nihorontagowa. — Benson  quoted  by 
Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  5.  Ill,  1848.  Niondago'a.— 
Gatschet,  Seneca  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1882  ('large trees  ': 
Seneca  name).  Niunda-ko'wa. — Gatschet,  Seneca 
MS  1882  ('large  trees').  Onayauts.— Writer 
quoted  by  Drake,  Bk.  Inds..  bk.  5,4,  1848.  Ona- 
yiuts.— Golden  (1727),  Five  Nat.,  app.,  58,  1747. 
.  O-na-yote'-ka-o-no.— Morgan,  League  Iroq.,  52, 1X51. 
Oncidas.— Keane  in  Stanford,  Compend.,  527,  1878 
(misprint).  Oncydes. — Humphreys,  Acct.,  294, 
1730  (misprint).  0-nea-yo-ta-au-cau.— Barton. New 
Views,  app.,  6, 1798.  Onedes. — Albany  Con f.  (1737) 
in  NY  Doe.  Col.  Hist.,  VI,  98,  1855.  Onedoes.— 
Golden  (173X),  ibid.,  123.  Oneiadas.— Writer  of 
1792  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  I,  2S7,  1806. 
Oneiadds  — Doc.  of  16X7  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
in  432,  1853.  Oneiades.— Allyn  (1666)  in  Mass. 
Hist  Soc  Coll. ,3d  s.,  X,  63,1849.  Oneidaes. -Dud 
ley  (1721)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,2ds.,  VIII, 244, 
18.19  Oneidas.— Doc.  of  1676  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  (  ol. 
Hist  xm  502,  1881.  Oneides.— Andros  11679) 
ibid"  in,  277,  1853.  Oneidoes.— Colhoun  (1753), 
ibid  VI  821,1855.  Oneids.— Vernon  (1697),  ibul., 
IV  289  1854.  Oneijdeg.—Wessels  (1693),  ibid.,  60. 
Oneiochronon.-Jes.  Kel.  1640,  35.  1858.  Oneiotch 
ronons— Ibid.,  1646,  34,  1858.  OneiSchronons.— 
Ibid  1639  67,  1858.  Oneiouks.—  Coxe,  Carol 
56, 1741.  Oneiouronons.— Courcelles  ,  1670)  in  Mar 
ST\  Dec  ,  i,  178,  1875.  Oneiout.— Jes.  Kel.  1656, 
12,  1858  (village).  OneiStcheronons.— Jes.  Kel. 
1646  34  1858.  Oneioutchronnons.—  mm..  It).*,  i< 
1858!  6nei-yu-ta-augh-a.-Macauley  N.  V,  II, 

V>    1829     Oneiyutas.— Edwards  (1751)  in  Mass. 

list.  Soc.'Coll..  1st  s.,  x.  146,  1849.    Onejda^-W  rax- 

11  ^17541  in  N    Y    Doc.  Col.  Hist..  VI,   8;V7,  1855. 

nedef-Cortland   (1687),    ibid.,    in,    435.    185? 


touis  XIV71699),  ibid.,  .x. 



[B.  A.  E. 

l,sM  Oneydays.— Albany  Conf.  (1748), ibid.,  vi.44/, 
l.x:>.V  Oneyders.— Markham  (\m\,  ibid.,  in,  807. 
1  .<>:;.  Oneydes.— Livingston  (1677 1,  ibid.,  xin,  510, 
IxM  Oneydese.— Livingston  07-0),  ibid.,  V.  56;>, 
ls.v>  Oneydeys.— Albany  Conf.  (1751), ibid.,  VI, 719, 
IVY/  Oneydoes.— Marshe  (1741)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll  ;;d  s  vn,lW.  1838.  Oneydos.— Clarkson  (1H91) 
in  N'  V.  Doe.  Col.  Hist.,  Ill,  814,  1853.  Oneyds.— 
Kleteher  (1  «•)«»:<),  ibid..  IV.  55,  1S54.  Oneyede.— 
Don tan  (1688),  ibid..  521.  Oneyonts.— Boudinot, 
Star' in  tin-  West.  100.  1816.  Oneyoust.— Denon- 
ville  i  16S5)  in  N.  V.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  IX,  '282,  1855. 
Oneyuts.—Maeauley.N.Y.,  11,176, 1829.  Oniadas.— 
Carver  Travels.  172,  177S.  Oniades.— Coursey 
(168'Ji  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  xni,  557,  1881. 
Onids— Ilomann  Heirs  map,  1756.  Oniedas.— 
Vctcb  <  17HH  in  X.  Y.  I»oc.  Col.  Hist.,  V,  531,  1855. 
Oniedes.— Albany  Conf.  (174(1),  ibid.,  VI,  317,  1855. 
Onioets.— Coxe,  "  Carolana,  56,  1741.  Onioutche- 
ronons  —Jes.  Kel.  1646.  3.  1S58.  Oniouts.—  School- 
craft,  Ind.  Tribes,  v,  154,  1855.  Oniyouths.— Bou 
dinot.  Star  in  tbe  West,  128,  1816.  0-ni-yu-ta.— 
Macanlcy.  X.  Y..  II,  176,  I,s29.  Oniyutaaugha.— 
Ibid  "71  Onneiochronnons. — Jes.  Kel.  1648,  46, 
lx.-,s.  Onneiotchronnons.— .Ics.  Kel.  1658,  3,  1858. 
Onneioust. — Krnyas  (1673)  in  Margry,  Dec.,  I,  242, 
1x75.  Onneiout.— Yandrenil  (1712),  ibid. .41.  Onnei- 
outchoueronons.— Jes.Rol.  1656,14, 1858.  Onneioute.— 
,les.  Kel.  1664,  34, 185,s.  OnneiStheronnon. — Jes.  Kel. 
1660,  6, lx-\x.  Onneiouthronnons. — .k's.  Kel.  1657,  34, 
Is.Vv  Onnejioust.— Hellin,  map,  1755.  Onnejochro- 
nons.— Jes.  Kel.  1652,  35,  1858.  Onnejoust.— Louis 
XIV  (16l.iy)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  697,  1855. 
Onnejouts.—  Jos.  Kel.  1669,  7.  1858.  Onneydes.— 
Dongan  U6S7)  in  X.  Y.  Doe.  Col.  Hist.,  ill,  438, 1853. 
Onneyotchronon. — .les.  Kel.,  index,  1858.  Onne- 
youth.— Charlevoix,  Voy  to  X.  Am.,  n,  25,  1761, 
Onnogontes. — Charlevoix  (1736)  in  Schoolcraft, 
Ind.  Tribes,  IIF,  555. 1853.  Onnoyotes. — Lahontan. 
Xcu-  Yoy.,  i.  157,  1703.  Onnoyoute. — Ibid.,  map. 
Onodos.— Coxe,  Carolana,  map,  1741.  Onoiochrho- 
nons.—.les.  Kel.  1635,  34,1858.  Onojake. — La  Mon 
tague  i  1661)  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  xin,  355,  1881. 
Onoyats.— Mallery  in  Proo.  A.  A.  A.  S.,  xxvi,  352, 
1877.  Onoyauts.— Greenhalgh  (1677)  in  N.  Y.  Doc. 
Col.  Hist.,  in,  252.  1853.  Onoyote. — Pouehot,  map 
(1758i,  ibi<l..  \.  il'.U,  1858.  Onoyouts. — Lahontan, 
Xo\v  Voy..  i,  23,  1703.  Onoyuts. — La  Tour,  map, 
177'.'.  Onyades.— Greenhalgn  (1677)  in  X.  Y.  Doc. 
Col.  Hist.,  in.  250,  1853.  Onydans. — Harris,  Voy. 
and  Trav..  n.  311,1764.  Onyedauns.— Loisler  (1690) 
in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist. ,in,  700, 1853.  Otatsightes.— 
Macauloy,  X.  Y.,  n,  176,  1X29  (chiefs  name). 
Ouiochrhonons.—  Jes.  Rol.  1635,  34,  1858  (misprint). 
Ouneyouths.— Baudry  des  Lo/iores,  Yoy.  a  la  Le., 
213,  1M)2.  Tau-hur-lin-dagh-go-waugh.— Maeauley, 
X.  Y.,  n.  185,  1S29.  T'wa'-ru-na.— Hewitt,  inf'n, 
1886  (Tuscarora  name).  Unlades. —Coursey  (1682) 
in  X.  V.  Doc.  C,>1.  Hist.,  xm,  558,  1881.'  Uniu- 
taka.— (latschet,  Tuscarora  MS.,  1885  (former 
Tuscurora  nainoi.  Wtassone.— Heckewelder, 
Hist.  Inds.,  yy.  1876  ('makers  of  stone  pipes': 
Delaware  name;  applied  also  to  other  Indians 
who  excelled  in  that  art). 

Oneida.  One  of  the  chief  and  first 
known  villages  of  the  Oneida  people,  and 
which  within  historical  times  has  been 
removed  to  several  new  situations.  It 
seems  to  have  been  originally  a  town  of 
the  Wolf  clan,  for  it  is  so  enumerated  in 
the  Chant  of  Welcome  of  the  Condolence 
Council  of  the  League  of  the  Iroquois; 
the  Wolf  clan  constituted  one  of  the  two 
phratries  in  the  tribal  council  of  the 
Oneida.  Arent  Van  Curler,  who  visited 
this  town  in  16.TJ.  wrote  that  it  was  situ 
ated  on  a  high  hill  and  defended  by  two 
rows  of  palisades;  in  the  ramparts  were 
two  grates,  one  on  the  w.  side,  over  which 
were  standing  ".'5  wooden  images,  of  cut 
(carved'/)  wood,  like  men,"  adorned  with 
M  scalps,  and  the  other,  on  the  E.  side 
adorned  with  only  one  scalp;  the  western 
gate  was  :i\  ft  wide,  while  the  other  was 

only  2  ft.  He  wrote  that  this  palisade 
was  767  paces  in  circumference,  and  that 
within  it  were  66  lodges,  "much  better, 
higher,  and  more  finished  than  all  those 
others  we  saw."  Those  seen  by  Van 
Curler  and  his  companions  were  the  Mo 
hawk  castles.  Of  the  first  Mohawk  cas 
tle  Van  Curler  wrote:  "There  stood  but 
36  houses,  in  rows  like  streets,  so  that 
we  could  pass  nicely.  The  houses  are 
made  and  covered  with  bark  of  trees, 
and  mostly  fiat  at  the  top.  Some  are 
100,  90,  or" 80  paces  long,  and  22  or  23  ft 
high.  .  .  .  The  houses  were  full  of  corn 
that  they  lay  in  store,  and  we  saw  inai/e; 
yes,  in  some  houses  more  than  300 
bushels."  His  description  of  the  third 
Mohawk  castle,  then  called  Sohanidisse, 
or  Rehanadisse,  follows:  "On  a  very  high 
hill  stood  32  lodges,  like  the  other  ones. 
Some  were  100,^90,  or  80  paces  long;  in 
every  lodge  we  saw  4,  5,  or  6  fireplaces 
where  cooking  went  on."  Some  of  the 
lodges  were  finished  with  wooden  fronts, 
painted  with  all  sorts  of  beasts,  and  in 
some  of  them  were  found  very  good  axes, 
French  shirts,  coats,  and  razors,  and 
lodges  were  seen  where  "60,  70  and  more 
dried  salmon  were  hanging."  While  in 
the  Oneida  castle  Van  Curler  witnessed 
the  conclusion  of  a  temporary  peace  com 
pact  between  the  Oneida  and  the  French 
Indians  for  purposes  of  trade  for  four 
years.  To  this  he  gave  the  name  ' '  Cas 
tle  Knneyuttehage,  or  Sinnekens. ' '  The 
Oneida,  the  Onondaga,  and  the  Cavuga 
were  named  respectively  Onnevatte,  On 
ondaga,  and  Koyockure  (forKoyockwe), 
which  indicates  that  the  tribal  divisions 
of  the  Iroquois  \vere  well  known  to  the 
narrator  at  this  period.  This  town  was 
probably  on  one  of  the  early  Oneida  village 
sites  in  the  upper  valley  of  Oneida  cr., 
not  far  from  Oriskany  cr.,  and  according 
to  Van  Curler's  estimate,  75  or  80  m.  w. 
of  the  Mohawk  castle  of  Tenotoge  (Tio- 
nontogen?) ;  it  was  situated  on  the  E.  side 
of  Oneida  cr.,  and  Van  Curler  saw  x.  w. 
of  it,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  creek,  "  tre 
mendously  high  land  that  seemed  to  lie 
in  the  clouds."  Just  before  reaching  the 
castle  he  saw  three  graves,  "just  like  our 
graves  in  length  and  height;  usually  their 
graves  are  round."  These  graves  were 
surrounded  with  palisades,  nicely  closed 
up,  and  painted  red,  white,  and  black. 
The  grave  of  a  chief  had  an  entrance,  and 
at  the  top  there  was  "  a  big  wooden  bird, 
and  all  around  were  painted  dogs,  and 
deer,  and  snakes,  and  other  beasts." 
Such  was  the  chief  Oneida  town  of  1634. 
While  with  the  Oneida  Van  Curler  wit 
nessed  apparently  a  part  of  the  New  Year 
ceremonials  of  the  Iroquois,  which  he  re 
garded  as  so  much  "foolery." 

According  to  Greenhalgh,  who  visited 
the  Oneida  in  1677,  they  had  only  one 
town,  "newly  settled,  double  stock- 

BULL.  30] 



adoed,"  containing  about  100  houses  and 
200  warriors,    situated  20  (sic)  in.  from 
Oneida  cr.  and  30  ni.  s.  of  Mohawk  r. ;  it 
had    but  little  cleared    land,    "so  that 
they  are  forced  to  send  to  ye  Onondago's 
to  buy  corne."     This  village,  therefore, 
was  not  situated  on  the  site  visited  bv 
Van   Curler.     In  Aug.   1696  a  principal 
town  of  the  Oneida  was  burned  by  Vau- 
dreuil,  a  lieutenant  of  Count  Frontenac. 
In  1756  Sir  William  Johnson  (N.  Y 
Doc.  Col.  Hist,  vn,  101,  1856)  employed 
the  name  Onawaraghhare  to  designate  a 
place  regarded  as  suitable  for  the  erec 
tion  of  a  fort,  thus  showing  that  at  that 
time  there  was   a  village  called    "Cano- 
waroghere."     In  1762  Lieut,  Guy  John 
son,  starting  from  German  Flats,  visited 
the  Oneida  (N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vn 
512,  1856).     The  first  town  reached  he 
called  "  Upper  Oneida  Castle,"  and  also 
simply   "Oneida."     Thence  he  went  to 
"  Canowaroghere,    a  new  village   of  the 
Oneidas."     On  Sauthier's  map  of  Jan.  1, 
1779,  3  Oneida  villages  are  placed  in  the 
valley  of  Oneida   cr.:   (1)    Old   Oneyda 
Cast(le),    placed   E.  of  the    headwaters 
of  Oneida  cr.  and  x.  of  the  junction  of 
the  trails  from  Ft  Schuyler  and  from  Ft 
Herkermer;     (2)  Canowaroghare,    lower 
down  the  valley  at  the  junction  of  the 
trails  from  Ft  Schuyler  and  Ft  Stanwix, 
and  on  the    left    bank   of  Oneida    cr.; 
(3)    New   Oneyda.  Castle,  on   the  right 
bank  of  Oneida  cr.,  at  the  junction  of 
the  trails  from  his  Canowaroghare  and 
from  Ft  Stanwix,  and  on  the  trail  lead 
ing  from  Canowaroghare   to  the  Royal 
Blockhouse  on  Wood  cr.     Two  of  these, 
if  not  all  of  them,  were  contemporary. 
In  1 774  the  Montauk  Indians  were  to  be 
settled  at  Canowaroghare.     At  Oneida  in 
1667  was  founded  the   mission  of  Saint 
Francois  Xavier. 

In  a  note  attached  to  the  original  of  a 
Paris  document  of  1757  (N.  Y.  Doc.  Hist 
i,  526,  1849)  the  "great  Oneida  village" 
is  said  to  be  "  two  leagues  from  the  Lake, ' ' 
and  that  within  it  the  English  had  con 
structed  a  "picket  Fort  with  four  bas 
tions,"  which  however  had  been  de 
stroyed  by  the  Oneida  in  pursuance  of  a 
promise  made  by  them  to  the  Marquis  de 
Vaudreuil.  This  note  adds  that  a  second 
3neida  village,  called  "the  little  village," 
vvas  situated  "on  the  bank  of  the  Lake." 
It  is  thus  seen  that  the  site  and  the  name 
lave  shifted  from  place  to  place,  but  were 
•estricted  to  tne  valleys  of  Oneida  cr.  and 
ipper  Oriskany  cr.  The  name  Canowa- 
•oghare  is  the  modern  name  of  the  city 
>i  Oneida  and  of  the  Indian  settlement 
ituated  about  2  m.  s.,  in  Madison  co., 
*.  Y.  In  1666-68  (Jes.  Eel.,  Thwaites 
d.,  LI,  121,  1899)  Father  Bruyas  wrote 
hat  "Onneiout"  was  situated  on  au 
minence  whence  a  great  portion  of  the 


surrounding  country  ,-ould  be  seen 
the    environing  forest    cut   away' 

there  is  no  river  or  lake,  except  a 
leagues  distant  from  the  town-''  that 
more  than  half  the  population  was  com- 
posed  of  "Algonquins  and  Ilurons  "  and 
that  the  Oneida  had  never  spoken  of 
peace  until  within  two  years.  The 
Oneida  have  settlements  in  Canada  and 
m  Wisconsin  at  Green  Bay,  but  these  are 
not  towns.  *  (.,  N  H  ,,  \ 

,     neida,  not  Tuscarora   town).    Canawa- 

(176^)     ibid       ->r>' 

,°sno"°te--'k's-  Rel-  ™J6,  Thwaites  ed./xxix,' 
228,  1898  Enneyuttehage.-Van  Curler  1634-5) 
n  Rep.  Am.  Hist.  Ass'n  189:,,  94,  1890.  Gano-a- 

X  Y  i^  ion- n111''  AboriK-  H'W-e  Names  of 
N.  Y.,108,  190/.  Onawaraghhare.— X.Y  Doe  Co] 
Hist.,  VII,  101,  1856.  Oneiout.-Jes.  Rel.  1655! 
Inwaites  ed.,  XLII,  81,  1899.  Oneioust  —  P-iris 
Doe.  (1696)  in  N.  Y.  Doe.  Hist  i  330  184'»  One 
out.— Jes.  Rel.  1655,  Thwaites  ed.,  xi'n  77  isn't 
Oneyote.— Jes.  Rel.,  index,  1858.  Onieoute.'— Jes! 
Rel.,  index,  1858.  Onneiou.— Ibid.,  Thwaites  ed  ' 
LXVI,  187,  1900.  Onneioute.— Ibid'.,  index  190]' 
Onneyatte.— Van  Curler  (1634-5)  in  Rep  \in  Hist' 
Ass'n  1895,  95,  1896.  OnnieSte.— Jes.  Rel.  1646  4' 
1858.  Onnoniote.— Jes.  Rel..  index,  1858  Onon 
iiote.— Jes.  Rel.  1646.  5],  1858.  Ononiote.  —  Jes 
Rel.  1647,  9,  1858.  Ononjete.—  Jes.  Rel.  1645  3l>' 
1858.  Ononjote.— Ibid.,  33.  Ouneiout.— Jes  Rel.' 
Thwaites  ed.,  LXI,  165,  1900.  Ounejout.— Ibid!' 
164.  Ounneiout.— Ibid.,  165.  Sinnekens'  Castle.— 
Van  Curler  (1634-5)  in  Rep.  Am.  Hist.  Ass'n  1895 
92,  1896.  Tkano»eoha'.—  Hewitt,  infn,  1907 
(Onondaga  name).  Tkano»'waru'ha'r.— Hewitt 
infn,  1907  (Tuscarora  name). 

Oneidas  of  the  Thames.  A  body  of 
Oneida,  numbering  783  in  1906,  residing 
on  a  reservation  of  5,271  acres  on  Thames 
r.,  in  Delaware  tp.,  Middlesex  co.,  near 
Strathroy,  Ontario.  Their  principal  oc 
cupation  is  day  labor,  and  a  few  of  them 
are  good  farmers.  They  are  industrious 
and  law-abiding,  and  while  some  of  them 
are  progressing  well,  on  the  whole  their 
progress  is  slow. 

Oneka.  A  Mohegan  chief  of  Connect 
icut,  eldest  son  and  successor  of  the 
celebrated  Uncas;  born  about  1640,  died 
1710.  In  1659,  under  the  name  Owa- 
necco,  he  joined  with  his  father  and  his 
brother,  Attawenhood,  in  deeding  a 
tract  9  in.  square  for  the  settlement  of 
the  town  of  Norwich,  Oneka  signing 
with  the  totem  of  a  bird.  In  1(561  he 
made  an  attack,  with  70  men,  on  one  of 
Massasoit's  villages,  killing  8  persons  and 
taking  6  prisoners.  In  1675,  at  the  in 
stance  of  Uncas,  he  went  to  Boston,  with 
two  brothers  and  50  warriors,  to  offer 
their  services  to  the  English  against  the 
Wampanoag  under  King  Philip,  which 
were-  accepted,  and  shortly  after  his 
party  almost  captured  this  noted  leader. 
In  1679  Uncas  and  Oneka  made  a  grant 
of  600  acres  to  the  county  for  rebuilding 
the  jail,  and  two  years  later  the  General 
Court  gave  its  consent  that  Urn-sis  should 
deed  his  lands  to  Oneka.  The  latter  had 
a  son  named  Mahomet,  or  Mawhomott. 



Onekagoncka.  A  former  Mohawk  town, 
situated  on  the  left  bank  of  Mohawk  r., 
at  its  continence  with  Schoharie  r.,  near 
the  site  of  the  present  Fort  Hunter, 
Montgomery  co.,  X.  Y.  It  was  visited 
in  l»;34  by  A  rent  Van  Curler  (Corlaer), 
who  referred  to  it  as  the  tirst  castle,  built 
onahighhilland  consisting  of  "36  houses, 
in  rows  like  streets.  .  .  The  houses  were 
made  and  covered  with  bark  of  trees, 
and  mostly  are  flat  at  the  top.  Some 
are  UK  i,  9()',  or  80  paces  long  and  22  and 
23  ft.  high.  .  .  The  houses  were  full  of 
corn  that  they  lay  in  store,  and  we  saw 
mai/e;  yes,  in  some  of  the  houses  more 
than  .".DO  bushels.  .  .  We  lived  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  from  the  fort  in  a  small  house, 
because  a  good  many  savages  in  the  castle 
died  of  smallpox."  Speaking  of  Adri- 
ochten.  the  principal  chief  of  the  One 
kagoncka  castle,  Van  Curler  adds:  "The 
chief  showed  me  his  idol;  it  was  a  head, 
with  the  teeth  sticking  out ;  it  was  dressed 
in  red  cloth.  Others  have  a  snake,  a 
turtle,  a  swan,  a  crane,  a  pigeon,  or  the 
like  lor  their  idols,  to  tell  the  fortune; 
they  think  they  will  always  have  luck  in 
doing  so."  (.1.  x.  B.  n.) 

Oneniote  ( 'projecting  stone.' — Hewitt). 
A  former  Cayuga  village,  on  the  site  of 
the  present  Oneida,  on  Cayuga  lake, 
N.  V.  It  became  greatly  reduced  in  the 
war  with  the  Hurons  in  the  middle  of 
the  17th  century,  and  resorted  to  a  com 
mon  Iroquois  expedient  in  perpetuating 
its  people  ti\-  sending  to  the  Mohawk, 
their  neighbors,  "for  some  men  to  be 
married  to  the  girls  and  women  who  had 
remained  without  husbands,  in  order 
that  the  nation  should  not  perish.  This 
is  why  the  Iroquois  (Mohawk)  name  this 
village  their  child."  (  w.  M.  B.  ) 

Onneiote.  Jes.  Rel.  165:{,  18. 1H5S.  Onneiout.—  Ibid. 
Onniebte. —.Ic-.  Kel.  16-16.  4,  1S5S.  Ononiiote.— Jes. 
Rel.  16-16, 51 .  1858.  Ononiote.— .les.  Rel.  1647,9, 1858. 
Onpnjete.— Jes.  Rel.  16-15,  31i.  LS5S.  Ononjote.— 

Onentisati.     A    Huron    village  in  Tiny 
township,    Ontario,    first    mentioned    in 
(w.  M.  B.) 

Onentisati.— Jes.  Rel.  1635, 159, 1X58.  Onnentissati  — 

Onepowesepewenenewak  ( Onlpo/^sibi- 
irlirfirfii'iif/,  'people  of  death  river').  A 
former  Ohippewa  band  in  Minnesota.  Gf. 

Onepowe  Sepe  Wenenewok.— Lonp,  Kxped.  St 
IVter-  11.,  n.  15:5,  is-ji.  Onipowisibiwininiwae:. — 
U  in.  .lone-,  jnfn,  ]yor,  (correct  form). 

Oneronon.  An  unidentified  tribe  living 
s.  of  St  Lawrence  r.  in  1640.— Jes.  Rel. 
lt>4((,  .'')."),  1X58. 

Onextaco.  A  former  rancheria,  presum 
ably  Costanoan,  connected  with  San  Juan 
Bautista  mission,  Cal.— Bancroft,  Hist. 
Cal.,  i,  JWiT,  note,  iXHfi. 

Oneyana.  Alias  Beech  Tree.  An  Oneida 
chief  at  the  treaty  of  17SH,and  called  Peter 
Oneyana  at  the  treaty  of  1785.  lu  1792 

Beech  Tree  was  the  principal  chief  and 
quite  influential,  witnessing  the  Cayuga 
treaty  of  1789  and  the  Onondaga  treaty 
of  1790,  and  signing  the  letters  of  1786 
and  1787.  As  Onyanta,  or  Beech  Tree, 
he  signed  Col.  Harper's  deed.  He  prob 
ably  died  before  1795.  (w.  M.  B.  ) 

Ongniaahra  ( '  bisected  bottomland ' ) . 
A  village  of  the  Neutrals,  situated  in  1626- 
50  on  Niagara  r.,  one  day's  journey  from 
the  Seneca.  This  is  the  French  spelling 
of  the  ancient  Huron  pronunciation  of  the 
name,  which,  written  by  English  writers 
from  J  roquois  utterance,  has  become 
"Niagara."  (,T.  N.  B.  H.) 

Ongmarahronon.— Jes.  Rel.  1640,  35,1858  (m misprint 
for  -ii i;  name  of  the  people).  Onguiaahra. — Jes. 
Rel.  1641, 75, 1858 («i' misprint  for«0-  Ouaroronon. — 
De  la  Roche  Dalh'on  in  Sagard,  Hist,  du  Canada, 
in,  804,  1866  (u  misprint  for  n,  and  second  o 
for  o ) . 

Ongovehenok.  A  Nuwukmiut  Eskimo 
settlement  near  Pt  Barrow,  Alaska. — llth 
Census,  Alaska,  162,  1893. 

Onia.  A  former  village  of  the  Papago, 
probably  in  Pima  co.,  Ariz.,  containing  8 
families  in  1865.— Davidson  in  Ind.  Aff. 
Rep.,  135,  1865. 

Onismah.  A  settlement  in  Port  San 
Juan,  s.  w.  coast  of  Vancouver  id.,  Brit. 
Col.,  probably  inhabited  by  the  Pa- 
cheenaht. — Brit,  and  U.  S.  Survey  Map, 

Onixaymas.  A  former  village,  presum 
ably  Costanoan,  connected  with  San  Juan 
Bautista  mission,  Cal. ' 

Onextaco.— Engelhardt,  Franc,  in  Cal.,  398,  1897. 
Onixaymas.— Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Nov.  23,  1860. 

Onkot  (  On'-ko? } .  A  former  Chumashan 
village  in  Ventura  co.,  Cal. — Henshaw, 
Buenaventura  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1884. 

Onktokadan.  A  tribe,  not  identified, 
said  to  have  been  exterminated  by  the 
Foxes.  According  to  Sioux  tradition  they 
lived  on  the  St  Croix  r.  in  Wisconsin  and 
Minnesota  (Neill,  Minn.,  144,  1858). 

Onkwe  lyede  ('a  human  being  one  is 
standing').  A  traditional  Iroquois  town 
of  the  Tortoise  clan;  so  enumerated  in  the 
list  of  towns  in  the  Chant  of  Welcome  of 
the  Condolence  Council  of  the  League  of 
the  Iroquois.  Nothing  is  known  defi 
nitely  as  to  its  situation.  See  Hale,  Iroq. 
Book  of  Rites,  118, 1883.  (j.  N.  B.  H.  ) 

Onnahee.  A  former  Seneca  town,  placed 
by  Conover  (Seneca  Villages,  3,  1889)  on 
the  E.  side  of  Fall  brook,  in  the  w.  part  of 
lot  20,  town  of  Hopewell,  Ontario co.,N.Y. 
In  1719  this  was  one  of  the  "furtherest 
castles  of  the  Cenecas,"  i.  e.  farthest  west 
ward,  (j.  N.  B.  H.  ) 
Onaghee.—  Sohuylorand  Livingston  (1719)  in  N.  Y. 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  V.  5-1-2.  1855.  Onahe.-Doc.  of  1719, 
ibid.,  528.  Onnachee. — Cammerhoff  quoted  by 
Conover,  Seneca  Villages, 3,  1889. 

Onnighsiesanairone.  One  of  the  6  "cas 
tles"  of  the  Denighcariages  (Amikwal 
near  Michilimackinac,  Mich.,  in  1723.— 
Albany  Conf.  (1723)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
Hist.,  V,  693,  1855. 

BULL.  30] 


Onnontare  (Mohawk:  'it  mountain  is 
present.'— Hewitt).  A  Cayuga  town  in 
1670  (Jes.  Rel.  1670,  63,  1858).  From 
remains  found  there  it  seems  to  have  been 
B.  of  Seneca  r.,  and  at  Bluff  point,  near 
Fox  Ridge,  Cayuga  co.,  N.  Y.  It  may 
have  derived  its  name  from  the  moderate 
elevation  above  the  marsh,  or  from  Fort 
hill,  which  is  plainly  in  sight.  In  1670  it 
was  the  seat  of  the  mission  of  Saint  Rene 
and  adjoined  the  marshes  by  whose  name 
the  river  was  often  known.  ( w.  M.  B.  ) 

Onnontare.— Jes.  Rel.  1670,  63,  1858.     Saint  Rene.— 
Ibid,  (mission  name). 

Onnontioga  ('people  of  Onontio,'  i.  e. 
French  Indians,  Montreal  Indians,  Quebec 
Indians).  A  people,  conquered  by  the 
Iroquois,  living  in  1670  among  the  Seneca 
in  the  village  of  Kanagaro,  which  was 
made  up  almost  entirely  of  incorporated 
remnants  of  the  conquered  Onnontioga, 
Hurons,  and  Neutrals.  Gen.  J.  S.  Clark 
placed  them  at  Waverly,  N.  Y.,  at  or 
near  Spanish  hill,  and  this  seems  prob 
able,  (j.  x.  B.  n.) 

Onnontioga.— Jes.  Rel.  1670,  69,  1858.  Onnon-Tio- 
gas.— Shea  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  iv,  208, 1854 
Onontiogas.— Conover,  Kanadesaga  and  Geneva 
Mb.,  B.  A.  E. 

Onoalagona  ('big  head.'— Hewitt).     A 

Mohawk  village,  about  1620,  on  the  site  of 

Schenectady,  Schenectady  co.,  N.  Y.     A 

band,  taking  its  name  from  the  village, 

Dccupied  the  immediate  vicinity  in  more 

nodern  times.     It  is  said  by  Macauley, 

>vith  little  foundation  in  fact,  that  the  vil- 

age  was  builton  the  site  of  a  still  older  one, 

vhich  had  been  the  principal  village  of  the 

ribe  and  was  railed  Connoharriegoharrie 

(Kanou'  waro  'lift' re'  ? ) .  ( j.  M.  ) 

!on-no-harrie-go-harrie.— Schoolcraft    quoted    by 

luttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R..  398, 1872.    Con-nugh- 

arie-gugh-harie.— Macauley,   N.    Y..   II,  96    1S'>9 

'hno-wal-a-gantle.— Ibid.        O-no-a-la-gone'-na.— 

lorgan,  League  Iroq.,  474,  1851  (Mohawk  name) 

ron-nygh-wurrie-gughre.—  Ruttenber.TribesHud- 

>n  R.,  398,  1872  (quoted  form).  _ 

Onockatin.    An  Esopus  chief  who  signed 

n  agreement  with  Gov.  Nicolls  in  1665. 

Ie  was  a  chief  in  the  preceding  year  and 

ne  of  the  five  Esopus  sachems  present  at 

ie  treaty  of  1669.     Ruttenber  calls  him 

'nackatin  or  Oghgotacton.     (w.  M.  B.  ) 

Onomio   (O-no'-mi-o).     A  former  Chu- 

lashan  village  between   Pt  Concepcion 

id   Santa    Barbara,   Cal.,  at  a   locality 

3W  called  La  Gaviota. — Henshaw,  Bue- 

iventura  MS.  vocab.,  B.  A.  E.,  1884. 

Ononchataronon    (Huron    name).      An 

Igonkin  tribe  or  band  that  occupied  the 

strict  near  Montreal,  Canada,  between  St 

iwrence  and  Ottawa  rs. ,  and  wintered 

iar  the  Hurons.     In  1642  they  were  but 

remnant.     They  claimed  to  have  been 

e  original  occupants  of  Montreal  id.  and 

a  large  territory  on  both  sides  of  the  St 

iwrence.    They  said  they  had  been  con- 

iered  and  dispersed  by  the  Hurons,  who 

ire  then  their  enemies,  and  that  the 

rviyors  of  the  war  had  taken  refuge 

3456— Bull.  30,  pt  2—07 9 

with  the  Abnaki  or  the  Iroquois  or  had 
joined  the  Hurous,  Hochelaga,  the  vil 
lage  found  on  the  island  by Vartier  in 
1535,  was  occupied  by  an  Iroquoian  tribe 
but,  according  to  Gatschet,  the  remain< 
oi  a  second  village  about  2  m  ir«,m  jt< 
site  have  been  discovered.  This  would 
clear  the  contusion  as  to  the  stock  of  the 
lormer  occupants  of  the  island.  Shea 
suggests  that  the  names  Huron  and  Iro 
quois  have  been  transposed,  which  is 
likely.  Charlevoix  says  that  there  was 
a  tradition  that  the  Ononchataronon  were 
atone  time  at  war  with  the  Algonkin,  and 
that  they  were  drawn  into  an  ambuscade 
and  entirely  destroyed.  He  adds  that 
at  the  time  of  his  visit  (1721)  they  had 
ceased  to  exist.  This  tradition,  however, 
seems  doubtful.  According  to  the  Jesuit 
Relations,  at  the  general  peace  of  1646  the 
French  induced  the  Ononchataronon  to 
settle  again  on  the  island,  but  they  soon 
scattered  on  account  of  the  Iroquois. 
It  seems  they  were  met  with  as  early  as 
1609 by  Champlain,  as  Iroquet,oneof  their 
chiefs,  was  with  him  at  this  time.  The 
missionaries  described  them  as  arrogant, 
given  to  superstition  and  debauchery,  and 
very  cruel.  (J.'.M.) 

Nation  d'Iroquet.— Jes.  Rel.  1633,  29,  1858.     Onnon- 
charonnons.— Jefferys,  Fr.  Dom.  Am.,  pt.  1,  9, 1761. 
Onnontcharonnons. — Charlevoix,  Jour.  Voy.,  i,  174, 
1761.     Onontchataranons.— Jes.  Rrl.  164(5,  34,    1858.' 
Onontchataronons.—  Jes.  Rd.  1641,  57,  1858.     Onon- 
tchateronons.— Jes.  Rel.  1643, 61, 1858.     Snatchatazo- 
nons.— Jes.  Rel.  1641, 29, 1858.    Ounontcharonnous.— 
McKenney  and  Hall,  lud.  Tribes,  m,  81,  1854. 
Ounountchatarounongak. — Jes.    Rel.  1658,  22,   1858. 
Ountchatarounounga.— Jes.    Rel.     1640,     34,    1858. 
Yroquet.—  Champlain  (1615),  QEuvres,  iv,56,  1858. 
Onondaga  (Onontd' / gef , '  on,  or  on  top  of, 
the  hill  or  mountain').      An   important 
tribe     of    the     Iroquois     confederation, 
formerly  living  on  the  mountain,  lake, 
and  creek  bearing  their   name,  in    the 
present  Onondaga  co.,  N.  Y.,and  extend 
ing  northward  to  L.Ontario  and  south 
ward  perhaps  to  the  waters  of  the  Sus- 
quehanna.    In  the  Iroquois  councils  they 
are  known  as  Hodisennageta,  'they  (are) 
the  name  bearers.'     Their  principal  vil 
lage,  also  the  capital  of  the  confederation, 
was    called   Onondaga,    later   Onondaga 
Castle;  it  was  situated  from  before  1654 
to  1681  on  Indian  hill,  in  the  present  town 
of  Pompey,  and  in  1677  contained  140  cab 
ins.     It  was  removed   to  Butternut  cr., 
where  the  fort  was  burned  in  169(>.     In 
1720  it  was  again  removed  to  Onondaga 
cr.,  and  their  present  reserve  is  in  that 
valley,  a  few  miles  s.  of  the  lake  (Beau- 
champ,  inf'n,  1907). 

The  Onoudaga  of  Grand  River  res., 
Canada,  have  9  clans,  namely:  Wolf, 
Tortoise  (Turtle?),  Bear,  Deer,  Eel,  Bea 
ver,  Ball,  Plover  (Snipe?),  and  Pigeon- 
hawk.  The  Wolf,  Bear,  Plover,  Ball, 
and  Pigeonhawk  clans  have  each  only  one 
federal  chief  ship;  the  Beaver,  Tortoise, 



[B.  A.  E. 

and  Kel  clans  have  each  two  federal 
chiefships,  while  the  Deer  clan  has  three. 
The  reason  for  this  marked  difference  in 
the  quotas  of  chiefships  for  the  several 
clans  is  not  definitely  known,  hut  it  may 
he  due  to  the  adoption  of  groups  of  per 
sons  who  already  possessed  chiefship 
titles.  In  federal  ceremonial  and  social 
assemblies  the  Onondaga  hy  rightof  mem 
bership  therein  take  their  places  with  the 
tribal  phratry  of  the  "Three  Brothers," 
of  which  the* Mohawk  and  the  Seneca  are 
the  other  two  members;  but  in  federal 
councils— those  in  which  sit  the  federal 
representatives  of  all  the  live  (latterly 
six)  Iroqiiois  tribes— the  Onondaga  tribe 
itself  constitutes  a  tribal  phratry,  while 
the  Mohawk  and  the  Seneca  together 
forma  second,  and  the  Oneida  and  the 

the  Onondaga  must  show  that  it  is  in 
flict  with  established  custom  or  with 


Cayuga  originally,  and  latterly  the  Tus- 
carora,  a  third  tribal  phratry.  The  fed 
eral  council  is  organi/ed  on  the  basis  of 
these  three  tribal  phratries.  The  func 
tions  df  the  Onondaga  phratry  are  in 
many  respects  similar  to  those  of  a  judge 
holding  court  with  n  jury.  The  question 
before  the  council  is  discussed  respectively 
liy  the  Mohawk  and  Seneca  tribes  oil 
the  one  side,  and  then  by  the  Oneida, 
the  Cayuga,  and,  latterly,  the  Tuscarora 
tribes  on  the  other,  within  their  own 
phratries.  When  these  two  phratries 
have  independently  reached  the  same  or 
a  differing  opinion,  it  is  then  submitted  to 
the  Onondaga  phratry  for  confirmation  or 
rejection.  The  confirmation  of  a  com 
mon  opinion  or  of  oneof  the  two  differing 
opinions  makes  that  the  decree  of  the 
council.  In  refusing  to  confirm  an  opin 



public  policy;  when  two  differing  opin 
ions  are  rejected  the  Onondaga  may  sug 
gest  to  the  two  phratries  a  course  by 
which  they  may  be  able  to  reach  a  com 
mon  opinion;  but  the  Onondaga  may 
confirm  one  of  two  differing  opinions 
submitted  to  it.  Each  chieftain  has  the 
right  to  discuss  and  argue  the  question 
before  the  council  either  for  or  against  its 
adoption  by  the  council,  in  a  speech  or 
speeches  ad'dressed  to  the  entire  body  of 
councilors  and  to  the  public. 

Champlain  related  that  in  1622  the 
Montagnais,  the  Etchemin,  and  the  Hu- 
rons  had  been  engaged  for  a  long  time  in 
seeking  to  bring  about  peace  between 
themselves  and  the  Iroquois,  but  that  up 
to  that  time  there  was  always  some  serious 
obstacle  to  the  consummation  of  an  agree 
ment  on  account  of  the  fixed  distrust 
which  each  side  had  of  the  faith  of  the 
other,,  Many  times  did  they  ask  Cham- 
plain  himself  to  aid  them  in  making  a 
firm  and  durable  peace.  They  informed 
him  that  they  understood  by  making  a 
treaty  that  the  interview  of  the  ambas 
sadors  must  be  amicable,  the  one  side 
accepting  the  words  and  faith  of  the 
other  not  to  harm  or  prevent  them  from 
hunting  throughout  the  country,  and 
they  on  their  side  agreeing  to 'act  in 
like  manner  toward  their  enemies,  in  this 
case  the  Iroquois,  and  that  they  had  no 
other  agreements  or  compacts  precedent 
to  the  making  of  a  firm  peace.  They 
importuned  Champlain  many  times  to 
give  them  his  advice  in  this  matter, 
which  they  promised  faithfully  to  follow. 
They  assured  him  that  they  were  then 
exhausted  and  weary  of  the  wars  which 
they  had  waged  against  each  other  for 
more  than  fifty  years,  and  that,  on  account 
of  their  burning  desire  for  revenge  for  the 
murder  of  their  kin  and  friends,  their  an 
cestors  had  never  before  thought  of  peace. 
In  this  last  statement  is  probably  found 
approximately  the  epoch  of  that  historic 
feud  mentioned  in  the  Jesuit  Relation  for 
1660  (chap,  ii )  and  by  Nicholas  Perrot, 
which  made  the  Iroquois  tribes,  on  the 
one  hand,  and  the  Algonkin  on  the 
Ottawa  and  St  Lawrence  rs.,  on  the 
other,  inveterate  enemies,  although  this 
may  have  been  but  a  renewal  and  widen 
ing  of  a  still  earlier  quarrel.  In  1535 
Cartier  learned  from  the  Iroqtioian  tribes 
on  the  St  Lawrence  that  they  were  con 
tinually  tormented  by  enemies  dwelling 
to  the  southward,  called  Toudamani 
(probably  identical  with  Tsonnontouan, 
or  Seneca,  a  name  then  meaning  '  Tpper 
Iroquois'),  who  continually  waged  war 
on  them. 

In  Sept.  1655  the  Onondaga  sent  a 
delegation  of  18  persons  to  Quebec  to 
confer  with  Governor  de  Lauson  and 

BULL.  30] 



with  the  Algonkin  and  Hurons.  The 
Onondaga  spokesman  used  24  wampum 
belts  in  his  address;  the  first  8  were  pres 
ents  to  the  Hu*ons  and  the  Algonkin, 
whose  leading  chiefs  were  there;  each 
present  had  its  own  particular  name. 
The  Onondaga  professed  to  speak  for  the 
"  four  upper  Iroquois  nations,"  namely, 
the  Seneca,  Cayuga,  Oneida,  and  Onon 
daga,  thus  leaving  only  the  Mohawk,  the 
"lower  Iroquois,"  from  this  peace  con 
ference,  but  the  Onondaga  speaker  prom 
ised  to  persuade  the  Mohawk  to  change 
their  minds  and  to  make  peace.  The 
Onondaga  asked  for  priests  to  dwell 
among  them  and  for  French  soldiers  to 
aid  them  in  their  war  against  the  Erie. 

In  May  1657,  19  years  after  the  dis 
persion  of  the  Hurons  from  their  mother 
land,  the  Onondaga  sought  by  the  giv 
ing  of  numerous  presents  and  by  covert 
threats  of  war  to  persuade  the  Hurons 
who  had  fled  to  the  vicinity  of  Quebec 
to  remove  to  their  country  and  to  form 
with  them  a  single  people.  The  Mohawk 
and  the  Seneca  also  \vere  engaged  in  this 
business.  Finally,  the  Hurons  were 
forced  to  submit  to  the  persistent  demands 
of  the  Iroquois  tribes. 

In  1686  the  Onondaga  were  at  war 
against  the  Cherermons  (Shawnee?). 
They  were  divided  into  two  bands,  one 
of  50  and  another  of  250,  50  of  the  latter 
being  from  other  tribes.  But  in  1688  the 
Onondaga  were  much  under  French 
influence  and  were  regarded  as  the  chief 
among  the  Iroquois  tribes. 

In  1682,  at  Albany,  the  Onondaga,  with 
the  Mohawk,  the  Oneida,  the  Cayuga, 
and  the  Seneca,  entered  into  a  treaty  of 
peace  with  the  commissioners  from  the 
colony  of  Maryland,  who  contracted  not 
only  for  the  white  settlers,  but  also  for 
the  Piscataway  Indians. 

With  the  exception  of  a  part  of  the 
Seneca,  the  Onondaga  were  the  last  of 
the  five  tribes  originally  forming  the 
League  of  the  Iroquois  to  accept  fully  the 
principles  of  the  universal  peace  pro 
posed  by  Dekanawrida  and  Hiawatha. 

Early  in  1647  a  band  of  Onondaga  on 
ipproaching  the  Huron  country  was  de- 
'eated  by  a  troop  of  Huron  warriors,  the 
Jnondaga  chief  being  killed  and  a  num- 
)er  taken  prisoners.  Among  the  latter 
vas  Annenraes,  a  man  of  character  and 
tuthority  among  the  Onondaga.  In  the 
ollowing  spring  lie  learned  that  some  of 
he  Hurons  who  had  been  bitterly  dis- 
-ppointed  because  his  life  had  been 
pared  intended  to  kill  him.  To  some 
'f  his  Huron  friends  he  related  what  he 
iad  heard,  and  that  he  intended  to 
scape  to  his  own  country.  His  resolu- 
ton,  with  the  reason  for  making  it,  hav- 
ig  been  reported  to  the  leading  Huron 
hiefs  of  the  council,  they  concluded  to 
id  him  in  his  purpose,  trusting  that  he 

would.render  them  some.valuable  service 
in  return.  Giving  him  some  presents 
and  provisions,  they  sent  him  off  secretly 
at  night.  Crossing  L.  Ontario,  he  un 
expectedly  encountered  300  Onondaga 
making  canoes  to  cross  the  lake  for  the 
purpose  of  avenging  his  death  (believing 
he  had  been  killed  by  the  Hurons),  and 
awaiting  the  arrival  of  800  Seneca  and 
Cayuga  reenforcements.  His  country 
men  regarded  Annenraes  as  one  risen 
from  the  dead.  He  so  conducted  him 
self  that  he  persuaded  the  300  Onondaga 
to  give  up  all  thought  of  war  for  that  of 
peace,  whereupon  the  band,  without 
waiting  for  the  expected  reenforceinents, 
returned  to  Onondaga,  where  a  tribal 
council  was  held,  in  which  it  was  re 
solved  to  send  an  embassy  with  presents 
to  the  Hurons  for  the  purpose  of  com 
mencing  negotiations  for  peace.  The 
chief  of  this  embassy  was  by  birth  a 
Huron  named  Soiones",  so  naturalized  in 
the  country  of  his  adoption  that  it  was 
said  of  him  that  "no  Iroquois  had  done 
more  massacres  in  these  countries,  nor 
blows  more  wicked  than  he."  He  was 
accompanied  by  three  other  Ilurons, 
who  had  not  long  been  captives  at  Onon 
daga.  The  embassy  arrived  at  St  Ig- 
nace  July  ,9,  1647,  finding  the  Hurons 
divided  as  to  the  expediency  of  acquies 
cing  in  the  Onondaga  proposals,  the  Bear 
tribe  of  the  Hurons  justly  fearing  the  du 
plicity  of  the  enemy  even  though  bear 
ing  presents.  But  the  Rock  tribe  and 
many  villages  desired  the  conclusion  of 
peace  in  the  hope  that  a  number  of  their 
kin,  then  captive  at  Onondaga,  would  be 
returned  to  them.  After  many  councils 
and  conferences  it  was  found  expedient 
to  send  an  embassy  to  Onondaga  in  order 
the  better  to  fathom  this  matter.  For 
presents  the  Hurons  took  valuable  furs, 
while  the  Iroquois  Onondaga  used  belts 
of  wampum.  The  Huron  embassy  was 
well  received  at  Onondaga,  wherea  month 
was  spent  in  holding  councils.  Finally 
the  Onondaga  resolved  to  send  back  a 
second  embassy,  headed  by  Skanawati 
( Scandaouati ) ,  a  federal  chieftain,  60  years 
of  age,  who  was  to  be  accompanied  l>y 
two  other  Onondaga  and  by  15  Huron 
captives.  One  of  the  Huron  embassy 
remained  as  a  hostage.  This  embassy 
was  30  days  on  the  way,  although  it  was 
in  fact  only  10  days'  journey.  Jean 
Baptiste,  the  returning  Huron  delegate, 
brought  back  7  wampum  belts  of  the 
largest  kind,  each  composed  of  3,000  or 
4,000  beads.  By  these  belts  the  Onon 
daga  sought  to  confirm  the  peace,  assur 
ing  the  Hurons  that  they  could  hope  for 
the  deliverance  of  at  least  100  more  of 
their  captive  kin.  The  Onondaga  desired 
this  peace  not  only  because  the  life  of 
Annenraes  had  been  spared,  but  also 
because  they  were  jealous  lest  the  3 



[B.  A.  E. 

hawk,  who  had  become  insolent  from 
their  victories  anil  were  overbearing  even 
to  their  allies,  might  become  too  much 
so  should  the  Hurons  fail  to  unite  all 
their  forces  against  them,  and  further  be 
cause  of  fear  of  the  power  of  the  Cones- 
toga.  In  this  Onondaga  project  of  peace 
the  CayugaandOneida  showed  favorable 
interest,  but  the  Seneca  would  not  listen 
to  it,  and  the  Mohawk  were  still  more 
averse  to  it  as  they  were  jealous  of  \vhat 
had  been  done  by  the  Onondaga.  Hence 
these  last  two  tr'ibes  sent  forces  to  assail 
the  village  of  St  Ignace  at  the  end  of  the 
winter  of  1647-48.  The  following  inci 
dents  show  the  character  of  some  of  the 
chief  men  and  statesmen  of  the  Oiion- 

Early  in  Jan.  1648  the  Hurons  decided 
to  send  another  embassy  to  Onondaga. 
THey  sent  6  men,  accompanied  by  one 
<>f  the  3  Onondaga  ambassadors "  then 
in  their  country,  the  other  two,  includ 
ing  Skanawati,  the  head  of  the  Onon 
daga  embassy,  remaining  as  hostages. 
But  unfortunately  the  new  Huron  em 
bassy  was  captured  and  killed  by  a 
force  of  100  Mohawk  and  Seneca  who 
had  come  to  the  borders  of  the  Huron 
country.  The  Onondaga  accompanying 
this  embassy  was  spared,  and  two  II u- 
rons  escaped.  Marly  in  April,  when  the 
distressing  news  reached  the  ears  of 
Skanawati,  tin1  proud  Onondaga  ambas 
sador  remaining  with  the  Hurons  as  a 
hostage,  lie  suddenly  disappeared.  The 
Hurons  believed  that  he  had  stolen  away, 
but.  a  few  days  after  his  disappearance, 
his  corpse  was  found  in  the  forest  lying 
on  a  bed  of  lir  branches,  where  he 'had 
taken  his  own  life  by  cutting  his  throat. 
His  companion,  who  was  notified  in  order 
to  exonerate  the  Hurons,  said  that  the 
cause  of  his  despair  was  the  shame  he  felt 
at  the  contempt  shown  for  the  sacredness 
of  his  person  by  the  Seneca  and  the  Mo 
hawk  in  going  to  the  Huron  country  and 
massacring  the  Huron  people  while  his 
life  was  in  pledge  for  the  keeping  of  the 
faith  of  his  people.  Of  such  men  was 
the  great  federal  council  of  the  Iroquois 

The  Onondaga  had  good  reason  for 
fearing  the  Conestoga,  for  the  Jesuit  Re 
lation  for  1647-48  states  that  in  a  single 
village  of  the  latter  people  there  were  at 
that  time  1,300  men  capable  of  bearing 
arms,  indicating  for  this  village  alone  a 
population  of  more  than  4,500. 

At  this  time  the  Conestoga  chiefs, 
through  two  messengers,  informed  the 
Hurons  that  if  they  felt  too  weak  to  de 
fend  themselves  they  should  send  the 
Conestoga  word  by  an  embassy.  The 
Hurons  eagerly  seized  this  opportunity 
by  Bending  on  this  mission  4  Christian 
Indians  and  4  "infidels,"  headed  by  one 

Charles  Ondaaiondiont.  They  arrived  at 
Conestoga  early  in  June  1647.  The  I  luron 
deputies  informed  their  Conestoga  friends 
that  they  had  come  from  a  land  of  souls, 
where  war  and  the  fear  of  their  enemies 
had  spread  desolation  everywhere,  where 
the  fields  were  covered  with  blood  and 
the  lodges  were  rilled  with  corpses,  and 
they  themselves  had  only  life  enough  left 
to  enable  them  to  come  to  ask  their  friends 
to  save  their  country,  which  was  drawing 
rapidly  toward  its  end.  This  spirited  but 
laconic  address  moved  the  Conestoga  to 
send  an  embassy  into  the  Iroqirois  country 
to  urge  on  the  Iroquois  the  advantage  of 
making  a  lasting  peace  with  their  Huron 
adversaries.  Jean  Baptiste,  a  Huron  am 
bassador  mentioned  before,  being  at  Onon 
daga  at  the  end  of  summer,  learned  that 
this  embassy  of  the  Conestoga  had  reached 
the  Iroquois  country,  as  he  even  saw  some 
of  the  Conestoga  presents.  It  was  the 
purpose  of  the  Conestoga  to  bring  about 
firm  peace  with  the  Hurons  and  the  Onon 
daga,  the  Oneida  and  the  Cayuga,  and,  if 
possible,  the  Seneca,  and  to  renew  the 
war  against  the  Mohawk,  should  they 
then  refuse  to  become  parties  to  it.  The 
Conestoga  did  not  fear  the  Mohawk.  The 
Jesuit  Relation  for  1660  states  that  about 
the  year  1600  the  Mohawk  had  been 
greatly  humbled  by  the  Algonkin,  and 
that,  after  they  had  regained  somewhat 
their  former  standing,  the  Conestoga,  in 
a  war  lasting  10  years,  had  nearly  ex 
terminated  the  Mohawk,  who  since,  how 
ever,  had  partially  recovered  from  the 

Many  of  the  Onondaga  joined  the 
Catholic  Iroquois  colonies  on  the  St 
Lawrence,  and  in  1751  about  half  the 
tribe  was  said  to  be  living  in  Canada. 
On  the  breaking  out  of  the  American 
Revolution  in  1775  nearly  all  the  Onon 
daga,  together  with  the  majority  of  the 
other  Iroquois  tribes,  joined  the  British, 
and  at  the  close  of  the  war  the  British 
government  granted  them  a  tract  on  G  rand 
r.,  Ontario,  where  a  portion  of  them  still 
reside.  The  rest  are  still  in  New  York,  the 
greater  number  being  on  the  Onondaga 
res.,  and  the  others  with  the  Seneca  and 
Tuscarora  on  their  several  reservations. 

The  Onondaga  made  or  joined  in  treat 
ies  with  the  state  of  New  York  at  Ft 
Schuyler  (formerly  Ft  Stanwix),  Sept. 
12,  1788;  Onondaga,  Nov.  18,  1793;  Ca 
yuga  Ferry,  July  28,  1795;  Albany,  Feb. 
25,  1817,  Feb.  11,  1822,  and  Feb.  28, 1829. 
They  also  joined  in  treaties  between  the 
Six  Nations  and  the  United  States  at  Ft 
Stanwix,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  22,  1784;  Ft  Har- 
mar,  O.,  Jan.  9, 1789;  Canaridaigua,  N.  Y., 
Nov.  11,  1794,  and  Buffalo  Creek,  N.  Y., 
Jan.  15,  1838. 

In  1660  the  Jesuits  estimated  the  Onon 
daga  at  about  1,500  souls,  while  Green- 

BULL.  30] 



halgh  in  1677  placed  them  at  1,750,  proba 
bly  their  greatest  strength.  Later  author 
ities  give  the  numbers  as  1,250  (1721), 
1,000  (1736),  1,300  (1765),  and  1,150 
(1778),  but  these  figures  do  not  include 
those  on  the  St  Lawrence.  In  1851  Mor 
gan  estimated  their  total  number  at  about 
900,  including  400  on  Grand  r.  In  1906 
those  in  New  York  numbered  553,  the 
rest  of  the  tribe  being  with  the  Six 
Nations  in  Canada. 

The  Onondaga  towns,  so  far  as  known, 
were  Ahaouete,  Deseroken  (traditional), 
Gadoquat,  Gannentaha  (mission  and  fort, 
Kaneenda),Gistwiahna,  Onondaga,  Onon- 
daghara,  Onondahgegahgeh,  Onontatacet, 
Otiahanague,  Teionnontatases,  Tgasunto, 
Touenho  (Goienho),  Tueadasso,  and 
some  transient  hunting  and  fishing  ham 
lets.  (J.  N.  B.  n.) 
Anandagas.— Audouard,  Far  West,  178, 1869.  Des- 
onontage.— Macauley,  N.  Y.,  n,  190,  1829  (quoted 
from  some  French  "source;  evidently  the  name 
Onondaga  with  the  French  article  dcs).  Ho-de'- 
san-no-ge-ta.— Morgan,  League  Iroq.,  97,  1851. 
Honnontages.— Hennepin,  New  Discov.,  18,  1698. 
Hutchistanet— Gatschet,  Seneca  MS.,  1882  (Seneca 
form  of  council  name).  Jenondages. — Markham 
(1691)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  in,  808,  1853.  La 
Montagne.— Greenhalgh  (1677),  ibid.,  252  (French 
name  for  Onondaga  Castle).  Let-tegh-segh-nig- 
egh-tee.— Macauley,  N.  Y.,  n,  185, 1829  (an  official 
name).  Montagneurs. — Greenhalgh  (1677)  in  N. 
Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist,  in,  252,  1853  (so  called  by 
French).  Montagues.— Vaudreuil  (1760),  ibid.,  x, 
1093,  1858  (misprint?).  Mountaineers.— Henne 
pin,  Cont.  of  New  Discov.,  92,  1698  (English 
translation).  Nation  de  la  Montagne. — Jos.  Rel. 
1669,  8,  1858.  Nondages.— Writer  of  1673  in  N.  Y. 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  II,  594,  1858.  'Nontagues.— Beau- 
harnois  (1727),  ibid.,  ix,  968,  1X55.  Nontaguez. — 
Beauharnois  (1734),  ibid.,  1041.  Omates.— Nar 
rative  of  1693,  ibid.,  567  (misprint  for  Onontae'). 
Onadago.— Deed  of  1789  in  Am.  St.  Papers,  Ind. 
Aff.,1,513, 1832.  Onandaga.— Albany  Conf.(  1746)  in 
N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vi,  319,  1855.'  Onandagers.— 
Weiser  (1748)  quoted  by  Rupp.,  W.  Pa.,  app.,  16. 
1846.  Onandages.— Vernon  (1697)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
Hist.,  IV,  289, 1854.  Onandago.— Rupp.  Northamp 
ton,  etc.,  Cos.,  49, 1845.  Onandagos.— Procter  (1791 ) 
in  Am.  St.  Papers,  Ind.  Aff.,  I,  156,  1832.  Onando- 
gas.— Chalmers  in  Hoyt,  Antiq.  Res.,  159,  1824. 
Qnantagues. — Chauvignerie  (1736)  in  Schoolcraft. 
Ind.  Tribes,  in,  555,  1853.  Ondages.— Louis  XIV 
(1699)  in  N.Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  IX,  697,1855.  Ondion- 
dago.—Lordsof  Trade  (1754),  ibid., vi,  846, 1855  (vil 
lage).  One-daugh-ga-haugh-ga. — Macauley,  N.  Y., 
II,  185,  1829.  Onendagah.— Doc.  of  1719  in  N.  Y. 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  V,  528, 1855.  0-nen-ta-ke.— Hewitt, 
inf  n,  1887  (correct  form).  Onnandages. — Deed  of 
1701  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  iv,  910,  1854.  Onnata- 
gues. — Lahontan  (1703)  quoted  by  Drake,  Bk. 
Inds.,  bk.  5,  5,  1848.  Onnentagues.— Hennepin, 
Cont.  New  Discov. ,  93,  1698.  Onnondaga.— French 
Doc.  (1666)  trans,  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  in,  125, 
1853.  Onnondages.— Livingston  (1677),  ibid.,  XIII, 
510,  1881.  Onnondagoes.— Doc.  of  1688,  ibid.,  ill; 
565,  1853.  Onnondagues.— Schuyler  (1702),  ibid., 
IV,  983,  1854.  Onnonlages.— Hennepin,  Cont.  of 
New  Discov.,  95,  1698  (misprint).  Onnontae. — Jes. 
Rel.  1654,  8,  1858  (village).  Onnontaehronnons.— 
Jes.  Rel.  1648,  46,  1858.  Onnontaeronnons.—  Jes. 
Rel.  1647,  46,  1858.  Onnontaghe.— Jes.  Rel.  1658,  8, 
1858  (village).  Onnontagheronnons.— Jes.  Rel. 
1657,  15,  1858.  Onnontagk.— Narrative  of  1693  in 
N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  572,  1855  (village).  On- 
nontague.— Jes.  Rel.  1670,  75,  1858  (village).  On- 
nontaguehronnons.— Jes.  Rel.  1656,  30, 1858.  Onnon- 
tagueronnons.— Jes.  Rel.  165f>,  17,  1858.  Onnonta- 
guese.— Macauley,  N.  Y.,  II,  185,  1829.  Onnon- 
taguez.— Jes.  Rel.  1670,  6,  1858.  Onnontatae.— De- 
nonville?  (1688)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  377, 

1855  (village).  Onnontoeronnons.— Jes.  Rel.  1(157 
8,1858.  Onnotagues.— Lahontan,  New  Voy.,  i  231* 
1/03.  Ononda-agos.— Vater,  Mith.,  pt.  3,  314  1816 
Onondades.— Leisler  (1690)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist  ' 
III,  700,  1X53.  Onondaeronnons.— Jes.  Rel.  1646  It;' 
1858.  Onondagaes.— Doc.  of  1765  in  N.  Y.  Doc  Col' 
Hist.,  VII,  719,  1856.  Onondagah.— Doc.  of  17iy' 
ibid.,  V,  529,  1855.  Onondages.— Dongan  (1684)  iii 
Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.  4th  a.,  ix,  187,  1X71.  Onond,v 
gez.— Bacqueville  de  la  Potherie,  Hist.  Am.,  iv 
128, 1753.  Onondaghas.— Burnet  (1720)  in  N.  Y.  Doc' 
Col.  Hist.,  V,  577, 1855.  Onondaghe.—  Jes.  Kel  1647 
9, 1858  (village).  Onondagheronons.— Ibid.  Ononda' 
goes.— Ind.  Problem  N.  Y.,  196,  1889.  Onondagos.— 
Greenhalgh  (1677)  inN.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  in,  25o, 
1853.  Onondagues. — Doc.  of  1676,  ibid.,  XIII,  500, 
18X1.  Onondajas. — Johnson  Hall  Conf.  (1765),  ibid., 
VII,  719,  1856.  Onondakes.— La  Montague  (1664)', 
ibid.,  xin,  355,  1881.  Onondawgaws.—  JelTerys,  Fr. 
Dorns.,  pt.  1,  map  and  note,  1761.  Onondegas. — 
Johnson  (1757)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vn,  278, 
1856.  Onontae.— Jes.  Rel.  1642,  83,  1858  (tribe;  in 
the  Relation  for  1656,  p.  7,  it  is  used  as  the  name 
of  the  village).  Onontaehronon.—  Jes.  Rel.  1637, 
111,  1858.  Onontaerhonons.— Jes.  Rel.  1635,  34,  1X5X. 
Onontaeronons.— Jes.  Rel.  1656,  2,  1858.  Onontaer- 
rhonons.— Jes.  Rel.  1635,  34,  1858.  Onontaez.— La 
Salle  (m.  1682)  in  Hist.  Mag.,  1st  s.,  v,  19X,  1X61. 
Onpntager. — Weiser  (1737)  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind. 
Tribes,  IV,  325,  1854,  Onontages.— Humphreys, 
Acct.,  305, 1730.  Onontaghes.— Doc.  of  1695  in  N.Y. 
Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  596,  1855.  Onontago.—  Weiser 
in  Pa.  Col.  Rec.,  IV.  778,  1X52-56  (village).  Onon- 
tague. — Jes.  Rel.  1656,  7,  1858  (village).  Ononta- 
gueronon. — Sagard  (1632),  Hist.  Can.,  IV,  1866 
(Huron  name).  Onontaguese. — Harris,  Toy.  and 
Trav.,  ir,  928,  1705.  Onontahe.— Writer  of  1695  in 
N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  ix,  599, 1x55  (  village).  Onon- 
taheronons. — Jes.  Rel.  1656,  10,  1X58.  Onontake. — 
Hennepin,  New  Discov.,  316,  169X.  Onontatacet.— 
Bellin,  map,  1755.  Ononthagues. — Doc.  of  1695  in 
N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  IX,  612, 1X55.  Onoontaugaes.— 
Edwards  (1751)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  x, 
146,  1x09.  Onoundages.— Doc.  of  16X4  in  N.  Y.  Doc. 
Col.  Hist.,  in,  347,  1853.  Ontagues.— Frontenac 
(1682),  ibid.,  IX,  1X6,  I,x55.  O-nun-da'-ga-o-no. — 
Morgan,  League  Iroq.,  5^.  1X51.  Onundagega.— 
Gatschet,  Seneca  MS.,  1882  (Seneca  name). 
Onundagega-non6"dshunda. — Gatschet,  ibid.  ( '  large 
mountain  people':  a  Seneca  name).  Onundaw- 
goes.— Dudley  (1721)  in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  2d 
s.,  VIII,  244,  1X19.  Oonontaeronnons. — Jes.  Rel.  1647, 
46,  1X5X.  Sagosanagechteron.— Weiser  in  Pa.  Col. 
Rec.,  V,  477,  1X52-56  (council  name).  Seuh-nau- 
ka-ta.— Cusick,  Five  Nat.,  21, 1S4S  (council  name). 
Seuh-no-keh'te.— W.  M.  Beauchamp,  inf'n.  1907 
('bearing  the  names':  own  name).  Seuh-now- 
ka-ta.— Macauley,  N.  Y.,  n,  185,  1X29  (an  official 
name).  Tha-to-'dar-hos.— Ibid.,  176  (given  as  a 
name  for  the  tribe,  but  evidently  another  form 
of  Atotarho,  the  hereditary  title  of  a  chief). 
Unedagoes.— Coursey  (1682)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
HM  xm,  558, 1881.  Yagochsanogechti.— Pyrla-us 
(ca.  1750)  quoted  by  Gatschet  in  Am.  Antiq.,  iv. 
75,  1881. 

Onondaga.  The  former  chief  Onondaga 
town  of  central  New  York,  whose  site 
and  name  were  shifted  from  time  to  time 
and  from  place  to  place.  Within  its  lim 
its  formerly  lay  the  unquenched  brands 
of  the  Great  Council  Fire  of  the  League  of 
the  Iroquois.  During  the  American  Rev 
olution,  Washington  found  it  necessary  to 
send  an  army  under  ( Jen.  Sullivan  to  pun 
ish  the  Iroquois  tribes  for  their  cruel  and 
bloody  work  in  pursuance  of  their  alliance 
with  Great  Britain.  The  chastisement 
was  so  thoroughly  administered  by  the 
total  destruction  of  more  than  40  Iroquois 
villages  and  the  growing  crops  surround 
ing  them,  that  the  integrity  of  the  League 
was  disrupted  and  the  scattered  remnants 
forced  to  seek  shelter  in  Canada  and  els< 


[B.  A.  E. 

where.  Finally,  on  Grand  r.,  Ontario, 
the  brands  of  the  (treat  Council  Fire  of 
the  League  were  rekindled  by  the  allied 
portions  of  all  the  tribes  of  the  Six  Na 
tions,  and  here  the  lire  is  still  burning. 
The  portions  of  the  tribes  which  elected 
to  remain  in  New  York  relighted  a  fire 
at  Onondaga  and  sought  to  reestablish 
the  ancient  form  of  their  government 
there,  in  order  to  formulate  united  action 
on  questions  affecting  their  common  in 
terests;  but  this  attempt  was  only  partly 
successful,  since  the  seat  of  government 
had  forever  departed.  The  establishment 
at  <  hiondaga  of  the  seat  of  federal  power 
I >y  tin1  founders  of  the  League  of  the  Iro- 
<|iiois.  made  Onondaga  not  only  one  of 
the  most  important  and  widely  known 
towns  of  the  Iroquois  tribes,  but  also  of 
North  America  x.  of  Mexico.  At  the 
/enith  of  the  power  of  the  Iroquois  it  was 
the  capital  of  a  government  whose  do 
minion  extended  from  the  Hudson  r.  on 
then,  to  the  falls  of  the  Ohio  and  L.  Mich 
igan  on  the  w.,  and  from  Ottawa  r.  and  L. 
Simcoe  on  the  x.  to  the  Potomac  on  the 
>.  and  the  Ohio  in  the  s.  w. 

Around  the  Great  Council  Fire  of  the 
League  of  the  Iroquois  at  Onondaga, 
with  punctilious  observance  of  the  parli 
amentary  proprieties  recognized  in  Indian 
diplomacy  and  statecraft,  and  with  a 
decorum  that  would  add  grace  to  many 
legislative-  assemblies  of  the  white  man, 
the  federal  senators  of  the  Iroquois  tribes 
devised  plans,  formulated  policies,  and 
defined  principles  of  government  and 
political  action  which  not  only  strength 
ened  their  state  and  promoted  their 
common  welfare,  but  also  deeply  affected 
the  contemporary  history  of  the  whites  in 
North  America.  "  To  this  body  of  half-clad 
federal  chieftains  were  repeatedly  made 
overtures  of  peace  and  friendship  by  two 
of  the  most  powerful  kingdoms  of  Europe, 
whose  statesmen  often  awaited  with  ap 
prehension  the  decisions  of  this  senate  of 
North  American  savages. 

The  sites  with  their  approximate  dates 
here  ascribed  to  Onondaga  are  those 
identified  by  Clark,  Beauchamp,  and 
others,  and  listed  by  Beauchamp  in  the 
notes  to  his  map  (Jes.  Kel.,  Thwaitesed.. 
i.i,  2D4,  1SW):  The  site  in  1600  was 
probably  2  in.  \v.  of  Ca/enovia  and  E.  of 
West  Limestone  cr.,  Madison  co.,  X.  Y. 
Two  sites  of  towns  are  accredited  to  1620, 
the  one  2J  m.  s.  w.  and  the  other  1  m.  s! 
of  Delphi,  Onondaga  co.,  N.  Y.  The 
site  of  HJ30  was  \\  m.  \.  w.  ,,f  Delphi; 
that  of  1640  was  about  1  m.  s.  of  Pompey 
Center,  Onondaga  co.,  on  the  K.  bank  of 
West  Limestone  cr.  That  of  1(555,  in 
which  was  established  the  mission  of 
Saint  Jean  Baptiste,  was  about  2  m.  s.  of 
the  present  Manlius,  in  the  same  county, 
«-n  what  is  culled  Indian  hill;  the  Jesuit 

Relation  for  1658  says  that  this  town  was 
large  and  was  called  "Onnontaghe 
.  .  because  it  was  on  a  mountain." 
This  town,  with  its  site,  is  probably 
identical  with  that  visited  by  Greenhalgh 
in  1677,  and  described  as  large,  un- 
palisaded,  consisting  of  about  140  houses, 
and  situated  on  a  very  large  hill,  the 
bank  on  each  side  extending  at  least  2  in., 
all  cleared  land  and  planted  with  corn. 
Greenhalgh  learned  that  there  was 
another  village  of  24  houses  situated  2  in. 
westward;  he  estimated  the  Onondaga 
warriors  at  about  350.  The  site  of  1696 
was  1  in.  s.  of  Jamesville,  E.  of  Butternut 
cr.,  Onondaga  co.  Count  Frontenac 
burned  this  town  in  1696.  The  site  of 
1743  was  E.  of  the  creek  and  N.  of  the 
present  reservation  in  Onondaga  co., 
while  that  of  1756  was  w.  of  the  creek. 
The  site  of  1779  was  that  of  one  of  the  3 
towns  plundered  and  burned  in  April  by 
the  troops  of  Col.  Van  Schaick;  they 
were  situated  within  2  m.  of  one  another 
and  contained  30  to  40  houses.  In  1655 
the  mission  of  Saincte  Marie  de  Gannen- 
taa  was  founded,  on  the  shore  of  L. 
Onondaga,  12m.  N.  of  the  mission  of  St 
Jean  Baptiste;  it  was  also  called  Saincte 
Marie  du  Lac  de  Gannentaa.  To  this 
mission  village,  which  was  abandoned  in 
1658,  the  Jesuits  brought  5  •  small  can 
non.  For  the  use  of  the  mission  the 
French  Governor  Lauson,  Apr.  12,  1656, 
granted  to  the  Jesuit  fathers  "10  leagues 
of  space  in  every  direction,  to  wit,  10 
leagues  of  front  and  10  leagues  in  depth— 
and  in  the  place  where  they  shall  choose 
to  establish  themselves  in  the  country  of 
the  U^pper  Iroquois  called  Onondageoro- 
nons,  be  it  in  the  town  or  near  the  town 
of  Onondage,  or  at  Gannentae,  .  .  . 
the  said  place  and  extent  of  10  leagues 
square  is  to  be  possessed  by  the  said  rev 
erend  Jesuit  fathers,  their  successors  and 
assigns,  in  freehold  forever."  This  grant 
was  made  evidently  without  the  knowl 
edge  or  consent  of  the  Onondaga  and 
without  any  compensation  or  emolument 
to  them,  a  course  of  procedure  quite  in 
contrast  with  that  of  the  Dutch  and  the 
English  colonists  in  New  Y'ork,  but  on 
the  other  hand  in  close  accord  with  the 
policy  of  Gov.  Winthrop  of  Massachusetts, 
tersely  expressed  in  the  formula  that  "if 
we  leave  them  sufficient  for  their  use,  we 
may  lawfully  take  the  rest,  there  being 
more  than  enough  for  them  and  us." 
This  doctrine  was  embodied  into  law  by 
the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts  in 
1633,  justifying  its  action  by  Biblical 

From  the  Jesuit  Relations  it  is  learned 
that  under  the  operation  of  the  principle 
of  conferring  citizenship  by  adoption  into 
some  definite  stream  of  kinship  common 
to  the  Iroquois  state,  there  were  colo- 

BULL.  30] 



nized  at  Onondaga  persons  and  families 
from  at  least  7  different  tribes.  Accord 
ing  to  the  same  authority  (Thwaites  ed., 
LXVI,  203,  1900)  the  Jesuit  missions  to  the 
Onondaga  and  the  Seneca  were  aban 
doned  in  1709,  and  in  1711  a  French  ex 
pedition  built  a  blockhouse  at  Onondaga, 
2-H  ft  long  and  18  ft  wide,  which  Peter 
Schuyler  ordered  destroyed  along  with 
other  building  material  as  "there  was 
other  wood  ready  to  build  a  chappell " 
(X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist,  v,  249,  1855). 

Of  the  Onondaga  of  1682,  Father  Jean 
de  Lamberville  (Jes.  Rel.,  Thwaites  ed., 
LXII,  1900)  wrote  the  following  interesting 
facts:  "I  found  on  my  arrival  the  Iro- 
quois  of  this  town  occupied  in  transport 
ing  their  corn,  their  effects,  and  their 
lodges  to  a  situation  2  leagues  from  their 
former  dwelling-place  where  they  have 
been  for  19  years.  They  made  this 
change  in  order  to  have  nearer  to  them  the 
convenience  of  firewood,  and  fields  more 
fertile  than  those  which  they  aband  oned. ' ' 
This  was  probably  the  town  visited  by 
Greenhalgh  in  1677.  (j.  N.  B.  n.) 

Arnoniogre.— Lamberville,  letter,  in  N,  Y.  Doc 
Col.  Hist.,  in,  488, 1853  (misprint  for  Onnontague). 
Kanatagb'wa.— Morgan,  League  Iroq.,  ir,  87,1904. 
Onendagah.— N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  Index,  1861. 
Onnondage.— Jes.  Rel.,  Thwaites  ed.,  XLI,  245, 1899. 
Onnondague.— Ibid.,  xxx,  259,1898.  Onnondaque.— 
N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  Index,  1861.  Onnontae  — 
Jes.  Rel.,  Thwaites  ed.,  XL,  163, 1899.— Onnonta'e.— 
Jes.  Rel.  1653,  Thwaites  ed.,  xxxvin,  183,  1899. 
Onnontaghe.— Jes.  Rel.  1657,  44,  1858.  Onnon- 
tagk.— N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist,,  Index,  1861.  Onnon- 
tagu6.— Jes.  Rel.,  Thwaites  ed.,  xur,  179,  1899. 
Onontae.— N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  Index,  1861. 
Onontague,—  De  la  Barre  (1684)  in  N.  Y.  Doc  Col 
Hist.,  IX,  263,  1855.  Oynondage.— N.  Y.  Doc.  Col'. 
Hist.,  Index,  1861.  Saint  Jean  Baptiste.— Jes.  Rel 
Thwaites  ed.,  LII,  153,  1899.  Tagochsanagechti.— 
De  Schweinit/,  Life  of  Zeisberger,  56,  1870  (name 
of  "lower  town"). 

Onondaghara  ( 'it-mountain  top' ) .  A 
former  Onondaga  village  which,  accord 
ing  to  Macauley,  was  the  largest  of  five 
"in  the  extent  of  8  miles."  It  was  situ 
ated  on  Onondaga  r.,  3  m.  E.  of  Onondaga 
Hollow,  N.  Y.,  and  contained  about  50 
houses  in  1829.  (j.  N.  B.  H.  ) 

Onondagharie. — Macauley,    Hist.    X     Y      u    177 

Onondahgegahgeh  ( '  place  of  the  Onon 
daga').  A  former  Onondaga  village  w. 
of  Lower  Ebenezer,  Erie  co.,  N.  Y.  Part 
of  the  Onondaga  lived  there  after  the 
American  Revolution  until  the  Buffalo 
Creek  res.  was  sold  in  1838.  (w.  M.  B.) 

Onondakai  ('Destroy  TowTn').  A  Sen 
eca  chief  who  signed  the  treaty  of  1826. 
His  name  is  also  given  as  Gonondagie, 
and,  more  exactly,  as  Oshagonondagie. 
'He  Destroys  the  Town,'  written  "Straw 
Town"  in  the  treaty  of  1815,  Oosaukau- 
nendauki  in  1797.  He  was  one  of  those 
whose  remains  were  reinterred  at  Buffalo 
in  1884.  The  name  was  a  favorite  one, 
but,  as  applied  to  George  Washington  and 
some  French  governors,  has  a  slightly 
different  form.  (w.  M.  B.) 

Onondarka    ('on   a    hill').      A   Seneca 
town    N.    of     Karaghyadirha,    on    Guv 
Johnson's  map  of  1771  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y 
iv,  1090,1851).  (w.  M.  H.)" 

Onontatacet  ('one  goes  around  a  hill  or 
mountain' ).  A  former  Onondaga  village 
located  on  the  Charlevoix  map  of  1745  on 
Seneca  r.,  N.  Y.  It  was  not  a  Cavuga 
village,  as  some  assert.  (j.  \.  ».  H.  j 

Onepa  ( '  salt  houses. '— Och ) .  A  former 
Nevome  pueblo  9  leagues  \v.  of  Bacanora, 
at  the  present  Santa  Rosalia,  Sonora, 
Mexico.  It  was  the  seat  of  a  Spanish 
mission  dating  from  1677.  Pop  171  in 
1678,  76  in  1730. 

Santa  Rosalia  de  Onopa.— Zapata  (1678)  in  Doc 
Hist.  Mex.,  4th  s.,  in,  346,  1857.  Sta.  Rosalia 
Onapa.— Zapata  (1678)  cited  bv  Bancroft  No 
Mex.  States,  I,  245,  1886. 

Onowaragon.  An  Onondaga  who  suc 
ceeded  a  chief  of  the  same  name.  The 
latter  was  a  French  partisan  and  was 
condoled  in  1728.  The  former  attended 
a  council  with  Gov.  Beauharnois  in  1742, 
being  the  Onondaga  speaker.  Weiser, 
who  lodged  in  his  house  in  1743,  calls 
him  Annawaraogon.  He  may  have  born 
the  Kayenwarygoa  \vh<>  attended  the 
Boston  council  of  1744,  but  this  is  doubt 
ful.  (\v.  M.  H.  ) 

Ontarahronon  ( '  lake  people.' — Hewitt). 
An  unidentified  sedentary  tribe  probably 
living  s  of  St  Lawrence  r.  in  1640.— Jes. 
Rel.  1640,  35,  1858. 

Ontariolite.  A  mineral;  according  to 
Dana  (Text-book  Mineralogy,  435,  1888), 
"a  variety  of  scapolite  occurring  in 
limestone  'at  Gal  way,  Ontario,  Canada. 
Formed  with  the  suffix  -lite,  from  Greek 
AzOos,  a  stone,  from  Ontario,  the  name 
of  a  lake  and  a  Canadian  province.  The 
wrord  is  of  Iroquoian  origin,  signifying, 
according  to  Hale  (Iroq.  Hook  of 
Rites,  176,  1883)  'the  great  lake,'  from 
Huron  ontara  or  the  Iroquois  onidtaru, 
'lake,'  and  -Id,  a  suffix  meaning  'great,' 
or  later,  'beautiful,'  hence  perhaps 
'beautiful  lake.'  (A.  F.  c. ) 

Ontianyadi  (0"n-(t"y<idl,  'grizzly-bear 
people').  A  Biloxi  clan. — Dorsey  in 
15th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  243,  1897. 

Ontikehomawck.  An  early  village  of  the 
Stockbridge  tribe  in  Rensselaer  co., 
N.  Y.  (w.  M.  H.) 

Ontonagon.  AChippewaband  formerly 
living  on  Ontonagon  r.  in  upper  .Michi 
gan.  Regarding  the  origin  of  the  name, 
Baraga  (Otchipwe  Diet.,  295,  1882)  says: 
"The  proper  meaning  of  this  word  is 
'my  dish.'  An  Indian  tradition  says  that 
a  squaw  once  came  to  the  river,  now 
called  'Ondonagan,'  to  fetch  water  with 
an  Indian  eartl  en  dish,  but  the  dish 
escaped  from  her  hand  and  went  to  the 
bottom  of  the  river,  whereupon  the  poor 
squaw  began  to  lament:  nid  nhxt  ondgan, 
nind  ondgan!  Ah,  my  dish,  my  dish! 


[B.  A.  E. 

And  the  river  was  ever  since  called  after 
this  exclamation." 

Nantunagunk.—  Win.  Jones,  infn,  1905  (correct 
formi.  Octonagon  band.—  I'.  S.  Stat.  at  Large,  X, 
220,  18f>4  (misprint'.  Ontonagon  band.  —  La  Pointe 
treaty  (l.s.Vl)  in  V.  S.  Ind.  Treat.,  '224,  1S73. 

Ontponea.  A  tribe  of  the  Manahoac  con 
federacy,  formerly  livingiuOrangeco.,  Ya. 
Ontponeas.—  Smith  (1629),  Va.,  I,  134,  repr.  1819. 
Ontponies.—  Jefferson,  Notes,  134,  1794.  Outpan- 
kas.—  Strachey  (en.  1612),  Va.,  104,  1849.  Outpo- 
mes.—Boudinot,  Star  in  the  West,  128,  1816. 

Ontwaganha.  An  Iroquois  term,  having 
here  the  phonetics  of  the  Onondaga  dia 
lect,  and  freely  rendered  'one  utters  un 
intelligible  speech,'  hence  approximately 
synonymous  with  'alien,'  'foreigner.' 
Its  literal  meaning  is  'one  rolls  (or  gulps) 
his  \v«>rds  or  speech.'  This  epithet  was 
originally  applied  in  ridicule  of  the  speech 
of  the  Algonquian  tribes,  which  to  Iro- 
»liiois  ears  was  uncouth,  particularly  to 
the  northern  and  western  tribes  of  this 
stock,  the  Chippewa,  Ottawa,  Miami  or 
T  \vightwigh,  Missisauga,  Shawnee,  the 
"Far  Indians"  including  the  Amikwa 
(<>r  Neghkariage  (of  two  castles),  the 
Ronowadainie,  Onnighsiesanairone,  Sika- 
jienatroene  or  "Eagle  People,"  Tionon- 
tati  (only  by  temporary  association  with 
the  foregoing),  Chickasaw  (?),  Mascofu- 
tens  (?),  Konatewisichroone,  and  Awigh- 
sichroene.  Thus  the  term  was  consist 
ently  applied  to  tribes  dwelling  in 
widely  separated  localities.  Sometimes, 
but  rarely,  it  may  have  been  confounded 
in  use  with  Tsaganha  (q.  v.),  or  Agotsa- 
iranha.  which  had  a  similar  origin  but 
was  applied  to  a  different  group  of  Al- 
gonquian  tribes.  (,r.  N.  H.  H.) 

AtSagannen.  —  Hruyas,  Radioes,  40,  180H  ('to  speak 
a  foreign  language':  Mohawk  name).  Atwagan- 
nen.—  Brnyas  as  quoted  by  Shea  in  Hennepin, 
pescr.  La..  Ml,  Isso.  Dawaganhaes.—  Letter  (1(195) 
in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hi>t.,  iv,  124,  1x54.  Dawagan- 
has.  -Doc.  (1C.95),  ibid..  128.  Dewaganas.—  Ibid., 


Dewogannas.—  Nanfan  X 


ilts,,  ibid.,  iv.  407,  I,s51.    Douaganhas.—  Cortland 
>'•*!).  ibid.,  in,    |:>1,   1*5:$.     Douwaganhas.—  Ibid. 
Dovaganhaes.—  Doc.  i  1(191).  ibid..    77S.     Dowagan- 
haas.  —  Livingston  (170(1),  ibid.,  iv,  tils,  1X51.     Do- 
waganhaes.—  Doc.  (1693),  ibid.,  '23.     Dowaganhas.^ 
Cortland,  op.  cit.     Dowaganhoes.—  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col. 
•  Jen.    Index,     iMll.     Dowanganhaes.—  Doc. 
.  ibid.,  in.  776.  ls.-)H.     Hontouagaha.—  Henne- 
pm,  Dcscr.  La.,  so.  IXM).     Houtouagaha.—  Henne- 
pin,  Ne\v  Discov.,59,  1698  (for  Ontwaganha;  proba 
bly    SJiawnee).      Onkouagannha,—  .les.    Rel.    lf,70, 
1<V5<S.      Ontoagannha.  —  Lalement     (1661-<i3)    in 
.les.   Kcl.,  Thwaites  ed.,  xi.vil,   115,    1*99.     Ontoa- 
gaunha.—  Jes.  Kel.  ir,r,2,  2,  lX5s.     Ontoouaganha,— 
S.  lt;79  in  .les.  Rel.,  Thwaites  ed.,  i.xi,  27,  1900 
Ontouagannha.—  Le   Mercier    (1670)    in   .les.    Rel 
Thuaitesed.  ,1.111,  is,  1X'.»»I.   OntSagannha.—  .les  Rel 
0,  7,  1X5.S  (,_••  Nation  dn   Feu")      Ontouagenn- 
.  ltd.  1(192.  25.  1X5X,     Ontwagannha.—  Shea, 
.  M  iss.  .285,  1X55.    Takahagane.  —  La  Salle  (1682) 
in  Margry,  Dec.,  n,  1U7,  1X77.     Taogarias.—  Senex, 
''•'I1     N.     Am.,     1710.     Taogria.—  (iravier     (1701) 
quoted   by  Shea,    Karly   Voy.,    124,   1.S61  (  .---Shavv- 
nee;   evidently  another  form  for  Ontwaganha) 
Toagenha.—  (iallinee  (  1670)  in  Margry   Dec     I    130 
H/.,.       Toaguenha.—  Ibid.,    136.       Tongarois.—  La 
Harp,-   M7u:n   in    French,   Hist.  Coll.   La.,   in,  30, 
]*.•)!.     Tongoriaa.—  Rafinesque  in  Marshall.  Kv.    i 
nitrod..    3.1,    ISLM.     Touagannha.  -.les.     Rel.    1(17o' 
0,  7(1.    |s:,s.     Touguenhas.—  (iallinee  (1670)  in 
Margry,  Dec.,  ,,  ];«,  187r)-     Towaganha.-Message 

of  1763  in  X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist,  VII,  544,  1856. 
Twa''ga'ha'. — Hewitt,  infn,  1907  (Seneca  form) 
Waganhaers.—  Doc.  (1699)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
iv,  565,  1854.  Waganhaes. — Livingston  (1700), 
ibid . ,  691 .  Wagannes.  — Schuy ler and  Claese  (1701 ) , 
ibid.,  891.  Wahannas.— Romer  (1700),  ibid.,  799. 

Onuatnc.  An  Algonquian  village  in 
1608  on  the  E.  bank  of  Patuxent  r.  in 
Calvert  co.,  Md.  The  inhabitants  were 
probably  afterward  merged  with  the  Co- 
no  y. 

Onnatuck. — Bo/man,  Md.,  I,  141, 1837.  Onuatuck. — 
Smith  (1629),  Va.,  I,  map,  repr.  1819. 

Onuganuk.  A  Chnagmiut  Eskimo  vil 
lage  at  the  Kwikluak  mouth  of  the  Yu 
kon,  Alaska. 

Onug'-aniigemut.— Dall.  Alaska,  264,  1870. 

Onugareclury.  A  Cay uga  village  located 
on  Kite-bin's  map  of  1756  between  Cay  uga 
and  Seneca  lakes,  N.  Y.  Other  towns  were 
mentioned  there  a  little  earlier,  but  their 
names  do  not  resemble  this.  (w.  M.  B.  ) 

Onwarenhiiaki.     See   Williams,  Elect zer. 

Onyanti.     See  Oneyana. 

Onyx.     See  Marble. 

Oochukham  (Oo-chuW-ham).  Given  by 
Morgan  (Anc.  Soc.,  172,  1877)  as  a  sub- 
clan  of  the  Delaw-ares,  and  said  to  mean 
'  ground-scratcher.' 

Oohenonpa  ( '  twro  boilings ' ) .  A  division 
of  the  Teton  Sioux,  commonly  known  as 
Two  Kettle  Sioux,  or  Two  Kettles;  also  a 
subdivision  thereof.  No  mention  of  it  is 
made  by  Lewis  and  Clark,  Long,  or  other 
earlier  explorers.  It  is  stated  in  a  note 
to  De  Smet's  Letters  (1843)  that  the  band 
was  estimated  at  800  persons.  Culbertson 
(1850)  estimated  them  at  60  lodges,  but 
gives  no  locality  and  says  they  have  no  di 
visions.  Gen.  Warren  (1856)  found  them 
much  scattered  among  other  bands  and 
numbering  about  100  lodges.  Gumming 
(Rep.  Ind.  Aff.  for  1856)  places  them  on 
the  s.  side  of  the  Missouri.  Hayden  (1862) 
says  they  passed  up  and  down  Cheyenne 
r.  as  far  as  Cherry  cr.  and  Moreau  and 
Grand  rs.,  not  uniting  wTith  other  bands. 
Their  principal  chief  then  was  Matotopa, 
or  Four  Bears,  a  man  of  moderate  capacity 
but  exercising  a  good  influence  on  his 
people.  They  lived  entirely  on  the 
plains,  seldom  going  to  war,  and  were 
good  hunters  and  shrewd  in  their  deal 
ings  with  the  traders.  They  treated  with 
respect  \v hite  men  wrho  came  among  them 
as  traders  or  visitors.  They  were  on  the 
warpath  in  1866  at  the  time  of  the  Ft 
Phil.  Kearney  massacre,  yet  it  is  not  cer 
tain  that  they  took  an  active  part  in  this 
attack.  P>y  treaty  made  at  Ft  Sully,  Dak., 
on  Oct.  19,  1865,  they  agreed  to  cease 
attacking  whites  or  Indians  except  in 
self  defense  and  to  settle  permanently 
on  designated  lands.  This  treaty  was 
signed  on  their  behalf  by  chiefs  Chatan- 
skah  ( White  Hawk) ,  Shonkahwakkonke- 
deshkah  (Spotted  Horse),  Mahtotopah 
(Four  Bears),  and  others,  and  was  faith 
fully  observed  by  them  unless  thev  were 

BULL.  80] 



in  the  Sitting  Bui)  uprising  of  1876,  which 
is  doubtful. 

Neither  contagion  nor  war  materially 
reduced  the  number  of  the  Oohenonpa, 
which  seems  to  have  remained  compara 
tively  stationary  up  to  1887,  when  it  was 
reported  as  642,  the  last  separate  official 
enumeration.  They  reside  on  Cheyenne 
River  res.,  S.  Dak.,  with  Sihasapa,  Mini- 
conjou,  and  Sans  Arcs. 

Only  two  subdivisions  were  known  to 
Dorsey,  theOohenonpah  and  Mawakhota. 
Kettle  band. — Culbertson  in  Smithson.  Rep.  1850 
142,1851.  Kettle  band  Sioux.— Camming  in  H  R' 
Ex.  Doc.  65,  34th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  4,  1856.  NiK'- 
a-o-cih'-a-is.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and  Philol.  Mo 
Val.,  290,  1862  (Cheyenne  name).  Ohanapa — 


Brackett  in  Smithson.  Rep.  466,  1876.  Ohenonpa 
Dakotas.— Hayden,  Ethnog.  and  Philol.  Mo.  Val., 
map,  1862.  Ohenonpas. — Keane  in  Stanford,  Com- 
pend.,  527,  1878.  Oohenoijpa.— Riggs,  Dakota 
Gram,  and  Diet.,  xvi,  1852.  Oohe-nonpa.— Dorsey 
in  15th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  220,  1897;  McGee,  ibid.,  161. 
Oohenoupa.— Hind,  Red  R.  Exped.,  n,  154,  1860. 
Three  Kettles.— Ind.  Aff.  Rep.  1856,  68,  1857.  Two 
Cauldrons.— De  Smet.  Letters,  37,  note,  1843.  Two 
Kettle.— Gale,  Upper  Miss.,  226,  1867.  Two  Ket 
tles.— Riggs,  Dak.  Gram,  and  Diet.,  xvi,  1852.  Two 
Rille  band.— Ind.  Aff.  Rep.,  296,  1846.  Wo-he- 
nom'-pa.— Hayden,  op.  cit.,  371. 

Ookwolik.  A  tribe  of  Eskimo  about 
Sherman  inlet  in  the  Hudson  Bay  re 
gion. — Gilder.  Schwatka's  Search. '  199, 

Oolachan.     See  Eularhon. 

Ooltan.  A  former  rancheria,  probably 
??m  .  ?faP^,  visited  by  Father  Kino  in 
1°  I!1  Ua  ed  in.N-  w,Sonorav  Mexico,  3 

.     . 
leagues  N.  w.  of  Busanic  (n   v  ) 

.—  Bancroft    No    M 

S.  Estani 

Ooltewah  (corruption  of  rithrrt'l,  of  un 
known  meaning).  A  former  CheroKee 
settlement  about  the  present  Ooltewah 
on  the  creek  of  the  same  name  in  James 
co  Tenn.—  Mooneyin  19th  Rep.  B.  A.  E  , 
542,  1900. 

Oomiak.  The  large  skin  boat  or  "wo 
man's  boat"  of  the  Eskimo;  spelled  also 
umiak;  from  the  name  of  this  vessel  in  the 
eastern  Eskimo  dialects.  (A.  F.  c.  ) 

Oonilgachtkhokh.  A  Koyukukhotana 
village,  of  17  persons  in  1844,  on  Koyu- 
kuk  r.,  Alaska.—  Zagoskin  quoted  by  Pe- 
troff  in  10th  Census,  Alaska,  37,  1884. 

Oonossoora  (  '  poison  hemlock  '  )  .  A  Tus- 
carora  village  in  North  Carolina  in  1701.— 
Lawson,  Hist.  Car.,  383,  1860. 

Oony.     A  former  Choctaw  town  on  an 
affluent  of  upper  Chickasawhay  r.,  s.  of 
the  present  Pinkney  Mill,  Newton  co., 
Miss.  —  Brown  in  Pub.  Miss.  Hist   Soc 
vi,  443,  1902. 

Oosabotsee.     A  band  of  the  Crows. 
Butchers.—  Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  159,   1877      Oo-sa- 
bot-see.—  Ibid. 

Oosaukaunendauki.  See  Onondakai. 
Oothcaloga  (  Uy'yild'gl,  abbreviated  from 
Tsuyngild'gl,,  i  where  there  are  dams,'  i.  e. 
beaver  dams).  A  former  Cherokee  set 
tlement  on  Oothcaloga  (Ougillogy)  cr. 
of  Oostanaula  r.,  near  tl.e  present  Cal- 
houn,  Gordon  co.,  Ga.  —  M  coney  in  19th 
Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  545,  1900. 

Ootlashoot.  According  to  Lewis  and 
Clark  a  tribe  of  the  Tushepaw  nation 
(q.  v.)  in  1805-06,  residing  in  spring  and 
summer  on  Clarke  r.  within  the  Rocky 
nits.,  and  in  the  fall  and  winter  on  the 
Missouri  and  its  tributaries.  Pop.  400  in 
33  lodges. 

Cutlashoots.  —  Robertson,    Greg.,    129,    1846   (mis 
print).    Eoote-lash-Schute.  —  Orig.  .lour.  Lewis  and 
Clark,   in,  54,   1905.     Oate-lash-schute.—  Ibid.,  vi. 
114,    1905.      Oat-la-shoot.  —  Le\vis    and    Clark  Kx- 
ped.,  I,  map,  1814.     Oat-lash-shoots.—  Orig.    .lour. 
Le\visand  Clark,  v,  112,  219,1905.    Oat-lash  shute.— 
Ibid.,  VI,  120,  1905.     Oleachshoot.—  Gass.    Journal, 
132,  1807.     Olelachshook.  —  Clark  in  Jaiison,  Stran 
ger,  233.  1807.     Olelachshoot.—  Lewis,  Travels,  22 
1809.      Oote-lash  -shoots.  -Orig.   Jour.    Lrui<  nn< 
Clark,  III,  103,  1905.     Oote-lash-shutes.  —  Ibid..  55 
Ootlashoots.—  Lewis  and  Clark  Kxpcd.,  i.  lid.  1M! 
Ootslashshoots.—  Orig.  Jour.   Leuis  and  Clark,  v 
180,  1905.     Shahlee.—  Lewis  and  Clark  Exped..  n 
333,    1814.     Shalees.—  Ibid.,    329.     Shallees.—  Ibid. 
324  (Chopnnnish  name). 

Opa.  The  fourth  Chilula  village  on 
Redwood  cr.,  Cal. 

Oh-pah.—  Gibbs  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  ni, 
139,  1853  (Ynrok  name). 

Opament.  An  Algonqnian  village  in  Kilts 
on  the  E.  bank  of  the  Patuxent,  in  Cal  vert 
co.,  Md.  The  inhabitants  were  probably 
absorbed  by  the  Conoy.—  Smith  (1629), 
Ya.,  i,  map,'  repr.  1819. 



[B.  A.  E. 

Opassom.     See  Opossum. 

Opata  (  Pima:  o-op  'enemy',  o-otam  'peo 
ple').  A  division  of  the  Piman  family, 
formerly  inhabiting  the  country  between 
the  \v.  boundary  of  Chihuahua  and  the 
Hio  San  Miguel  in  Sonora,  Mexico,  and 
extending  from  the  main  fork  of  the  Rio 
Ya«iui,  about  lat.  1*8°  30',  to  31  °,  just  below 

OPATA   MAN.       (AM.  Mus.  MAT.  HIST.) 

the  s.  boundary  of  Arizona,  most  of  them 
being  settled  about  the  headwaters  of 
Yaqui  and  Sonora  rs.  They  cull  them 
selves  Joyl-ra-ua,  'village  people.' 

Physically  the  Opata  may  be  consid 
ered  good  specimens  of  the  Indian  race. 
They  are  not  large  in  stature,  but  are 
well-proportioned;  their  complexion  is 
not  so  dark  as  that  of  the  Yaqui;  their 
features  an-  regular  and  agreeable. 

Prior  to  the  advent  of  the  Spanish  mis 
sionaries,  to  whose  efforts  they  readily 
yielded,  the  habits  and  customs  of  the 
( >pata  were  generally  akin  to  those  of  the 
Pima  and  1'apugo  \.  and  w.  They  are 
described  as  of  a  submissive  disposition, 

ith  much  regard  for  honesty  and  moral 
ity,  and  have  always  been  friendly  to  the 
Mexican  (joyernment  in  all  the  "revolu 
tions  and  civil  dissensions,  except  in  1820, 
when  a  portion  of  them  rebelled  in  conse 
quence  of  the  injustice  of  a  government 
After  several  engagements  in 
which  the  natives  displayed  great  bravery 
they  were  compelled  to' submit,  owin<*  to 

H-  exhaustion  of  their  ammunition  and 
the  great  superiority  in    number  of   the 
opposing  Mexican  forces.     The  humanity 
and  justice  shown  their  prisoners  in  this 
rebellion  have  been  the  subject  of  praise. 
Opata   houses  were  formerly  mu 
lcted  oj  mats  and  reeds,  with  founda- 
;    <-t  st., ne.   and    were    more  durable 
than   those   of  mo<t   of  their   neighbors 
Caves   were   also   inhabited  to  some  ex 

tent  by  both  the  Opata  proper  and  the 
Jova,  even  in  historic  times.  Owing  to 
the  ruggedness  of  the  country  they  in 
habited,  the  tribe  was  divided  into  petty 
isolated  communities,  among  which  dis 
sension  frequently  arose,  sometimes  end 
ing  in  actual  hostility.  Thus,  the  inhabit 
ants  of  Sinoquipe  and  Banamichi,  in  the 
Sonora  valley,  were  once  confederated 
against  those  of  Huepac  and  Aconchi, 
immediately  s.  This  led  to  the  construc 
tion  outside  the  villages  of  defensive 
works  of  volcanic  rock,  where  an  entire 
settlement  or  several  allied  settlements 
could  resort  in  event  of  intertribal  irrup 
tion.  Besides  this  hostility,  the  tribe 
was  constantly  harassed  in  former  times 
by  the  Jano,  Jocome,  and  Suma — warlike 
tribes  believed  to  have  been  subsequently 
absorbed  by  the  Apache.  AVhile,  as  a 
result  of  such  invasions,  a  number  of 
Opata  villages  near  the  Sonora-Chihua- 
hua  frontier  wTere  abandoned  by  their  in 
habitants,  the  inroads  of  these  bands 
made  no  such  lasting  impression  as  those 
in  later  years  by  the  Apache  proper. 
When  unmolested,  the  Opata  cultivated 
small  garden  patches  in  the  canyons, 
which  were  nourished  by  water  from 
the  mesas,  the  drift  therefrom  being  ar 
rested  by  rows  of  stones.  Hrdlicka  (Am. 
Anthrop.,  vi,  74,  1904)  says  there  remain 
no  apparent  traces  of  tribal  organization 
among  them.  They  have  lost  their  lan 
guage,  as  well  as  their  old  religious  beliefs 
and  traditions,  dress  like  the  Spanish 
Mexicans,  and  are  not  distinguishable  in 

appearance  from  the  laboring  classes  of 
Mexico.  Their  chief  occupation  is  agri 
culture,  their  crops  consisting  principally 
of  maize,  beans,  melons,  and  chile.  Some 
of  the  men  are  employed  as  laborers. 
The  Jesuit  census  of  1730  (Bancroft,  No. 
Mex.  States,  i,  513-14,  1883)  gives  the 
population,  including  the  Eudeve  and 

LL.  30] 



Jova,  as  nearly  7,000.  Hardy  (Trav.  in 
Mex.,  437, 1829)  estimated  them  at  10,000. 
They  are  now  so  completely  civilized  that 
only  44  Qpata  were  recognized  as  such  by 
the  national  census  of  1900. 

The  chief  tribal  divisions  were  Opata 
proper,  Eudeve,  and  Jova.  Other  divi 
sions  have  been  mentioned,  as  the  Segui 
(Tegui),  Teguima,  and  Coguinachi  (Ve- 
lasco  in  Bol.  Soc.  Mex.  Geog.  Estad.,  1st  s., 
x,  705,  1863);  and  Orozco  y  Berra  ((Jeog., 
343,  1864)  adds  a  list  of  villages  included 
in  each.  As  the  divisions  last  named  are 
merely  geographic,  without  linguistic  or 
ethnic  significance,  they  soon  dropped 
from  usage. 

The  villages  of  the  Opata  proper,  so 
far  as  known,  were:  Aconchi,  Arizpe,  Ba- 
bispe,  Bacuachi,  Baquigopa,  Baseraca, 
Batepito,  Batesopa,  Cabora,  Comupatrico, 
Corazones,  Corodegiiachi  ( Fronteras ) ,  Cu- 
chuta,  Cuchuveratzi,  Distancia,  Guepaco- 
matzi,  Huachinera,  Huehuerigita,  Hue- 
pac,  Jamaica,  Los  Otates,  Metates,  Mary- 
siche,  Mochilagua,  Motepori,  Xacofi, 
Nacosari,  Naideni,  Oposura,  Oputo,  Pi  vipa, 
Quitamac,  Sahuaripa,  Suya,  Tamichopa, 
Tepachi,  Terapa,  Teras,  Teuricachi,  Tizo- 
nazo,  Toapara,  Urea,  Vallecillo,  and  Ye- 
cora.  For  the  villages  belonging  to 
the  other  divisions  mentioned  above,  see 
under  their  respective  names.  See  also 
Civoudroco.  The  principal  authority  on 
the  Opata  during  the  mission  period  is  the 
Rudo  Ensayo,  an  anonymous  account 
written  by  a  Jesuit  missionary  about  1763 
and  published  in  1863.  (F.  w.  H.) 

jJoyl-ra-ua. — Bandolier  in  Arch.  Inst.  Papers  in 
57,  1890;  Gilded  Man,  176,  1893  (own  name) .  Opa- 
la.— Ladd,  Story  of  N.  Mex.,  34,  1891  (misprint). 
Opate.— Bartlett,  Pers.Narr.,  1, 444, 1854.  Opauas.— 
MS.  of  1655  quoted  by  Bandelier,  op.  cit.,  iv,  521, 
1892.  Ore.— Orozco  y  Berra,  Geog..  338, 18(54  ( =Ure, 
used  for  Opata).  Sonora.— Ibid.  Tegiiima.— Ibid, 
(really  an  Opata  dialect).  Tire.— Ibid,  (doubtless 
so  named  because  Opata  inhabited  the  greater 
portion  of  the  partido  of  Ures). 

Opechancanough.  A  Powhatan  chief, 
born  about  1545,  died  in  1644.  He  cap 
tured  Capt.  John  Smith  shortly  after 
the  arrival  of  the  latter  in  Virginia,  and 
took  him  to  his  brother,  the  head-chief 
Powhatan  (q.  v. ).  Some  time  after  his 
release,  Smith,  in  order  to  change  the 
temper  of  the  Indians,  who  jeered  at  the 
starving  Englishmen  and  refused  to  sell 
them  food,  went  with  a  band  of  his  men 
to  Opechancanough' s  camp  under  pre 
tense  of  buying  corn,  seized  the  chief  by 
the  hair,  and  at  the  point  of  a  pistol 
marched  him  off  a  prisoner.  The  Pa- 
munkey  brought  boat-loads  of  provisions 
to  ransom  their  chief,  who  thereafter  en 
tertained  more  respect  and  deeper  hatred 
for  the  English.  While  Powhatan  lived 
Opechancanough  was  held  in  restraint, 
but  after  his  brother's  death  in  1618  he 
became  the  dominant  leader  of  the  nation, 
although  his  other  brother,  Opitchapan, 

was  the  nominal  head-chief.  He  plotted 
the  destruction  of  the  colony  so  secretly 
revealed  the  conspiracy,  but  too  late  to 
save  the  people  of  Jamestown,  who  at  a 
sudden  signal  were  massacred,  Mar  •>•> 


1622,  by  the  natives  deemed  to  beentirely 
friendly.  In  the  period  of  intermittent 
hostilities  that  followed,  duplicity  and 

treachery  marked  the  action*  of  both 
whites  and  Indians.  In  the  last  year  of 
his  life,  Opechancanough,  taking  advan 
tage  of  the  dissensions  of  the  English, 
planned  their  extermination.  The  aged 
chief  was  borne  into  battle  on  a  litter 
when  the  Powhatan,  on  Apr.  18,  1(>44,  fell 
upon  the  settlements  and  massacred'  300 
persons,  then  as  suddenly  desisted  and 
fled  far  from  the  colony,  frightened  per 
haps  by  some  omen.  Opechancanough 
was  taken  prisoner  to  Jamestown,  where 
one  of  his  guards  treacherously  shot  him, 
inflicting  a  wound  of  which  he  subse 
quently  died. 

Opegoi.  The  Yurok  name  of  the  Karok 
village  opposite  the  mouth  of  Red  Cap 
cr.,  on  Klamath  r.,  N.  w.  Cal.  It  was 
the  Karok  village  farthest  downstream.  — 
A.  L.  Kroeber,  inf'n,  190n. 
Oppegach.—  Gibbs  (1851)  in  Schooleraft  I  mi 
Tribes,  in,  148,  1853.  Oppegoeh.—  Gibbs,  MS. 
Misc.,  B.  A.  E.,  1852.  Op  pe-o.—  McKee  (1x51)  in 
Sen.  Ex.  Doc.  4,  32d  Cong.,  spec,  sess.,  164,  1853. 
Oppe-yoh.  —  GibbsinSchoolcraft.op.  cit.,151.  Red 
caps.—  Gibbs,  MS.,  op.  cit.  Up-pa-goine.—  McKee, 
op.  cit.,  194.  Up-pa-goines.  —  Meyer,  Nacb  dein  Sac 
ramento,  282,  1855.  Up-pah-goines.  —  McKee  op 
cit.,  161. 

Opelousa  (probably  'black  above',  i.  e. 
'black  hair'  or  'black  skull').  A  small 
tribe  formerly  living  in  s.  Louisiana.  It 
is  probable  that  they  were  identical  with 
the  Onquilouzas  of  La  Harpe,  spoken  of 
in  1699  as  allied  with  the  Washa  and 
Chaouacha,  wandering  near  the  seacoasts, 
and  numbering  with  those  two  tribes  200 
men.  This  would  indicate  a  more  south 
erly  position  than  that  in  which  they  are 
afterward  found,  and  Du  Pratz,  whoso  in 
formation  applies  to  the  years  between 
1718  and  1730,  locates  the  Oque-Loussas, 
evidently  the  same  people,  westward  and 
above  Poi'nteCoupee,  rather  too  far  to  the  N. 
He  says  that  they  inhabited  the  shores  of 
two  little  lakes  which  appeared  black  from 
the  quantity  of  leaves  which  covered  their 
bottoms,  and  received  their  name,  which 
means  '  Black-  water  people  '  in  Mobilian, 
•from  this  circumstance.  It'  these  were 
the  same  as  the  Opelousas  of  all  later 
writers  it  is  difficult  to  understand  how 
the  change  in  name  came  about,  but  it  is 
not  likely  that  two  tribes  withsuch  similar 
designations  occupied  the  same  region, 
especially  as  both  are  never  mentioned 
by  one  author.  When  settlers  began  to 
push  westward  from  the  Mississippi,  the 
district  occupied  by  this  tribe  came  to  lx> 
called  after  them,  'and  the  name  is  still 



[B.  A.  E. 

retained  by  the  parish  seat  of  St  Landry. 
Of  their  laterhistory  little  information  can 
IK-  gathered,  but  if  would  seem  from  the 
frequency  with  which thisname is  coupled 
with  that  of  the  Attacapa  that  they  were 
closely  related  tothat  people.  This  is  also 
t he  opinion  of  those Chitimacha  and  Atta 
capa  who  remember  having  heard  the 
tribe  spoken  of,  and  is  partially  confirmed 
by  Sibley,  who  states  that  they  understood 
Attacapa  although  having  a  language  of 
their  own.  It  is  most  probable  that  their 
proper  language,  referred  to  by  Sibley, 
was  nothing  more  than  an  Attacapa  dia 
lect,  though  it  is  now  impossible  to  tell 
how  closely  the  two  resembled  each  other. 
In  1777  Attacapa  and  Opelousa  are  re 
ferred  to  at  the  mouth  of  the  Sabine  r. 
(BoltoninTex.  Hist.  Assn.  Quar.,  ix,  117- 
1S,  1905),  but  the  latter  are  usually  located 
in  the  s.  part  of  St  Landry  parish,  Sibley 
stating  that  in  1S06  their  village  was 
"about  15  ni.  from  the  Appelousachurch." 
At  that  time  they  numbered  about  40 
men.  but  they  have  since  disappeared 
completely,  owing  to  the  invasion  of  the 
whites  and  theMuskliogean  Indians  from 
K.  of  the  Mississippi.  (.T.  K.  s. ) 

Apalousa.—  Schoolcnift,  Ind.  Tribes,  111,529,1853. 
Apalusa.— KIT.  Travels,  301,  1816.  Apeloussas. — 
Haudry  des  Lo/ieres.  Voy.  Louisianes,  241,  1802. 
Apeluaas.— Perrin  du  Lac,  Voyage,  379,  1805.  Ap- 
palousas.— Sihlt-y,  Hist.  .Sketches,  83,  1806.  Appe- 
lousas.— Gallatin  in  Trans.  Am.  Antiq.  Soc.,  II, 
lit:.  IMit').  Asperousa. — Brion  de  la  Tour,  Map, 
17M.  Black  Water. —JefTerys,  French  Dom.,  1, 165, 
ITt'.l.  Loupelousas. — French,  Hist.  Coll.  La.,  II,  70, 
Iv'iti.  Loupitousas. — Kaudry  des  Lozieres,  Voy. 
Louisianes,  2-13,  1802.  Obeloussa. — 1'hilippeaux, 
Map  of  Kngl.  ('<>]..  17X1.  Ogue  Loussas.— Jeil'erys, 
Fivnrh  Dom.,  I,  1C.5,  1761.  Opalusas. — Kafinesque 
in  Marshall.  Ky.,  i.  inlrod.,  21.  1824.  Opelousas. — 
Sil.lry  i  lxof>)  in  Am.  St.  Pap.,  Ind.  AIT.,  I,  724.1832. 
Opeluassas.— Ann.  dc  la  Propagation  de  la  Foi,  I. 
4'.'.  lxf>3.  Oppelousas. — Brackenridge,  Views  of 
Lu.,x-_>,  ISM.  Oque  Loussas. — Du  Prat/.  Louisiana 
317.  1771. 

Opelto  (  <>f-])el-t<>,  '  tlie  forks' ).  A  former 
Xishinam  village  in  the  valley  of  Bear  r., 
which  is  the  next  stream  \.  of  Sacramento, 
(1al. —Powers  in  ('out.  X.  A.  Ethnol.,m, 
::!<•»,  is77. 

Operdniving  ('spring  place').  A  Nu- 
gnmiut  Eskimo  spring  village  in  Countess 
«•!'  Warwick  sd.,  near  Frobisher  bay,  Balh'n 

Oopungnewing— Hall    quoted     hy     Xourse,     Am. 

Kxplor.,  I'll.  issi.    Operdniving.— Boas  in  6th  Rep. 

!.     Oppernowick.-   Ross,  Voy.,  164, 

Opia.     A   Chnmashan   village   between 

(•oletaand  I't  Concepcion,  Cal.,  in  1542. 

Cabrillo.    Narr.    (  1542  j   in   Smith,  Colec 
Doc.  Kin.,  is:},  1S57. 

Opichiken.     A    Salish    band    <,r  village 
under  the  Fraser  siiperintendencv    Brit 
Col.— Can.  Ind.  AIT.,  79,  ls7s. 

Opiktulik.  A  Kaviagmiut  Eskimo  vil 
lage  on  the  x.  shore  of  Norton  sd.,  Alas 
ka:  pop.  12  in  1SSO. 

OkpikUhk.-  IVtrolf  in  Kith  Census,  Alaska,  map, 

Okpiktolik.— Ibiil..    11.     Opiktulik. -Baker 

««•«*.    Diet.   Alaska.    1W2.    Oukviktoulia.— Zagos- 

kin  in  Nouv.  Ann.  Voy.,  6th  s.,  xxi,  map,  1850. 
Upiktalik.— llth  Census,  Alaska,  162,  1893. 

Opilhlako  (Opil'-'ldko,  'big  swamp'). 
A  former  Upper  Creek  towrn  on  a  stream 
of  the  same  name  which  flows  into  Pakan- 
Tallahassee  cr.,  x.  E.  Ala,,  20  in.  from 
Coosa  r. 

Opilika.— H.  R.  Doc.  452,  25th  Cong.,  2d  sess.,  93, 
1838.  Opilike.— Ibid.,  49.  Opil'-'lako.— Gatschet 
Creek  Migr.  Leg.,  I,  141.  1884.  0-pil-thluc-co.— 
Hawkins  (1799),  Sketch,  50,  1848.  • 

Opinghaki  ( 0-ping-ha' -ki,  'white -face 
land,'  i.  e.  'opossum  land').  A  subclan 
of  the  Delawares. 

Opinghaki.— W.  R.  Gerard,  inf'n,  1907  (correct 
form).  O-ping'-ho'-ki, — Morgan,  Anc.  Soc.,  172 

Opiscopank.  A  village  of  the  Powhatan 
confederacy  in  1 608,  on  the  s.  bank  of  the 
Rappahannock  in  Middlesex  co.,  Va. — 
Smith  (1629),  Va.,  i,  map,  repr.  1819. 

Opistopia.  A  Chumashan  village  be 
tween  Goleta  and  Pt  Concepcion,  Cal.,  in 

Opistopea. — Taylor  in  Cal.  Farmer,  Apr.  17,  1863. 
Opistopia.— Cabrillo,  Narr.  (1542)  in  Smith,  Colee. 
Doc.  Fla.,  183,  1857. 

Opitchesaht.  A  Xootka  tribe  on  Al- 
berni  canal,  Somass  r.,  and  neighboring 
lakes,  Vancouver  id. ,  Brit.  Col.  Anciently 
this  tribe  is  said  to  have  spoken  Nanaimo 
(q.  v. ).  The  septs,  according  to  Boas,  are 
Mohotlath,  Tlikutath,  and  Tsomosath. 
Their  principal  village  is  Ahahswinnis. 
Pop.  62  in  1902,  48  in  1906. 
Hopetcisa'th.— Boas,  6th  Rep.  N.  W.  Tribes  Can., 
31,  1890.  Opechisaht.— Sproat,  Savage  Life,  308, 
1868.  Opecluset.— Mayne,  Brit,  Col.,  251,  1862. 
Ope-eis-aht.— Brit.  Col.  map.,  Ind.  AIT.,  Victoria, 
1872.  Opet-ches-aht.— Can.  Ind.  Aft'.,  308,  1879. 
Opitches-aht.— Ibid.,  187,  1884.  Upatsesatuch.— 
Grant  in  Jour.  Roy.  Geog.  Soc.,  293.  1857. 

Opitsat.  The  permanent  village  of  the 
Clayoquot  (q.  v.),  on  the  s.  w.  shore  of 
Meares  id.,  w.  coast  of  Vancouver  id., 
Brit.  Col.;  pop.  245  in  1902,  261  in  1906. 
Opetsitar.— Gray  and  Ingraham  (1791)  quoted  in 
II .  R.  Doc.  43,  26th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  3,  1840. 
Opisat.— Can.  Ind.  Aft'.,  263/1902.  Opisitar.— Ken- 
driek  deed  (1791),  ibid.,  10. 

Opodepe.  A  former  pueblo  of  the  Eu- 
deve  and  seat  of  a  Spanish  mission 
founded  in  1649;  situated  on  the  E.  bank 
of  Rio  San  Miguel,  Sonora,  Mexico;  pop. 
820  in  1678,  134  in  1730.  Of  a  population 
of  679  in  1900,  26  were  Opata  and  56 

Asuncion  de  Opodepe. — Zapata  (1678)  in  Doc.  Hist. 
Mex.,  4th  s.,  in,  351,  1857.  Opodepe.— Kino,  map 
(1702)  in  Stocklein,  Neue  Welt-Bott,  74,  1726. 
Opoteppe.— Och,  Journey  to  the  Missions  (1756), 
i,  71,  1809. 

Opok  (O'pok}.  A  former  Maidu  settle 
ment  on  the  N.  fork  of  Cosumnes  r.,  near 
Nashville,  Eldorado  co.,  Cal.  (K.  H.  j>.) 

Opolopong.  A  former  town  with  a  mixed 
population  under  Oneida  jurisdiction,  sit 
uated,  according  to  the  Evans  map  of 
1756,  in  Luzerneco.,  Pa.,  on  the  K.  branch 
of  the  Susquehanna,  about  30  m.  above 
Shamokin,  at  the  forks,  and  about  10  in. 
below  Wyoming.  (.1.  N.  B.  n.) 

Oponays.  A  former  Seminole  village 
"  back  of  Tanipabav."  probably  in  Hills- 

13CLL.  30] 



boro  co.,  w.  Fla.— Bell  in  Morse,  Rep.  to 
Sec.  War,  306,  1822. 

Oponoche.  A  tribe,  probably  Yokuts 
(Mariposan),  mentioned  as  living  on 
Kings  r.,  Cal.,  in  1853.— Wessells  (1853) 
in  H.  R.  Ex.  Doc.  76,  34th  Cong.,  3d 
sess.,  31,  1857. 

Opossian.  An  unidentified  tribe  living 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Albemarle  sd., 
N.  C.,  in  1586. 

Opossians.— Hakluyt  (1600),  Voy.,  in,  312,  repr 
1810.  Opposians.— Lane  (1586)  in  Smith  (16'^9) 
Va.,  I,  87,  repr  1819. 

Opossum  (Renape  of  Virginia  dpasum, 
'white  beast',  cognate  with  Chippewa 
wdbaslm,  applied  specifically  to  a  white 
dog).  A  North  American  marsupial, 
Didelphys  virginiana,  about  the  size  of  the 
domestic  cat,  with  grayish-white  hair, 
with  face  pure  white  near  the  snout,  and 
with  black  ears.  When  captured  or 
slightly  wounded,  it  has  the  habit  of 
feigning  death,  and  by  this  artifice  often 
escapes  from  the  inexperienced  hunter. 
The  name,  which  was  first  mentioned  in 
a  brief  account  of  Virginia  published  in 
1610,  has,  with  various  adjuncts,  since 
been  extended  to  species  of  the  genera 
Sarcophilus,  Thylacinus,  Belideas,  Micour- 
eus,  ChironecteSjSiudAcrobates.  The  name 
enters  into  several  compounds,  as:  "Opos 
sum  mouse,"  Acrobatespygmseus,  a  pygmy 
species  of  opossum  of  New  South  Wales; 
"  opossum  rug,"  a  commercial  name  for 
the  skin  of  an  Australian  species  of  Pha- 
langer;  "opossum  shrew,"  an  insectivor 
ous  mammal  of  the  genus  Soledon;  ' '  opos 
sum  shrimp,"  a  crustacean,  the  female  of 
which  carries  its  eggs  in  pouches  between 
its  legs.  ' '  Possum, "  the  common  aphre- 
retic  form  of  the  name,  is  often  used  as 
an  epithet  with  the  meaning  of  "false," 
' '  deceptive, "  "  imitative, "  as  in  the  name 
"possum  haw"  (Viburnum  nudum],  the 
berries  of  which  counterfeit  the  edible 
fruit  of  the  black  haw  (V.  prunifolium), 
but  differ  therefrom  in  being  very'insipid; 
and  "possum  oak"  (Quercus  aquatica), 
from  the  deceptive  character  of  its  leaves, 
which  vary  in  shape  and  size  and  often 
imitate  those  of  Q.  imbricaria,  and  thus 
lead  to  a  confusion  between  the  two  spe 
cies.  Used  as  a  verb,  the  word  means  "to 
pretend,"  "feign,"  "dissemble,"  this 
sense,  as  well  as  that  of  the  attributive, 
being  derived  from  the  animal's  habit  of 
throwing  itself  upon  its  back  and  feign 
ing  death  011  the  approach  of  an  enemy; 
and  hence  the  expression  "playing  pos 
sum"  or  "possuming."  The  opossum  of 
English-speaking  people  of  the  West  In 
dies  and  South  America  is  DidelpJn/s  opos 
sum,  (w.  E.  G.) 

Oposura.  A  former  Opata  pueblo  and 
seat  of  a  Spanish  mission -founded  in  1644; 
situated  on  the  w.  bank  of  Rio  Soyopa, 
x.  central  Sonora,  Mexico.  Pop.  334  in 
1678,  300  in  1730.  The  town,  now  known 

as  Moctezuma,  once  suffered  greatly  from 
Apache  raids. 

Opasura.  —  Bandelier,     Gilded    Man      179     ix«r? 

Pr^i^s0^^769 111*1**-  ^  Me1!9;  4?hi  ; 

ibid  ;  m? 36?in8.?7!SUel      0Po^a.-Zapata  (1678;! 

Opothleyaholo    (properly     Hupuehelth 
Yaholo;    from    hupuewa     'child,'    he' hie 
'good',    yaholo,     '  whooper,'     '  halloer  ' 
an  initiation  title.— G.  W.  Urayson)       \ 
Creek  orator.     He   was  speaker  of'  the 
councils  of  the  Upper  Creek  towns,  and 
as    their  representative   met    the    Gov 
ernment  commissioners  in    Feb.,   1825, 
at    Indian    Springs,    Ga.,    where    they 
came  to  transact  in  due  form  the  ces 
sion   of   Creek    lands   already   arranged 
with  venal  Lower  Creek  chiefs.     Opoth- 
leyaholo  informed  them  that  these  chiefs 
had  no  authority  to  cede  lands,  which 
could  be  done  only  by  the  consent  of  the 
whole  nation  in  council,  and  Macintosh  he 
warned  ominously  of  the  doom  he  would 
invite  by  signing  the  treaty.     ( )pothleya- 
holo  headed  the  Creek  deputation  that 
went  to  Washington  to  pro'test  against 
the  validity  of  the  treaty.  "  Bowing  to 
the  inevitable,  he  put  his   name  to  the 
new  treaty  of  cession,  signed  at  Wash 
ington    Jan.     24,    1826,     but    afterward 
stood  out  for  the  technical  right  of  the 
Creeks   to   retain   a  strip  that  was   not 
included  in  the  description  because  it  was 
not  then  known  to  lie  within  the  limits 
of  Georgia.     After  the  death  of  the  old 
chiefs  he  became  the  leader  of  the  nation, 
though  not  head-chief  in  name.     When 
in  1836  some  of  the  Creek  tolvns  made 
preparation  to  join  the  insurgent  Seini- 
nole,  he  marched  out  at  the  head  of  his 
Tukabatchi  warriors,   captured  some  of 
the  young  men  of  a  neighboring  village 
who  had  donned  war  paint  to  start  the 
revolt,  and  delivered  them  to  the  I'nited 
States  military  to  expiate  the  crimes  they 
had  committed  on  travelers  and  settlers. 
After  holding  a  council  of  warriors  he  led 
1,500    of    them    against    the    rebellious 
towns,  receiving  a  commission  as  colonel, 
and  when  the  regular  troops  with  their 
Indian  auxiliaries  appeared  at  Jlatrhe- 
chubbee  the  hostiles  surrendered.     The 
United  States  authorities  then  took  ad  van 
tage  of  the  assemblage  of  the  Creek  war 
riors  to  enforce  the  emigration  of  t  he  t  ri  1  >e. 
Opothleyaholo  was  reluctant  to  take  his 
people  to  Arkansas  to  live  with  the  Lower 
Creeks  after  the  bitter  contentions  that 
had  taken  place.      He  bargained  for  a 
tract  in  Texas  on  which  they  could  settle, 
but  the  Mexican  government  was  unwill 
ing  to  admit  them.     After  the  removal 
to  Arkansas  the  old  feud  was  forgotten, 
and  Opothleyaholo  became  an  important 
counselor  and  guide  of  the  reunited  tril>e. 
When  Gen.  Albert  Pike,  at  the  beginning 
of  the  Civil  war,  visited  the  Creeks  in  a 
great  council  near  the  present  town  of 



Kufanla  and  urged  them  to  treat  with  the 
Confederacy,  Opothleyaholo  exercised 
all  his  influence  against  the  treaty,  and 
when  the  council  decided,  after  several 
days  of  debate  and  deliberation,  to  enter 
into  the  treaty,  he  withdrew  with  his 
following  from  the  council.  Later  he 
withdrew  from  the  Creek  Nation  with 
about  a  third  of  the  Creeks  and  espoused 
the  cause  of  the  Union.  Hghting  his 
way  as  he  went,  he  retreated  into  Kan 
sas!  and  later  died  near  the  town  of  Leroy, 
Cuffey  co.  (F.  n.  (i.  w.  G.  ) 

Optuabo.  A  former  rancheria,  probably 
of  the  Sobaipuri,  near  the  present  Ari- 
/ona-Sonora  boundary,  probably  in  Ari- 
xoiia,  which  formed  a  visita  of  the  mis 
sion  of  Suamca  (q.  v. )  about  1760-64. 
Santiago  Optuabo. — Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  X.  Mex., 
371.  INVJ  (after  early  docs. ». 

Oputo.  A  pueblo  of  the  Opata  and  seat 
of  a  Spanish  mission  established  in  1645; 
situated  on  Rio  de  Batepito,  about  lat. 
:;o°  IKY,  Sonora,  Mexico.  Pop.  in  1678, 
424;  in  1730,  24S. 

Opoto. — Bandolier  in  Arch.  Inst.  Papers,  iv,  507, 
l.v.t'J.  Oputo.— Oroxco  y  Berra,  Geog.,  343,  1864. 
S.  Ignacio  Opotu. — Zapata  (1678)  quoted  by  Ban 
croft,  No.  Mex.  States,  i.  246,  1884. 

Oqtogona  (  Otjtot/ona, '  bare  shins '  ?;  sing. 
<><lt<'nj<'ni}.  A  principal  division  of  the 
<  'licyeime.  (.1.  M.  ) 

Ohk  to  unna. — Grinnell,  Social  Org.  Cheyennes, 
136,  1915  (variously  given  as  meaning  'no  leg 
gings,'  or  as  a  Sutaio  word  meaning  'people 
drifted  away').  O'tu'gunu.— Mooney  in  14th  Rep. 
H.  A.  K.,  1026.  18%.  Prominent  Jaws.— Dorsev  in 
Field  Cohmih.-Mus.  Pub.  103,  62,  1905. 

Oquaga  ^.M  <  >haw  k :  '  j  >lace  <  >f  wild  grapes, ' 
from  oiu-KiutkinV ,  'wild  grape.' — Hewitt). 
An  Iroquois  village,  probably  under  Tus- 
carora  jurisdiction,  formerly  on  the  E. 
branch  of  the  Susquehanna,  on  both  sides 
of  the  river,  in  the  town  of  Colesville, 
Broome  co.,  N.  Y.  It  was  destroyed  by 
the  Americans  in  177S.  According  to 
Kuttenber^a  band  of  Tuscarora  settled 
there  in  1722  and  were  afterward  joined 
by  some  .Mahican  and  Ksopus  Indians 
who  had  been  living  among  tin;  Mohawk; 
but  from  the  records  of  the  Albany  Con 
ference  in  1722  it  appears  that  they  were 
already  at  ( Jquaga  at  that  time.  In  1778 
it  was  ''one  of  the  neatest  Indian  towns 
on  the  Susquehanna  r.";  it  contained  the 
ruinsofan  "old  fort."  O'Callaghansays 
the  inhabitants  were  Iroquois  and  chiefly 
Mohawk.  They  numbered  about  750  in 
1765.  Cf.  fteqnake.  (.1.  x.  H.  jj.) 

Anaquago.— Hutterlield.  Washington-Irvine  Cor- 
rc-p..  U7,  ls,vj.  Anaquaqua.— Drake,  Hk  Inds 
l<k.  .,,  '.».,,  IMS.  Aughguagey.— Ft  Johnson  conf' 
•I,..*-)  in  N.  V.  i),,,-.  Col.  Hist.,  vii,  lot  1856 
Aughquaga.-lbi,].,  1*7.  Aughquagahs.  -Hutehins 
./N  in  .l.-lTcrson,  Notes,  142,  is-.-:,.  Augh- 
quagchi.— Boudinot,  Star  in  the  Wr«t  1-5  1816 
Aughquages.—Mt. Johnson  conf.  (1755)  in  N  Y  Doc' 
Col  Hist., VI,  %4, 1X5.-,.  Augh-quag-has.-Macaulev' 
N.Y,  I,  1*7,  1,V2'.».  Aughwick.-.lohnson  (1757)' 

v  V  Do.;.  (,,i.  Hist. ,  vii,  331, 1856  (it  may  refer 
to  a  place  o|  that  name  in  Huntingdon  co..  Pa  ) 
-Franklin  M755i  ()uotcd  in  \.  Y.  Doc! 
,  yi.  KH»S,  1855.    Auquaguas.— Rnttenber! 
Hudson  R.,  200,  1872.     Ochquaqua.— N.    Y! 


Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  V,  675,  note,  1855.  Ochtaghquanawic- 
roones. — Albany  conf.  ( 1722) ,  ibid.  Ochtayhquana- 
wicroons.— Ruttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R.,  200, 
1872  ('moccasin  people' — Hewitt).  Ocquagas. — 
Clark,  Onondaga,  1,223, 1849.  Oghguagees.— John 
son  (1750)  inN.  Y.  Doc.  Col. Hist.,  vn,  91,  1856.  Ogh- 
guago. — Johnson  (1747);  ibid.,  vi,  361,  1855.  Ogh- 
kawaga.— Rnttenber,  Tribes  Hudson  R..  272, 
1872.  Oghkwagas.— Stone,  Life  of  Brant,  n,  422 
1864.  Oghquaga.— N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vn, 
49,  note,  1856.  Oghquago. — Albany  conf.  (1746), 
ibid.,  VI,  324,  1855.  Oghquaj as.—  Johnson  (1756), 
ibid.,  vn,  42,  1856.  Oghquuges.— Albany  conf. 
(1748),  ibid.,  vi,  441,  1855.  Ohguago.— ' Colden 
(1727),  Five  Nat.,  app.,  185,  1747.  Ohonoguaga.— 
Coffin  (1761)  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  IV,  271,  1856. 
Ohonoguages. — Ibid.  Ohonoquaugo. — Strong  (1747) 
in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  1st  s.,  x,  56,  1809. 
Ohquaga. — Johnson  (1764)  in  N.Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
vii,  628.1856.  Oneachquage.— Esnautsand  Rapilly, 
Map  U.  S.,  1777.  Onehohquages. — Rnttenber 
Tribes  Hudson  R.,  200,  1872.  Onenhoghkwages.— 
Ibid.  One»hokwa''ge.— J.  N.  B.  Hewitt,  inf'n,  1888 
('place  of  wild  grapes':  Mohawk  form).  Ono- 
aughquaga.— Tryon  (1774)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
vm,  452,  1857.  Onoghguagy.— Map  of  1768,  ibid., 
VIII,  1857.  Onoghquagey.— Johnson  (1767),  ibid., 
vn,  969,1856.  Onohoghquaga.— N.Y.  Doc. Col.  Hist., 
Vii,  49,  note,  1856.  Onohoghwage.— Hawley  (1794) 
in  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  Ists.,  iv,  50, 1795.  Onoho- 
quaga.— Hawley  (1770),  ibid.,  3d  s.,  i,  151,  1825. 
Onohquauga.— Edwards  (1751),  ibid.,  1st  s.,  x,  146, 
1809.  Ononhoghquage. — Crosby  (1775)  in  N.Y".  Doc. 
Col.  Hist.,  vm,  551,  1857.  Onoquage.— Shea,  Cath. 
Miss.,  21 1, 1855.  Onoquaghe.— N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
Viil,  551,  note,  1857.  Oonoghquageys. — German 
Flats  conf.  ( 1770) ,  ibid. ,  229.  Oquacho.— Ruttenber, 
Tribes  Hudson  R.,  315,  1872.  Oquago.— Macauley, 
N.  Y.,  II,  177,  1829.  Otakwanawe»rune»'.— He  win, 
inf'n,  1888  ('moccasin  people':  correct  Mohawk 
form  of  Ochtaghquanawicroones).  Oughquaga. — 
Guy  Park  conf.  (1775)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
vni,  549,  1857.  Oughquageys.— Ibid.  Oughqugoes.— 
Ibid.,  554.  Ouoghquogey.—  Johnson  (1764),  ibid., 
Vii,  611,  1856.  Ouquagos. — Goldthwait  (1766)  in 
Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  Ists.,  x,  121,1809.  Skawagh- 
kees.— Morse,  System  of  Modern  Geog.,  i,  164, 
[1814].  Susquehannah  Indians.— Albany  ccnf. 
(1746)  in  N.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist.,  vi,  323,  1855  (so 
called  here  because  living  on  the  upper  Susque 

Oquanoxa.  An  Ottawa  village,  named 
from  the  resident  chief,  that  formerly 
existed  on  the  w.  bank  of  the  Little  Au- 
glai/e,  at  its  mouth,  in  Paulding co. ,  Ohio. 
The  reservation  was  sold  in  1831. 

Oquitoa.  A  former  Pima  rancheria  on 
Rio  del  Altar,  N.  w.  Sonora,  Mexico,  and 
a  visita  of  the  mission  of  Ati  (q.  v. )  dating 
from  about  1694.  Pop.  104  in  1730.  It  is 
now  a  civilized  town. 

Conception  del  TJkitoa. — Kino,  map,  1702,  in  Stock- 
lein,  Neue  Welt-Bott,  76,  1726.  Ognitoa.— Kino, 
map,  1701.  in  Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  N.  Mex..  360, 1889 
(misprint ).  Oguitoa. — Orozco  y  Berra,  Geog..  347, 
1864.  Oquitod.— Qnijano  (1757)  in  Doc.  Hist.  Mex., 
4th  s.,  I,  53,  1856  (misprint).  San  Antonio  de 
Uquitoa.— Kino  (1694),  ibid.,  244.  San  Diepo  de 
Uquitoa.— Venegas,  Hist.  Cal.,  I,  303,  1759  (mis 
print).  S.  Antonio  Oquitoa. — Rivera  (1730)  quoted 
by  Bancroft,  No.  Mex.  States,  i.  514,  1884. 
Uquiota.— Kino  (1696)  in  Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  4th  s., 
I,  263,  1856  (misprint). 

Oquomock.  A  former  village  of  the 
Powhatan  confederacy  on  the  x.  bank  of 
the  Rappahannock,  in  Richmond  co., 
Va. — Smith  (1(529)  ,Va.,  i,  map,  repr.  1819. 

Oraibi  (owa  'roek,'O/>i  'place':  'place 
of  the  rock') .  The  largest  and  most  im 
portant  of  the  villages  of  the  Hopi  (q.  v. ), 
in  N.  E.  Ari/ona.  Jn  1629  it  became  the 
seat  of  the  Spanish  Franciscan  mis- 

BULL.  30] 



sion  of  San  Francisco,  which  was  de 
stroyed  in  the  Pueblo  revolt  of  1680,  the 
church  being  reduced  to  ashes  and  the 
two  Spanish  missionaries  killed.  During 
this  time  the  pueblo  of  Walpi  was  a  visita 
of  Oraibi.  Before  the  mission  period 
Oraibi  was  reported  to  contain  14,000  in 
habitants,  but  its  population  was  then 
greatly  reduced,  owing  to  the  ravages  of  a 
pestilence.  Present  population  about 
750.  The  people  of  Oraibi  are  far  more 
conservative  in  their  attitude  toward  the 
whites  than  the  other  Hopi,  an  element 
in  the  tribe  being  strongly  opposed  to  civ 
ilization.  Refusal  to  permit  their  chil 
dren  to  be  taken  and  entered  in  schools 
has  been  the  cause  of  two  recent  upris 
ings,  but  no  blood  was  shed.  As  a  result 
of  the  last  difficulty,  in  1906,  a  number 


of  the  Oraibi  conservatives  were  made 
prisoners  of  war  and  confined  at  Camp 
Huachuca,  Ariz.  Moenkapi  is  an  Oraibi 
farming  village.  For  a  description  of  the 
architecture  of  Oraibi,  see  Mindeleff  in 
8th  Rep.  B.  A.  E.,  76,  1891. 

Areibe.— McCook  (1891)  in  Donaldson,  Moqui 
Pueblo  Inds.,  37,  1893.  Craybe.— Hodge,  Arizona, 
map,  1877  (misprint).  Espeleta.— Alcedo,  Dic.- 
Geog.,  ii,  92,  1787  (doubtless  in  allusion  to  Fray 
Jose  de  Espeleta,  killed  at  Oraibi  in  1080). 
Muca.— Garces  (1776),  Diary,  395,  1900  (given 
as  the  Zuni  name).  Musquins.— Ten  Broeck 
in  Schoolcraft,  Ind.  Tribes,  iv,  87,  1854  (Mexi 
can  name  for).  Musquint.  — Ten  Broeck  mis 
quoted  by  Donaldson,  Moqui  Pueblo  Inds., 
14,  1893.  Naybe.— Onate  misquoted  by  Bancroft, 
Ariz,  and  N.  Mex.,  137, 1889.  Naybi.— Ofiate  (1598) 
in  Doc.  Ined.,  xvi,  137,1871.  Olalla.— Ibid.,  207 
(doubtless  Oraibi;  mentioned  as  the  largest 
pueblo).  Orabi.— Keam  and  Scott  in  Donaldson, 
Moqui  Pueblo  Inds.,  14,  1893.  Oraiba.— Browne, 
Apache  Country,  290, 1869.  Oraibe.— Cortez  (1799) 

in  Pac.  R.  R.  Rep.,  ni,  pt.  3,  121,  1856  Oraibi  - 
Vetencurt  (1692),  Menolog.  Fran.,  212  1871 
Oraiby.-Powell  in  H.  R.  Misc.  Doc.  173,  42dConi.' 
r?  S6S1Q  'iVf  2n  °.rai™-Taylor  in  Cal.  Fanner; 
June  19,  1803  Oraivaz.-Ten  Broeck  in  School: 
"«£,  Ind.  Tribes,  iv,  87,  1851.  Oraive.-Garces 
1*7  ^S  (S  nby  Bam'roft-  Ariz,  and  N.  Mex., 
?  W889'  Oraivi--I>e  ITsle,  Carte  Mexique 
et  Flonde,  1/03.  Orambe.— Bandolier  in  Arch 
Inst.  Papers,  iv,  369,  1892  (misprint).  Orante  - 
Escudero,  Not.  de  Chihuahua,  231,  1834  (prob 
ably  identical).  Orawi. -Senex,  Map,  1710. 
Oraybe.— Villa  Sefior,  Theatip  Am.,  n,  425,  1718 
Oraybi.— Vargas  (1692)  quoted  by  Davis,  Span. 
C°»q.  N..Mex.,  367,  1809.  Orayha.— Disturnell, 
Map  Mejico,  1816.  Orayve.— Aleedo,  Dic.-Geog.| 
111,246,  1788.  Orayvee.— Fast  man,  map  in  School- 
craft,  Ind.  Tr.,  iv,  24,  18.54.  Orayvi.-D'Anville, 
Map  Am.  Sept.,  1746.  Orayxa.— Ruxton,  Adven 
tures,  195, 1848.  Orehbe.— Keane  in  Stanford.  Com- 
pend.,  527,  1877.  Oreiba.— Goodman  in  Ind  AfT 
Rep.,  997, 1893.  0-rey-be.— Palmer,  ibid.,  133,  187(»! 
Oriabe.— Clark  and  Zuck  in  Donaldson,  Moqui 
Pueblo  Inds.,  14, 1893.  Oribas.— Vandever  in  Ind 
Aff.  Rep.,  2(12,  18S9.  Oribe.— I'hitt,  Karte  Nord- 
America,  1861.  Oribi.— Carson  (1863) in  Donaldson, 
Moqui  Pueblo  Inds.,  34, 1893.  Oriva.— Schoolcraft 
Ind.  Tribes,  i,  519,  1853.  Orribies.— Irvine  in  Ind. 
Aff.  Rep..  160,  1877.  Oryina.— French,  Hist.  Coll., 
La.,  n,  175,  1*75.  Osaybe.— Bourke  in  Proc  Am 
Antiq.  Soc.,  n.  s.,  i,  241.  1881  (misprint).  Osoli.— 
Arnnvsmith,  M;ip  X.  A.,  1795,  ed.  1814  (possibly 
identical).  0-zai.—  Stevens,  MS.,  B.  A.  E.,  1X79 
(Xavaho  name;  corrupted  from  Oraibi).  Ozi.— 
Eaton  in  Schoolcraft,  Ind. Tribes,  iv, 220. 1X54 (Xav- 
aho  name).  Rio  grande  de  espeleta. — Villa-Senor, 
Tbeatro  Am.,  11,  425,  1748.  San  Francisco  de 
Oraibe.— Bancroft,  Ariz,  and  X.  Mex.,  319,  1889. 
San  Francisco  de  Oraybe. — Vetancurt  (1692)  in 
Teatro  Am.,  m,  321.  ls71.  San  Miguel  Oraybi.— 
Bancroft,  Ariz. and  X.  Mex.,  173, 18X9.  U-le-b-wa.— 
Wliipple,  Pac.  R.  R.  Rep.,  in,  pt.  3, 13,  1856  (Zuni 
name).  Yabipai  Muca.— Garces  (1776),  Diary,  414, 
1900  (or  Oraibe).  Yavipai  muca  oraive. — Garces 
(1775-6)  quoted  by  Orozco  y  Berra.  Geog.,41,  1S64. 

Orapaks.  A  former  village  of  the  Pow- 
hatan  confederacy,  between  the  Chicka- 
hominyand  Pamunkeyrs.,  in  Xe\v  Kent 
co.,  Va.  Powhatan  retired  thither  about 
1610  when  the  English  began  to  crowd 
him  at  AYerowacomoco. 

Orakakes.— Drake,  Bk.  Inds.,  bk.  4.  7,  1848  (mis 
print).  Orapack.— Strachey  «-(t.  1612),  Va.,  map, 
1849.  Orapakas.— Drake,  op.  cit,,  9.  Orapakes.— 
Smith  (1629),  Va.,  I,  112,  repr.  1819.  Orapaks. — 
Strachey,  op.  cit.,  36.  Oropacks. — Harris,  Voy.  and 
Trav..  li  848,  1705.  Oropaxe.— Ibid..  831. 

Oratamin.  A  Hackensack  chief  in  the 
17th  century,  prominent  in  the  treaty  re 
lations  between  the  Hackensack  and 
neighboring  tribes  and  the  Dutch.  After 
the  butchery  of  the  Indians  at  Pavonia, 
N.  J.,  by  the  Dutch  in  Feb.  1643,  10  or 
11  of  the  surrounding  tribes  arose  in 
arms  against  the  latter  to  avenge  the 
outrage,  but  concluded  a  treaty  of  peace 
Apr.  22  of  the  same  year,  '•Oratamin, 
sachem  of  the  savages  "living  at  Achkin- 
heshacky  [Uackensack],  who  declared 
himself  commissioned  by  the  savages  of 
Tappaen  [Tappan],  Kechgawavvanc 
[Manhattan],  Kichtawanc  [Kitcha- 
wank],  and  Sintsinck  [Sintsink],"  acting 
on  their  behalf.  This  treaty  was  imme 
diately  followed  by  a  new  outbreak  on 
the  part  of  the  Indians,  but  peace  \yas 
restored  and  another  treaty,  in  which 
Oratamin  took  a  prominent  part,  was 
made  at  Ft  Amsterdam  [New  York], 



[15.  A.  E. 

Auir.  30,  1645  (X.  Y.  Doc.  Col.  Hist., 
xiu,  IS,  18S1).  On  July  19,  1649,  a  num 
ber  of  leading  Indians,  including  Ora 
tamin,  made  further  proposals  for  a  last 
ing  peace.  At  the  close  of  the  confer 
ence,  held  at  Ft  Amsterdam,  a  special 
irift  of  tobacco  and  a  gun  was  made  to 
Oratamiu,  while  "a  small  present  worth 
20  guilders  was  then  given  to  the  com 
mon  savages"  (ibid.,  25).  He  also  took 
part  in  the  treaty  of  Mar.  6,  1660,  in  be 
half  of  his  own  tribe  and  of  the  chief  of 
the  Highlands,  X.  Y.,  and  was  present 
May  18,  1(>60,  when  peace  was  concluded 
with  the  YVappinger.  A  few  weeks  later 
he  interceded  for  the  Esopus  Indians, 
and  had  the  satisfaction  of  being  present 
at  the  conclusion  of  peace  with  them 
1  Nelson,  Inds.  X.  J.,  106,  1894).  In  1662 
Oratamin  complained  to  the  Dutch  au 
thorities  of  the  illicit  sale  of  brandy  to 
his  people,  and  on  Mar.  30  of  that  year 
was  authorized  to  seize  the  liquor  brought 
into  his  country  for  sale,  as  well  as  those 
bringing  it.  On  June  27,  1663,  Oratamin 
was  again  called  into  consultation  by  the 
whites  in